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tissue regeneration

Feng Wang, Cong Zhang, Rui Shi, Zhi-Yang Xie, Lu Chen, Kun Wang, Yun-Tao Wang, Xing-Hui Xie, Xiao-Tao Wu
The adult nucleus pulposus (NP) and articular cartilage are similar in terms of their histocytological components and biomechanical functionalities, requiring a deep understanding of NP-specific markers to better evaluate stem-cell-based NP regeneration. Here, we seek to distinguish NP cells from articular chondrocytes (ACs), focusing on differences in their embryonic formation and evolutionary origin. Embryonically, NP cells are conservatively derived from the axial notochord, whereas ACs originate in a diversified manner from paraxial mesoderm and neural crest cells...
June 20, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Dmitry Y Borzunov, Alexander L Shastov
INTRODUCTION: Ilizarov bone transport for large bone defect is challenging and may end in distraction osteogenesis failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten forearm and seven tibial defect cases with failed regeneration due to ischaemia during bone transport were studied retrospectively. Mean forearm and tibial defects were 5.5 ± 0.8 and 7.6 ± 1 cm respectively, or 22.3 ± 3.6 and 20 ± 2.3% as compared with healthy segments. Most patients had numerous previous operations (2...
June 23, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Wei Xie, Shang-You Yang, Qianqian Zhang, Yadong Zhou, Yi Wang, Ronghan Liu, Wenzhao Wang, Jixue Shi, Bin Ning, Tanghong Jia
To assess the therapeutic effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) knockdown (KD) for acute thoracic spinal cord contusion using a mouse model. Forty C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: mice in the sham-operated (Sham) group received surgical procedure without spinal cord contusion; the spinal cord injury (SCI) group mice underwent spinal cord contusion without treatment; mice in the miR-21 KD group underwent spinal cord contusion followed by a single dose subdural injection of miR-21 KD vectors (1 × 107 TU); and the negative control (NC) group mice were given subdural injection of comparable amount of NC vectors (1 × 107 TU) after spinal cord contusion...
June 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Kevin M Child, Daniel B Herrick, James E Schwob, Eric H Holbrook, Woochan Jang
The olfactory epithelium (OE) of vertebrates is a highly regenerative neuroepithelium, maintained under normal condition by a population of stem and progenitor cells - globose basal cells (GBCs) that also contribute to epithelial reconstitution after injury. However, aging of the OE often leads to neurogenic exhaustion - the disappearance of both GBCs and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Aneuronal tissue may remain as olfactory, with an uninterrupted sheet of apically arrayed microvillar-capped sustentacular cell, or may undergo respiratory metaplasia...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ji Young Oh, Han Na Suh, Gee Euhn Choi, Hyun Jik Lee, Young Hyun Jung, So Hee Ko, Jun Sung Kim, Chang Woo Chae, Chang-Kyu Lee, Ho Jae Han
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sonic hedgehog pathway (Shh) plays a central role in maintaining stem cell function and behavior in various processes related to self-renewal and tissue regeneration. However, the therapeutic effect of Shh on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clearly described. Thus, we investigated the effect of Shh on the regulation of mESC behaviors as well as the effect of Shh-pretreated mESCs in skin wound healing. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms of Shh signaling pathway in growth and motility of mESCs using western blot analysis, cell proliferation assay, and cell migration assay...
June 22, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Friederike Bothe, Benedict Lotz, Elisabeth Seebach, Jennifer Fischer, Eliane Hesse, Solvig Diederichs, Wiltrud Richter
Bioactive functional scaffolds are essential for support of cell-based strategies to improve bone regeneration. Adipose-tissue-derived-stromal cells (ASC) are more accessible multipotent cells with faster proliferation than bone-marrow-derived-stromal-cells (BMSC) having potential to replace BMSC for therapeutic stimulation of bone-defect healing. Their osteogenic potential is, however lower compared to BMSC, a deficit that may be overcome in growth factor-rich orthotopic bone defects with enhanced bone-conductive scaffolds...
