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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565774/muscle-hypertrophy-following-blood-flow-restricted-low-force-isometric-electrical-stimulation-in-rat-tibialis-anterior-role-for-muscle-hypoxia
#1
Toshiaki Nakajima, Seiichiro Koide, Tomohiro Yasuda, Takaaki Hasegawa, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Syotaro Obi, Shigeru Toyoda, Fumitaka Nakamura, Teruo Inoue, David C Poole, Yutaka Kano
Low force exercise training with blood flow restriction (BFR) elicits muscle hypertrophy. We investigated the effects of microvascular hypoxia (i.e., low microvascular O2 partial pressures, PmvO2 ) during contractions on hypertrophic signaling, growth response and key muscle adaptations for increasing exercise capacity. Wistar rats were fitted with a cuff placed around the upper thigh and inflated to restrict limb blood flow. Low force isometric contractions (30 Hz) were evoked via electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior (TA) nerve...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548564/managing-health-expenditure-inflation-under-a-single-payer-system-taiwan-s-national-health-insurance
#2
Winnie C Yip, Yue-Chune Lee, Shu-Ling Tsai, Bradley Chen
As nations strive to achieve and sustain universal health coverage (UHC), they seek answers as to what health system structures are more effective in managing health expenditure inflation. A fundamental macro-level choice a nation has to make is whether to adopt a single- or a multiple-payer health system. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) as a case, this paper examines how a single-payer system manages its health expenditure growth and draws lessons for other countries whose socioeconomic development is similar to Taiwan's...
November 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538107/recommendations-to-sustain-the-academic-mission-ecosystem-at-u-s-medical-schools
#3
Joseph E Kerschner, Jerris R Hedges, Karen Antman, Edward Abraham, Edgar Colón Negrón, J Larry Jameson
Academic medical center (AMC) faculty, administrators, and leaders have the critical tasks of teaching and training the next generation of health care providers and biomedical researchers, as well as generating new knowledge that improves the health of all. In the United States, medical schools and their affiliated hospitals train remarkably high-quality physicians and scientists, and the research conducted at these institutions results in advances in health. To that end, AMCs have become essential engines for driving better health in the United States and the rest of the world; they also have become essential engines driving the economies of their respective communities and regions...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530973/the-consequences-of-seasonal-fasting-during-the-dormancy-of-tegu-lizards-salvator-merianae-on-their-postprandial-metabolic-response
#4
Rodrigo S B Gavira, Marina R Sartori, Manuel N Gontero-Fourcade, Bruna F Gomes, Augusto S Abe, Denis V Andrade
Tegu lizards ( Salvator merianae ) aestivate for up to 5 months during Brazil's winter, when they retreat to burrows and halt most activities. Dormant tegus reduce their gastrointestinal (GI) mass, which allows a substantial energy economy. This strategy however, implies that the first post-dormancy digestion would be more costly than subsequent feeding episodes due to GI atrophy. To address this, we determined the postprandial metabolic response (SDA) of the first (M1), second (M2) and several (RM) feeding episodes after tegus' dormancy...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522371/ubc-nepal-expedition-imposed-oscillatory-shear-stress-does-not-further-attenuate-flow-mediated-dilation-during-acute-and-sustained-hypoxia
#5
Joshua C Tremblay, Connor A Howe, Philip N Ainslie, Kyra Ellen Pyke
Experimentally-induced oscillatory shear stress (OSS) and hypoxia reduce endothelial function in humans. Acute and sustained hypoxia may cause increases in resting OSS; however, whether this influences endothelial susceptibility to further increases in OSS is unknown. Healthy lowlanders (n=15, 30{plus minus}6 years [mean{plus minus}SD]) participated in three OSS interventions; two at sea level (normoxia and following 20-minutes of normobaric hypoxia [acute hypoxia, 11% O2 ]) and one 5-7 days after a 9-day ascent to 5050m (sustained hypoxia)...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494748/trends-in-medicare-reimbursement-for-orthopedic-procedures-2000-to-2016
#6
Adam E M Eltorai, Wesley M Durand, Jack M Haglin, Lee E Rubin, Arnold-Peter C Weiss, Alan H Daniels
Understanding trends in reimbursement is critical to the financial sustainability of orthopedic practices. Little research has examined physician fee trends over time for orthopedic procedures. This study evaluated trends in Medicare reimbursements for orthopedic surgical procedures. The Medicare Physician Fee Schedule was examined for Current Procedural Terminology code values for the most common orthopedic and nonorthopedic procedures between 2000 and 2016. Prices were adjusted for inflation to 2016-dollar values...
