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Fourth year medical school

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159857/methylphenidate-for-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Nancy Sturman, Laura Deckx, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently present with inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, which are the cardinal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The effectiveness of methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD treatment, is therefore of interest in these children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of methylphenidate for symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity) and ASD (impairments in social interaction and communication, and repetitive, restricted or stereotypical behaviours) in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years with ASD...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123835/ambulance-dispatches-to-schools-during-a-5-year-period-in-fukui-prefecture
#2
Yoshikazu Takinami, Shinji Maeda
Aim: To determine the characteristics and trends of medical emergencies during school activities by analyzing information provided by fire departments. Methods: During a 5-year period from January 2009 to December 2013, all nine fire departments in Fukui Prefecture handled 850 emergencies at schools. We investigated the 850 cases with the age range of 0-63 years. Results: It was found that 21.5% of ambulance dispatches to schools were on weekends and there were more dispatches for non-faculty members of all age groups on weekends than on weekdays...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034811/mental-illness-stigma-among-medical-students-and-teachers
#3
Miroslava Janoušková, Aneta Weissová, Tomáš Formánek, Jiří Pasz, Lucie Bankovská Motlová
BACKGROUND: Medical school curriculum contributes to future doctors' attitude formation towards people with mental illness. AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare stigmatizing attitudes between medical students and faculty, analyse stigmatizing attitudes among students from different years of study and identify factors predicting stigma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the use of scales measuring attitudes and social distance was designed...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033024/a-predictive-model-for-a-reputation-based-general-surgery-residency-match-and-a-novel-online-calculator
#4
John T Killian, James D Leeper, Qiong Xu, Paul F Sauer, John R Porterfield
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify medical student characteristics that predict a successful categorical match into a general surgery residency and a match based upon Doximity program rankings. DESIGN: This was a retrospective study that analyzed academic and personal predictors of a successful general surgery residency match. SETTING: This study was set at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, a public medical school...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992658/-the-pl%C3%A3-ner-model-for-the-school-entry-screening-is-a-role-model-for-the-future
#5
Josef Weigl
Background The Plöner Model is a stepwise-selective model, similar to the one practised in all of Bavaria since 2008. It was already developed in 2002/2003 for the school entry screening and has been in use since then. Such models are intermittently criticized since not each child is seen by a doctor. Methods The procedure and data of the Plöner Model are analyzed and put into a wider context within Germany and beyond. The current programs in place are therefore categorized into 3 groups and compared with regard to public heath ethics criteria...
October 9, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991845/a-purpose-driven-fourth-year-of-medical-school
#6
Mantosh Dewan, John Norcini
The fourth year of medical school has been repeatedly found to be ineffective, and concerns exist about its purpose and academic quality, as well as grade inflation. Since Flexner, the purpose of undergraduate medical training has moved from readiness for independent practice to readiness for postgraduate training. However, training directors report that medical graduates are inadequately prepared to enter residency. The authors propose a fourth year with two components: first, a yearlong, longitudinal ambulatory experience of at least three days each week on an interprofessional team with consistent faculty supervision and mentoring, increasing independence, and a focus on education; and second, rigorous clinical-scales-based assessment of meaningful outcomes...
October 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975579/beyond-the-chief-complaint-our-patients-worries
#7
V M Chau, J T Engeln, S Axelrath, S J Khatter, R Kwon, M A Melton, M C Reinsvold, V M Staley, J To, K J Tanabe, R Wojcik
Fourth-year medical students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine distributed cards to patients in the emergency department asking, "What Worries You Most?" The patients' responses provided insight about their most pressing concerns, often unrelated to their "chief complaints."
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971831/selfless-giving-in-medicine-a-study-of-altruistic-attitudes-among-medical-students
#8
S Sanjai, Vijayaprasad Gopichandran
INTRODUCTION: An important virtue in the medical profession is altruism, which makes a doctor serve without an excess of expectation of return. OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of altruism and factors influencing altruism among medical students at a medical college in Chennai. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 224 students from the first, third and fourth years. We prepared a questionnaire which contained questions from the previously validated Altruistic Personality Scale...