June 19, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Marzieh Mohammadi, Mona Alibolandi, Khalil Abnous, Zahra Salmasi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Mohammad Ramezani
In the present study, we fabricated an efficient, simple biomimetic scaffold to stimulate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Electrospun poly L-lactic acid nanofibers were employed to mimic the nanofibrillar structure of bone proteins and coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to simulate bone minerals. Thereafter, we regulated the release pattern of BMP-2 peptide through covalent attachment of an optimized liposomal formulation to the scaffold. The fabricated platform provided a sustained release profile of BMP-2 peptide up to 21days while supported cellular attachment and proliferation without cytotoxicity...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Fukushima Tatsuhiro, Tatehara Seiko, Takebe Yusuke, Tokuyama-Toda Reiko, Satomura Kazuhito
In the present study, a scaffold-free tissue construct was developed as an approach for the regeneration of tissue defects, which produced good outcomes. We fabricated a scaffold-free tissue construct from human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs construct), and examined the characteristics of the construct. For its fabrication, basal sheets prepared by 4-week hDPSCs culturing were subjected to 1-week three-dimensional culture, with or without osteogenic induction, whereas hDPSC sheets (control) were fabricated by 1-week culturing of basal sheets on monolayer culture...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kelsey G DeFrates, Robert Moore, Julia Borgesi, Guowei Lin, Thomas Mulderig, Vince Beachley, Xiao Hu
Fibrous materials have garnered much interest in the field of biomedical engineering due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio, porosity, and tunability. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, fiber meshes have been used to create biomimetic nanostructures that allow for cell attachment, migration, and proliferation, to promote tissue regeneration and wound healing, as well as controllable drug delivery. In addition to the properties of conventional, synthetic polymer fibers, fibers made from natural polymers, such as proteins, can exhibit enhanced biocompatibility, bioactivity, and biodegradability...
June 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Vesna Bucan, Desiree Vaslaitis, Claas-Tido Peck, Sarah Strauß, Peter M Vogt, Christine Radtke
Peripheral nerve injury requires optimal conditions in both macro-environment and microenvironment for promotion of axonal regeneration. However, most repair strategies of traumatic peripheral nerve injury often lead to dissatisfying results in clinical outcome. Though various strategies have been carried out to improve the macro-environment, the underlying molecular mechanism of axon regeneration in the microenvironment provided by nerve conduit remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the effects of from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSCs) originating exosomes with respect to sciatic nerve regeneration and neurite growth...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Esteban Juan Fiore, Luciana María Domínguez, Juan Bayo, Mariana Gabriela García, Guillermo Daniel Mazzolini
Cell-based therapies for acute and chronic liver diseases are under continuous progress. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to migrate selectively to damaged tissue and contribute to its healing and regeneration. The MSC pro-regenerative effect occurs due to their immunomodulatory capacity and their ability to produce factors that promote cell protection and survival. Likewise, it has been observed that part of their paracrine effect is mediated by MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
June 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Andrew A Gibb, Bradford G Hill
Metabolic pathways integrate to support tissue homeostasis and to prompt changes in cell phenotype. In particular, the heart consumes relatively large amounts of substrate not only to regenerate ATP for contraction but also to sustain biosynthetic reactions for replacement of cellular building blocks. Metabolic pathways also control intracellular redox state, and metabolic intermediates and end products provide signals that prompt changes in enzymatic activity and gene expression. Mounting evidence suggests that the changes in cardiac metabolism that occur during development, exercise, and pregnancy as well as with pathological stress (eg, myocardial infarction, pressure overload) are causative in cardiac remodeling...
June 22, 2018: Circulation Research
Kobi Perl, Ron Shamir, Karen B Avraham
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is a major cause of disability worldwide, impairing communication, health, and quality of life. Emerging methods of gene therapy aim to address this morbidity, which can be employed to fix a genetic problem causing hair cell dysfunction and to promote the proliferation of supporting cells in the cochlea and their transdifferentiation into hair cells. In order to extend the applicability of gene therapy, the scientific community is focusing on discovery of additional deafness genes, identifying new genetic variants associated with hearing loss, and revealing new factors that can be manipulated in a coordinated manner to improve hair cell regeneration...
