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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906521/modeling-the-human-scarred-heart-in-vitro-toward-new-tissue-engineered-models
#1
Janine C Deddens, Amir Hossein Sadeghi, Jesper Hjortnaes, Linda W van Laake, Marc Buijsrogge, Pieter A Doevendans, Ali Khademhosseini, Joost P G Sluijter
Cardiac remodeling is critical for effective tissue healing, however, excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components contribute to scarring and failing of the heart. Despite the fact that novel therapies have emerged, there are still no lifelong solutions for this problem. An urgent need exists to improve the understanding of adverse cardiac remodeling in order to develop new therapeutic interventions that will prevent, reverse, or regenerate the fibrotic changes in the failing heart...
December 1, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906085/tissue-engineered-cardiac-patch-seeded-with-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-promoted-the-regeneration-of-host-cardiomyocytes-in-a-rat-model
#2
Tadahisa Sugiura, Narutoshi Hibino, Christopher K Breuer, Toshiharu Shinoka
BACKGROUND: Thousands of babies are born with congenital heart defects that require surgical repair involving a prosthetic implant. Lack of growth in prosthetic grafts is especially detrimental in pediatric surgery. Cell seeded biodegradable tissue engineered grafts are a novel solution to this problem. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the feasibility of seeding human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) onto a biodegradable cardiac patch. METHODS: The hiPS-CMs were cultured on a biodegradable patch composed of a polyglycolic acid (PGA) and a 50:50 poly (l-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone) copolymer (PLCL) for 1 week...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906076/pgc-1%C3%AE-modulates-necrosis-inflammatory-response-and-fibrotic-tissue-formation-in-injured-skeletal-muscle
#3
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Sabrina Di Fulvio, Arnaud Ferry, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle tissue has an enormous regenerative capacity that is instrumental for a successful defense against muscle injury and wasting. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) exerts therapeutic effects in several muscle pathologies, but its role in damage-induced muscle regeneration is unclear. METHODS: Using muscle-specific gain- and loss-of-function models for PGC-1α in combination with the myotoxic agent cardiotoxin (CTX), we explored the role of this transcriptional coactivator in muscle damage and inflammation...
November 8, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906068/novel-use-of-cranial-epidural-space-in-rabbits-as-an-animal-model-to-investigate-bone-volume-augmentation-potential-of-different-bone-graft-substitutes
#4
Ivan Valdivia-Gandur, Wilfried Engelke, Víctor Beltrán, Eduardo Borie, Ramón Fuentes, María Cristina Manzanares-Céspedes
BACKGROUND: The success of bone augmentation to a major degree depends on the biomechanics and biological conditions of the surrounding tissues. Therefore, an animal model is needed providing anatomical sites with similar mechanical pressures for comparing its influence on different biomaterials for bone regeneration. The present report describes the new bone formation associated to biomaterial in a bursa created in the epidural space, between dura mater and cranial calvaria, under the constant pressure of cerebrospinal fluid...
December 1, 2016: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906056/umbilical-cord-blood-derived-non-hematopoietic-stem-cells-retrieved-and-expanded-on-bone-marrow-derived-extracellular-matrix-display-pluripotent-characteristics
#5
Junjie Wu, Yun Sun, Travis J Block, Milos Marinkovic, Zhi-Liang Zhang, Richard Chen, Yixia Yin, Juquan Song, David D Dean, Zhongding Lu, Xiao-Dong Chen
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) not only contains hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but also non-hematopoietic stem cells (NHSCs) that are able to differentiate into a number of distinct cell types. Based on studies published to date, the frequency of NHSCs in UCB is believed to be very low. However, the isolation of these cells is primarily based on their adhesion to tissue culture plastic surfaces. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the current study, we demonstrate that this approach overlooks some of the extremely immature NHSCs because they lack the ability to adhere to plastic...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905670/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-new-getaway-for-bone-tissue-engineering-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Farshid Bastami, Pantea Nazeman, Hamidreza Moslemi, Maryam Rezai Rad, Kazem Sharifi, Arash Khojasteh
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are frequently used for bone regeneration, however, they are limited in quantity. Moreover, their proliferation and differentiation capabilities reduce during cell culture expansion. Potential application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been reported as a promising alternative source for bone regeneration. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on osteogenic potential of iPSCs and to discuss methods applied to enhance their osteogenic potential...
December 1, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905259/regenerative-pharmacology-recent-developments-and-future-perspectives
#7
James Koudy Williams, Karl-Erik Andersson
This review focuses on the current status of research that utilizes the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize and characterize the development, maturation and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues. These regenerative pharmacologic approaches have been applied to diseases of the urogenital tract, the heart, the brain, the musculoskeletal system and diabetes. Approaches have included the use of growth factors (such as VEGF and chemokines (stromal-derived factor - CXCL12) to mobilize cell to the sights of tissue loss or damage...