September 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970406/serving-with-pharmacy-students-reflections-from-a-medical-mission-team-leader-and-preceptor
#9
Dana A Brown
The medical mission field is an innovative setting for training and evaluating health care professional students. The motivating factor of serving indigent populations as a means of a humanitarian, or oftentimes a spiritual act, makes medical missions an attractive option for student participation. At the Gregory School of Pharmacy, medical mission teams are an integral part of the pharmacy program, including the opportunity for students to earn elective credit during their fourth year. This commentary provides five key elements to consider when serving with, training and evaluating pharmacy students from the perspective of a team leader and preceptor...
October 24, 2016: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930762/competency-based-medical-education-in-the-internal-medicine-clerkship-a-report-from-the-alliance-for-academic-internal-medicine-undergraduate-medical-education-task-force
#10
Sara B Fazio, Cynthia H Ledford, Paul B Aronowitz, Shobhina G Chheda, John H Choe, Stephanie A Call, Scott D Gitlin, Marty Muntz, L James Nixon, Anne G Pereira, John W Ragsdale, Emily A Stewart, Karen E Hauer
As medical educators continue to redefine learning and assessment across the continuum, implementation of competency-based medical education in the undergraduate setting has become a focus of many medical schools. While standards of competency have been defined for the graduating student, there is no uniform approach for defining competency expectations for students during their core clerkship year. The authors describe the process by which an Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine task force developed a paradigm for competency-based assessment of students during their inpatient internal medicine (IM) clerkship...
September 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915871/virtual-patients-in-the-acquisition-of-clinical-reasoning-skills-does-presentation-mode-matter-a-quasi-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Fabian Schubach, Matthias Goos, Götz Fabry, Werner Vach, Martin Boeker
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to compare two different instructional methods in the curricular use of computerized virtual patients in undergraduate medical education. We aim to investigate whether using many short and focused cases - the key feature principle - is more effective for the learning of clinical reasoning skills than using few long and systematic cases. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-randomized, non-blinded, controlled parallel-group intervention trial in a large medical school in Southwestern Germany...
September 15, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905725/ethics-students-go-to-the-jail
#12
Oliver Schirokauer, Thomas A Tallman, Leah Jeunnette, Despina Mavrakis, Monica L Gerrek
This article describes an educational initiative in which clinical ethics students, who were either in a bioethics master's degree program or in the fourth year of medical school, spent two days observing health care in an urban jail. Students submitted reflections about their experience, in which they drew attention to concerns about privacy, physical restriction, due care, drug addiction, mistrust, and the conflicting expectations that arise when incarcerated people become patients. The rotation was of great value to the students both because it exposed them to many of the ethical issues that arise in a correctional setting and because it deepened their understanding of various ethical concerns that are pervasive in health care...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888420/transition-to-residency-the-successful-development-and-implementation-of-a-nonclinical-elective-in-perioperative-management
#13
Heather McDonald, Nada Gawad, Isabelle Raîche, Fraser D Rubens
OBJECTIVE: Few medical school programs in Canada address challenges related to the significant increase in responsibility for patient care between medical school and residency. This is particularly important in surgery and anesthesia due to the high-acuity care required during the perioperative period. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess a program that would help students transition to surgical and anesthesia residencies, in terms of knowledge acquisition, clinical decision-making skills, and subjective preparedness...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886935/examination-of-nondesignated-preliminary-surgery-residents-recruited-since-the-inception-of-supplementary-offer-and-acceptance-program-lessons-learned-from-a-large-academic-program
#14
Maria Albuja-Cruz, Claire Travis, Michael Benge, Barbara Caufield, Mark Nehler
PURPOSE: The majority of surgery programs roster non-designated preliminary (NDP) residents. We and others have reported on the success of NDP resident mentoring with regard to categorical position placement. Lacking is a focus on the candidates themselves and differences based on initial career of choice. METHODS: NDP residents' files since the institution of SOAP were reviewed for demographics, initial career choice, financial burden, region of medical school of origin, application and interview history, and pre-screen interview candidate score (high score of 22 - data includes USMLE scores, major clerkship grades, and AOA) used for categorical recruitment...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864787/screening-for-diabetes-in-a-dental-school-clinic-to-assess-interprofessional-communication-between-physicians-and-dental-students
#15
Rick Ken Biethman, Cyril Pandarakalam, M Nathalia Garcia, Sara Whitener, Charles F Hildebolt
If a dental student diagnoses a patient in a dental school clinic as being at high risk of prediabetes or diabetes, the patient should be referred to his or her physician for further diagnostic evaluation, and the physician should send back the evaluation results so that the dental team can optimize treatment and health care choices if the diagnosis is confirmed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate physicians' responses to written and oral requests for information regarding follow-up diabetes testing...