March 1, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414842/chemical-constituents-and-pharmacological-activity-of-agarwood-and-aquilaria-plants
#7
REVIEW
Shuai Wang, Zhangxin Yu, Canhong Wang, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo, Jianhe Wei
Agarwood, a highly precious non-timber fragrant wood of Aquilaria spp. (Thymelaeaceae), has been widely used in traditional medicine, religious rites, and cultural activities. Due to the inflated demanding and depleted natural resources, the yields of agarwood collected from the wild are shrinking, and the price is constantly rising, which restricts agarwood scientific research and wide application. With the sustainable planting and management of agarwood applied, and especially the artificial-inducing methods being used in China and Southeast Asian countries, agarwood yields are increasing, and the price is becoming more reasonable...
February 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409382/distal-placement-of-resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-reboa-to-restore-hemodynamic-stability-in-a-patient-with-proximal-aortic-rupture
#8
Shira Strauss, Paul Engels, John Harlock
PURPOSE: To report unconventional use of the resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) technique to restore hemodynamic stability in a patient who was hemorrhaging from aortic injury proximal to the target zone of occlusion. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old woman underwent urgent thoracic stent-graft repair of a ruptured 8×8-cm mycotic pseudoaneurysm. Two months later, follow-up imaging revealed that the proximal aortic stent seal zone had degenerated, so a percutaneous procedure was performed 2 months later to preemptively reinforce the segment of stented aorta...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348914/exploring-health-insurance-services-in-sudan-from-the-perspectives-of-insurers
#9
Anas Mustafa Ahmed Salim, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud Hamed
Background: It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. Methods: This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286940/sustained-lung-inflation-at-birth-for-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-respiratory-distress-syndrome-the-proper-pressure-and-duration
#10
N Abd El-Fattah, N Nasef, M F Al-Harrass, Mohammed Khashaba
BACKGROUND: Variations exist among the administered pressure and duration of sustained lung inflation (SLI) in the delivery room (DR). We aimed to evaluate the appropriate pressure and duration needed for SLI in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: We prospectively randomized 100 preterm (<32 weeks) infants to receive either conventional therapy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at 5 cm H2O, or four groups of CPAP plus a single maneuver of SLI at four regimens based on administered pressures and durations; P20D20 (Pressure of 20 cm H2O for a duration of 20 seconds), P20D10 (20 cm H2O for 10 seconds), P15D20 (15 cm H2O for 20 seconds), and P15D10 (15 cm H2O for 10 seconds) using a T-piece ventilator...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281733/adenoviral-vaccine-induction-of-cd8-t-cell-memory-inflation-impact-of-co-infection-and-infection-order
#11
Lian N Lee, Beatrice Bolinger, Zoltan Banki, Catherine de Lara, Andrew J Highton, Julia M Colston, Claire Hutchings, Paul Klenerman
The efficacies of many new T cell vaccines rely on generating large populations of long-lived pathogen-specific effector memory CD8 T cells. However, it is now increasingly recognized that prior infection history impacts on the host immune response. Additionally, the order in which these infections are acquired could have a major effect. Exploiting the ability to generate large sustained effector memory (i.e. inflationary) T cell populations from murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and human Adenovirus-subtype (AdHu5) 5-beta-galactosidase (Ad-lacZ) vector, the impact of new infections on pre-existing memory and the capacity of the host's memory compartment to accommodate multiple inflationary populations from unrelated pathogens was investigated in a murine model...
December 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244793/effects-of-epinephrine-on-hemodynamic-changes-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-neonatal-piglet-model
#12
Michael Wagner, Po-Yin Cheung, Elliott S Li, Tze-Fun Lee, Min Lu, Megan O'Reilly, Monika Olischar, Georg M Schmölzer
BACKGROUND: Asphyxia is the most common reason for newborns to fail to make a successful fetal to neonatal transition. There is currently a lack of data evaluating hemodynamic effects of epinephrine during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. METHODS: Twenty-four newborn piglets were exposed to asphyxia. Thereafter, positive pressure ventilation was commenced for 30 s, followed by chest compressions (CC). Piglets were randomized into three experimental groups: 3:1 compression:ventilation ratio; CC during sustained inflation (SI) at a rate of 90 CC per minute, or CC during SI at a rate of 120 CC per minute...
December 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212863/modelling-the-implications-of-reducing-smoking-prevalence-the-benefits-of-increasing-the-uk-tobacco-duty-escalator-to-public-health-and-economic-outcomes
#13
Andre Knuchel-Takano, Daniel Hunt, Abbygail Jaccard, Arti Bhimjiyani, Martin Brown, Lise Retat, Katrina Brown, Sebastian Hinde, Chit Selvarajah, Linda Bauld, Laura Webber
INTRODUCTION: Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence, mitigate its devastating consequential health harms and progress towards a tobacco-free society. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of increasing the existing cigarette tobacco duty escalator (TDE) in the UK from the current 2% above consumer price inflation to 5%. METHODS: A two-stage modelling process was used. First, a non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data, creating longitudinal projections from 2015 to 2035...