December 1, 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905045/differential-response-of-coral-communities-to-caulerpa-spp-bloom-in-the-reefs-of-indian-ocean
#8
B Manikandan, J Ravindran
Coral reef ecosystems are disturbed in tandem by climatic and anthropogenic stressors. A number of factors act synergistically to reduce the live coral cover and threaten the existence of reefs. Continuous monitoring of the coral communities during 2012-2014 captured an unprecedented growth of macroalgae as a bloom at Gulf of Mannar (GoM) and Palk Bay (PB) which are protected and unprotected reefs, respectively. The two reefs varying in their protection level enabled to conduct an assessment on the response of coral communities and their recovery potential during and after the macroalgal bloom...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905031/modern-approaches-to-studies-of-new-osteogenic-biomaterials-on-the-model-of-regeneration-of-critical-size-cranial-defects-in-rats
#9
M S Bartov, A V Gromov, M S Poponova, D M Savina, K E Nikitin, T M Grunina, V N Manskikh, O A Gra, V G Lunin, A S Karyagina, A L Gintsburg
Osteoinductive characteristics of new osteoplastic materials based on demineralized bone matrix of xenogenic origin with high and controlled degree of purification were studied on the model of regeneration of critical-size cranial defects in rats using modern approaches, including histological analysis, evaluation of morphological parameters of the bone tissue obtained by micro-computed tomography, and estimation of bone tissue growth rate using in vivo fluorochrome label. Demineralized bone matrix and, to a much greater extent, its activated form containing modified recombinant growth factor rhBMP-2 with high content of the dimeric form exhibited osteoinductive activity...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904501/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-combined-with-silk-fibroin-scaffold-in-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Ting-Gang Wang, Jie Xu, Ai-Hua Zhu, Hua Lu, Zong-Ning Miao, Peng Zhao, Guo-Zhen Hui, Wei-Jiang Wu
Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904497/preparation-of-polypyrrole-embedded-electrospun-poly-lactic-acid-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-nerve-tissue-engineering
#11
Jun-Feng Zhou, Yi-Guo Wang, Liang Cheng, Zhao Wu, Xiao-Dan Sun, Jiang Peng
Polypyrrole (PPy) is a biocompatible polymer with good conductivity. Studies combining PPy with electrospinning have been reported; however, the associated decrease in PPy conductivity has not yet been resolved. We embedded PPy into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning and fabricated a PLA/PPy nanofibrous scaffold containing 15% PPy with sustained conductivity and aligned topography. There was good biocompatibility between the scaffold and human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells as well as Schwann cells...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903823/in%C3%A2-vitro-skin-models-and-tissue-engineering-protocols-for-skin-graft-applications
#12
REVIEW
Lucas B Naves, Chetna Dhand, Luis Almeida, Lakshminarayanan Rajamani, Seeram Ramakrishna
In this review, we present a brief introduction of the skin structure, a concise compilation of skin-related disorders, and a thorough discussion of different in vitro skin models, artificial skin substitutes, skin grafts, and dermal tissue engineering protocols. The advantages of the development of in vitro skin disorder models, such as UV radiation and the prototype model, melanoma model, wound healing model, psoriasis model, and full-thickness model are also discussed. Different types of skin grafts including allografts, autografts, allogeneic, and xenogeneic are described in detail with their associated applications...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903529/angiocrine-bmp2-signaling-in-murine-liver-controls-normal-iron-homeostasis
#13
Philipp-Sebastian Koch, Victor Olsavszky, Friederike Ulbrich, Carsten Sticht, Alexandra Demory, Thomas Leibing, Thomas Henzler, Mathias Meyer, Johanna Zierow, Sven Schneider, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Haristi Gaitantzi, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Bernd Arnold, Kay Klapproth, Kai Schledzewski, Sergij Goerdt, Cyrill Géraud
Microvascular endothelial cells (EC) display a high degree of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among different organs. Organ-specific EC control their tissue microenvironment by angiocrine factors in health and disease. Liver sinusoidal EC (LSEC) are uniquely differentiated to fulfil important organ-specific functions in development, under homeostatic conditions, and in regeneration and liver pathology. Recently, Bmp2 has been identified by us as an organ-specific angiokine derived from LSEC. To study angiocrine Bmp2 signaling in the liver, we conditionally deleted Bmp2 in LSEC using EC subtype-specific Stab2-Cre mice...