June 22, 2018: Human Genomics
Kazuya Yamashita, Emi Inagaki, Shin Hatou, Kazunari Higa, Akiko Ogawa, Hideyuki Miyashita, Kazuo Tsubota, Shigeto Shimmura
Corneal blindness is the third leading cause of blindness in the world, and one of the main etiologies is dysfunction of the corneal endothelium. Current treatment of corneal endothelial disease is allogenic corneal transplantation, which is limited by the global shortage of donor corneas and immunological rejection. The corneal endothelium consists of a monolayer of cells derived from the neural crest and mesoderm. Its main function is to prevent corneal edema by tight junctions formed by zonular occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Na, K-ATPase pump function...
June 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Juan Paredes, David A Shiovitz, Nelly Andarawis-Puri
PURPOSE: Tendon tears are common injuries that heal with scar formation. Interestingly, MRL/MpJ mice heal without scar in several tissues, including tendon. Most hypotheses regarding scarless healing implicate the systemic environment. However, the tissue-specificity of this regenerative response and our previous findings showing regeneration of sub-rupture tendon injuries, which lack an overt systemic response, motivate a tissue-driven hypothesis. Our objective is to investigate the potential of the local tendon environment in driving scarless healing (1) by comparing the systemic response and the healing capacity associated with ear and tendon injuries in MRL/MpJ mice, and (2) by comparing intrinsic healing properties between MRL/MpJ and normal healer C57Bl/6 tendons...
June 21, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Yongwen Guo, Weihua Guo, Jie Chen, Guoqing Chen, Weidong Tian, Ding Bai
OBJECTIVE: The role of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells in periodontal formation has been controversial. This study aimed to further clarify whether HERS cells participate in formation of the periodontium, and the necessity of HERS cells in differentiation of dental follicle cells (DFCs) for periodontal regeneration. DESIGN: HERS cells and DFCs were isolated and identified from post-natal 7-day Sprauge-Dawley rats. In vitro, direct co-culture of HERS cells and DFCs as well as the individual culture of HERS and DFCs were performed and followed by alizarin red staining and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis...
June 18, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Leopoldo Spadea, Emanuele Tonti, Andrea Spaterna, Andrea Marchegiani
Conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and corneal ulcers are common eye disorders frequently diagnosed in both humans and animals, and are currently treated by topical administration of eye drops containing anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents. The current molecules often lack efficacy because infections in hypoxic tissue contain methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; thus, new products for the treatment of ocular pain and inflammation are needed. The use of ozone, a molecule stabilized for topical use as an ozonide, could be providential due to its anti-inflammatory and bactericidal activity in certain anterior segment pathologies, in addition to promoting tissue repair properties...
May 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Giovanni Nicoletti, Marco Mario Tresoldi, Alberto Malovini, Marco Visaggio, Angela Faga, Silvia Scevola
Background: Dermal substitutes are currently largely used for the treatment of huge skin loss in patients in critical general health conditions, for the treatment of severe burns and to promote the healing process in chronic wounds. Aims: The authors performed a retrospective assessment of their experience with bioengineered skin to possibly identify the most appropriate clinical indication and management for each substitute. Materials and Methods: The study involved 109 patients with 127 skin defects repaired with dermal substitutes over a 9 years period, from 2007 to 2016...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Nai-Jen Chang, Yanjmaa Erdenekhuyag, Pei-Hsi Chou, Chih-Jou Chu, Chih-Chan Lin, Ming-You Shie
BACKGROUND: Treating articular cartilage lesions is clinically challenging. However, whether the addition of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to bioimplants along with early rehabilitation exercise provides therapeutic effects and regenerates the osteochondral defect remains uninvestigated. HYPOTHESIS: The addition of PRP to a polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold along with continuous passive motion (CPM) in osteochondral defects may offer beneficial in situ microenvironment changes to facilitate hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone tissue repair...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Sarah E Walker, Rachel Nottrodt, Lucas Maddalena, Christopher Carter, Gaynor E Spencer, Robert L Carlone
Some adult vertebrate species, such as newts, axolotls and zebrafish, have the ability to regenerate their central nervous system (CNS). However, the factors that establish a permissive CNS environment for correct morphological and functional regeneration in these species are not well understood. Recent evidence supports a role for retinoid signaling in the intrinsic ability of neurons, in these regeneration-competent species, to regrow after CNS injury. Previously, we demonstrated that a specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) subtype, RARβ, mediates the effects of endogenous retinoic acid (RA) on neuronal growth and guidance in the adult newt CNS after injury...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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