December 6, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182782/abundance-and-dynamics-of-anopheles-diptera-culicidae-larvae-in-a-malaria-endemic-area-of-bangladesh
#14
Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Rubayet Elahi, Sumit Chakma, Mohammad Abdullah Heel Kafi, Wasif A Khan, Rashidul Haque, David A Sack, David J Sullivan, Douglas E Norris
Malaria is a major health burden in the border-belt areas of Bangladesh. There are recent data from adult mosquito collections that a number of vectors are involved in the transmission cycle. However, little information regarding the larval habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes are available in Bangladesh. To start filling this gap, a cross-sectional larval survey was conducted in Bandarban, Bangladesh from October 2011 to September 2012. Descriptive analysis, Poisson regression, spearman correlations and zero-inflated Poisson regression were used to calculate the degree of association between the abundance of larval Anopheles species and environmental factors...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179773/sustained-inflations-versus-uk-standard-inflations-during-initial-resuscitation-of-prematurely-born-infants-in-the-delivery-room-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Katie A Hunt, Kamal Ali, Theodore Dassios, Anthony D Milner, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Many infants born at less than 34 weeks of gestational age will require resuscitation in the delivery suite. Yet, different resuscitation techniques are specified in different national guidelines, likely reflecting a limited evidence base. One difference is the length of mechanical inflation initially delivered to infants either via a facemask or endotracheal tube. Some guidelines specify short inflations delivered at rates of 40-60/min, others recommend initial inflations lasting 2-3 s or sustained inflations lasting for ≥ 5 s for initial resuscitation...
November 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134246/does-high-peep-prevent-alveolar-cycling
#16
REVIEW
M Cressoni, C Chiurazzi, D Chiumello, L Gattinoni
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients need mechanical ventilation to sustain gas exchange. Animal experiments showed that mechanical ventilation with high volume/plateau pressure and no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) damages healthy lungs, while low tidal volumes and the application of higher PEEP levels are protective. PEEP makes the lung homogeneous, reducing the pressure multiplication at the interface between lung units with different inflation statuses and keeps the lung open through the whole respiratory cycle, avoiding intratidal opening and closing...
February 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054594/what-can-be-achieved-with-a-single-payer-nhi-system-the-case-of-taiwan
#17
William C Hsiao, Shou-Hsia Cheng, Winnie Yip
The United Nations has incorporated the noble goal of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Most nations have already embraced UHC as their goal. However, an intense policy debate has risen about which health system structure can best achieve UHC. Is a single-payer system more efficient, equitable and effective than a multiple-payer system for middle income countries? We argue that empirical evidence and in-depth analysis of single-payer and multiple-payer systems should inform this debate...
December 7, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988159/chest-compression-during-sustained-inflation-versus-3-1-chest-compression-ventilation-ratio-during-neonatal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-randomised-feasibility-trial
#18
Georg M Schmölzer, Megan O Reilly, Caroline Fray, Sylvia van Os, Po-Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: Current neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend 3:1 compression:ventilation (C:V) ratio. Recently, animal studies reported that continuous chest compressions (CC) during a sustained inflation (SI) significantly improved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The approach of CC during SI (CC+SI) has not been examined in the delivery room during neonatal resuscitation. HYPOTHESIS: It is a feasibility study to compare CC+SI versus 3:1 C:V ratio during neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974135/propofol-and-fentanyl-sedation-for-laser-treatment-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-to-avoid-intubation
#19
Fiammetta Piersigilli, Alessandra Di Pede, Gino Catena, Simona Lozzi, Cinzia Auriti, Iliana Bersani, Irma Capolupo, Anna Lipreri, Vincenzo Di Ciommo, Andrea Dotta, Stefania Sgrò
BACKGROUND: Despite the optimization of neonatal assistance, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, stage III-IV) remains a common condition among preterm infants. Laser photocoagulation usually requires general anesthesia and intubation, but extubation can be difficult and these infants often affected by chronic lung disease. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts of 13 neonates that were sedated with propofol in association with fentanyl for the laser treatment of ROP. This protocol was introduced in our unit to avoid intubation and minimize side effects of anesthesia and ventilation...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962107/experimental-study-of-airway-pressure-release-ventilation-in-the-treatment-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#20
Guan-Jie Han, Jia-Qiong Li, Cui-Gai Pan, Jing-Xi Sun, Zai-Xiang Shi, Ji-Yuan Xu, Mao-Qin Li
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a ventilator mode which has demonstrated potential benefits in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. We therefore sought to compare relevant pulmonary data and safety outcomes of this mode to the conventional ventilation and sustained inflation. Canines admitted after intravenous injection of oleic acid requiring mechanical ventilation were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6), namely conventional ventilation group, low tidal volume ventilation with recruitment group (LTV+SI) and APRV group...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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