November 30, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903221/in-vitro-generated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-suitable-tools-to-target-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Shruti D Dave, Patel C N, Patel J V, Thakkar U G
A synergy of a pre-accumulated genes with an autoimmunity advancing to slow abolition of pancreatic beta-cells causes insulin deficiency and results enrooting insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). As per WHO data worldwide about 150 million people are diabetic and the number may rise to more than double by the year 2025. Any absolute cure for IDDM is not available yet, and one of the credible advent in the field include cell-based therapy. At this conjecture, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seems to have a specific and beneficial characteristics due to their in vivo as well as in vitro potential to mimic a pancreatic endocrine phenotype and immune-regulatory actions...
November 21, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903111/electric-stimulation-enhances-cardiac-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction-therapy
#15
Ruilian Ma, Jialiang Liang, Wei Huang, Linlin Guo, WenFeng Cai, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Huang-Tian Yang, Ha Won Kim, Yigang Wang
AIM: Electrical stimulation (EleS) can promote cardiac differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is not well known. This study investigated the effect of EleS on cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the therapeutic effects for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs was induced with EleS after embryoid body formation. Spontaneously beating hiPSCs were observed as early at 2 days when treated with EleS as compared to control treatment...
November 30, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900891/chondrogenesis-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-for-future-microtia-repair-using-co-culture-technique
#16
Bee See Goh, Siti Nurhadis Che Omar, Muhammad Azhan Ubaidah, Lokman Saim, Shamsul Sulaiman, Kien Hui Chua
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these result showed HADSCs could differentiate into chondrocytes-like cells, dependent on signaling induced by TGF-β3 and chondrocytes. This is a promising result and showed that HADSCs is a potential source for future microtia repair. The technique of co-culture is a positive way forward to assist the microtia tissue. OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons...
November 30, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900291/elastin-a-possible-genetic-biomarker-for-more-severe-ligament-injuries-in-elite-soccer-a-pilot-study
#17
Rosa Artells, Ricard Pruna, Alexandre Dellal, Nicola Maffulli
BACKGROUND: The study of new genetic biomarkers in genes related to connective tissue repair and regeneration may help to identify individuals with greater predisposition to injury, who may benefit from targeted preventive measures, and those who require longer recovery time following a muscle, ligament or tendon injury. The present study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Elastin gene could be related to MCL injury. METHODS: 60 top class football players were studied to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms for the Elastin (ELN) gene using Allelic Discrimination analysis...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899395/functional-definition-of-progenitors-versus-mature-endothelial-cells-reveals-key-soxf-dependent-differentiation-process
#18
Jatin Patel, Elke J Seppanen, Mathieu P Rodero, Ho Yi Wong, Prudence Donovan, Zoltan Neufeld, Nicholas M Fisk, Mathias François, Kiarash Khosrotehrani
BACKGROUND: -During adult life, blood vessel formation is thought to occur via angiogenic processes involving branching from existing vessels. An alternate proposal suggests that neo-vessels form from endothelial progenitors able to assemble the intimal layers. We here aimed to define vessel-resident endothelial progenitors in vivo in a variety of tissues in physiological and pathological situations such as normal aorta, lungs, as well as wound healing, tumors and placenta. METHODS: -Based on protein expression levels of common endothelial markers using flow cytometry, three sub-populations of endothelial cells could be identified among VE-Cadherin+ and CD45- cells...
November 29, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898014/future-prospects-for-scaffolding-methods-and-biomaterials-in-skin-tissue-engineering-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Atul A Chaudhari, Komal Vig, Dieudonné Radé Baganizi, Rajnish Sahu, Saurabh Dixit, Vida Dennis, Shree Ram Singh, Shreekumar R Pillai
Over centuries, the field of regenerative skin tissue engineering has had several advancements to facilitate faster wound healing and thereby restoration of skin. Skin tissue regeneration is mainly based on the use of suitable scaffold matrices. There are several scaffold types, such as porous, fibrous, microsphere, hydrogel, composite and acellular, etc., with discrete advantages and disadvantages. These scaffolds are either made up of highly biocompatible natural biomaterials, such as collagen, chitosan, etc...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897123/the-epigenetic-regulation-in-tooth-development-and-regeneration
#20
Yao Lin, Liwei Zheng, Li Fan, Wei Kuang, Rui Guo, Jiong Lin, Jiahua Wu, Jiali Tan
Teeth are formed through sequential and reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues and they are essential to physical and psychological health. In-depth knowledge of tooth development, from histology to the underlying mechanisms, is necessary for the regeneration of lost teeth. Therefore, the review firstly introduced tooth development, and summarized the use of tooth-derived stem cells. To date, epigenetic regulation has been shown to have roles in numerous activities, including odontogenesis...
November 29, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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