September 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840454/clinical-reasoning-education-at-us-medical-schools-results-from-a-national-survey-of-internal-medicine-clerkship-directors
#16
Joseph Rencic, Robert L Trowbridge, Mark Fagan, Karen Szauter, Steven Durning
BACKGROUND: Recent reports, including the Institute of Medicine's Improving Diagnosis in Health Care, highlight the pervasiveness and underappreciated harm of diagnostic error, and recommend enhancing health care professional education in diagnostic reasoning. However, little is known about clinical reasoning curricula at US medical schools. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical reasoning curricula at US medical schools and to determine the attitudes of internal medicine clerkship directors toward teaching of clinical reasoning...
November 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837513/prospective-study-of-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-school-children-of-south-america
#17
Miguel Saps, Carlo A Velasco-Benitez, Puck J J Bloom, Marc A Benninga, Diana X Nichols-Vinueza
OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of abdominal pain (AP) in school-children in Pasto (Colombia) and determine the impact of AP on their daily activities; and compare the prevalence of AP and other gastrointestinal symptoms between school-children from Pasto and Chicago. METHODS: Fourth and fifth-grade students from a public school and a private school in Colombia were invited to participate in a prospective study using the same methods and questionnaires (Spanish version) as a previous study conducted in Chicago schools...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835034/-analysis-and-discussion-of-risk-factors-related-to-dental-implant-failure
#18
Y Wang, Z X Guo, N W Tan, H D Cheng, Y L Song
The implant prosthesis has been extensively used in clinic recently, and implant failure is appearing. Many factors may cause the failure, and they work together generally. This paper summarizes and analyzes the failure cases related to implant treatment and relevant risk factors of oral implants in Department of Implantation, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University during the past six years, in order to improve the success rate of implant prosthesis and provide guidance for clinical application...
August 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782081/student-perspectives-on-oncology-curricula-at-united-states-medical-schools
#19
Brandon C Neeley, Daniel W Golden, Jeffrey V Brower, Steve E Braunstein, Ariel E Hirsch, Malcolm D Mattes
Delivering a cohesive oncology curriculum to medical students is challenging due to oncology's multidisciplinary nature, predominantly outpatient clinical setting, and lack of data describing effective approaches to teaching it. We sought to better characterize approaches to oncology education at US medical schools by surveying third and fourth year medical students who serve on their institution's curriculum committee. We received responses from students at 19 schools (15.2% response rate). Key findings included the following: (1) an under-emphasis of cancer in the curriculum relative to other common diseases; (2) imbalanced involvement of different clinical subspecialists as educators; (3) infrequent requirements for students to rotate through non-surgical oncologic clerkships; and (4) students are less confident in their knowledge of cancer treatment compared to basic science/natural history or workup/diagnosis...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781133/smartphone-use-and-the-perception-of-professionalism-among-medical-students-and-surgical-faculty
#20
Silka Patel, Anne Lidor, Abanti Sanyal, Alice R Goepfert, Nancy Hueppchen
OBJECTIVE: To understand the perception of professionalism surrounding smartphone use (wards/educational activities) among medical students and surgical faculty. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted using an electronic survey and distributed to third- and fourth-year medical students, obstetrics/gynecology, and surgery faculty members. Five cases were randomly presented; participants were asked to review and rate the clinician's behavior on a 5-point Likert scale...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
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