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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212863/modelling-the-implications-of-reducing-smoking-prevalence-the-benefits-of-increasing-the-uk-tobacco-duty-escalator-to-public-health-and-economic-outcomes
#1
Andre Knuchel-Takano, Daniel Hunt, Abbygail Jaccard, Arti Bhimjiyani, Martin Brown, Lise Retat, Katrina Brown, Sebastian Hinde, Chit Selvarajah, Linda Bauld, Laura Webber
INTRODUCTION: Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence, mitigate its devastating consequential health harms and progress towards a tobacco-free society. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of increasing the existing cigarette tobacco duty escalator (TDE) in the UK from the current 2% above consumer price inflation to 5%. METHODS: A two-stage modelling process was used. First, a non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data, creating longitudinal projections from 2015 to 2035...
December 6, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182782/abundance-and-dynamics-of-anopheles-diptera-culicidae-larvae-in-a-malaria-endemic-area-of-bangladesh
#2
Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Rubayet Elahi, Sumit Chakma, Mohammad Abdullah Heel Kafi, Wasif A Khan, Rashidul Haque, David A Sack, David J Sullivan, Douglas E Norris
Malaria is a major health burden in the border-belt areas of Bangladesh. There are recent data from adult mosquito collections that a number of vectors are involved in the transmission cycle. However, little information regarding the larval habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes are available in Bangladesh. To start filling this gap, a cross-sectional larval survey was conducted in Bandarban, Bangladesh from October 2011 to September 2012. Descriptive analysis, Poisson regression, spearman correlations and zero-inflated Poisson regression were used to calculate the degree of association between the abundance of larval Anopheles species and environmental factors...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179773/sustained-inflations-versus-uk-standard-inflations-during-initial-resuscitation-of-prematurely-born-infants-in-the-delivery-room-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Katie A Hunt, Kamal Ali, Theodore Dassios, Anthony D Milner, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Many infants born at less than 34 weeks of gestational age will require resuscitation in the delivery suite. Yet, different resuscitation techniques are specified in different national guidelines, likely reflecting a limited evidence base. One difference is the length of mechanical inflation initially delivered to infants either via a facemask or endotracheal tube. Some guidelines specify short inflations delivered at rates of 40-60/min, others recommend initial inflations lasting 2-3 s or sustained inflations lasting for ≥ 5 s for initial resuscitation...
November 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134246/does-high-peep-prevent-alveolar-cycling
#4
REVIEW
M Cressoni, C Chiurazzi, D Chiumello, L Gattinoni
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients need mechanical ventilation to sustain gas exchange. Animal experiments showed that mechanical ventilation with high volume/plateau pressure and no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) damages healthy lungs, while low tidal volumes and the application of higher PEEP levels are protective. PEEP makes the lung homogeneous, reducing the pressure multiplication at the interface between lung units with different inflation statuses and keeps the lung open through the whole respiratory cycle, avoiding intratidal opening and closing...
November 13, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054594/what-can-be-achieved-with-a-single-payer-nhi-system-the-case-of-taiwan
#5
William C Hsiao, Shou-Hsia Cheng, Winnie Yip
The United Nations has incorporated the noble goal of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Most nations have already embraced UHC as their goal. However, an intense policy debate has risen about which health system structure can best achieve UHC. Is a single-payer system more efficient, equitable and effective than a multiple-payer system for middle income countries? We argue that empirical evidence and in-depth analysis of single-payer and multiple-payer systems should inform this debate...
December 7, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988159/chest-compression-during-sustained-inflation-versus-3-1-chest-compression-ventilation-ratio-during-neonatal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-randomised-feasibility-trial
#6
Georg M Schmölzer, Megan O Reilly, Caroline Fray, Sylvia van Os, Po-Yin Cheung
BACKGROUND: Current neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend 3:1 compression:ventilation (C:V) ratio. Recently, animal studies reported that continuous chest compressions (CC) during a sustained inflation (SI) significantly improved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The approach of CC during SI (CC+SI) has not been examined in the delivery room during neonatal resuscitation. HYPOTHESIS: It is a feasibility study to compare CC+SI versus 3:1 C:V ratio during neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974135/propofol-and-fentanyl-sedation-for-laser-treatment-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-to-avoid-intubation
#7
Fiammetta Piersigilli, Alessandra Di Pede, Gino Catena, Simona Lozzi, Cinzia Auriti, Iliana Bersani, Irma Capolupo, Anna Lipreri, Vincenzo Di Ciommo, Andrea Dotta, Stefania Sgrò
BACKGROUND: Despite the optimization of neonatal assistance, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, stage III-IV) remains a common condition among preterm infants. Laser photocoagulation usually requires general anesthesia and intubation, but extubation can be difficult and these infants often affected by chronic lung disease. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts of 13 neonates that were sedated with propofol in association with fentanyl for the laser treatment of ROP. This protocol was introduced in our unit to avoid intubation and minimize side effects of anesthesia and ventilation...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962107/experimental-study-of-airway-pressure-release-ventilation-in-the-treatment-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#8
Guan-Jie Han, Jia-Qiong Li, Cui-Gai Pan, Jing-Xi Sun, Zai-Xiang Shi, Ji-Yuan Xu, Mao-Qin Li
Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a ventilator mode which has demonstrated potential benefits in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. We therefore sought to compare relevant pulmonary data and safety outcomes of this mode to the conventional ventilation and sustained inflation. Canines admitted after intravenous injection of oleic acid requiring mechanical ventilation were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6), namely conventional ventilation group, low tidal volume ventilation with recruitment group (LTV+SI) and APRV group...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871620/oropharyngeal-surfactant-can-improve-initial-stabilisation-and-reduce-rescue-intubation-in-infants-born-below-25-weeks-of-gestation
#9
Tereza Lamberska, Eva Settelmayerova, Jan Smisek, Marketa Luksova, Gabriela Maloskova, Richard Plavka
AIM: Minimally aggressive and easily performed techniques that facilitate spontaneous respiratory stabilisation are required to reduce rescue intubation in extremely premature infants. This study evaluated the feasibility and safety of administering surfactant into the pharynx of infants born at less than 25 weeks immediately after birth. METHODS: This study of 19 infants was conducted from January 2013 to July 2014 in a tertiary perinatal centre in Prague. We administered 1...
September 4, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828365/recruitment-maneuvers-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Michel Constantin, Thomas Godet, Matthieu Jabaudon, Jean-Etienne Bazin, Emmanuel Futier
The rationale for the use of recruitment maneuvers (RMs) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is to promote alveolar recruitment, leading to an increased end-expiratory lung volume and thus decreased ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). RMs consists of a transient increase in transpulmonary pressure that can re-open previously collapsed alveoli. RMs represents a physiological response to lung aggression in different conditions by re-opening the collapsed part of the lung and decreasing lung oedema...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795220/achieving-and-maintaining-lung-volume-in-the-preterm-infant-from-the-first-breath-to-the-nicu
#11
REVIEW
Gianluca Lista, Andrés Maturana, Fernando R Moya
The main goal for the neonatologist is to facilitate the adaptation to extra-uterine life during initial transition, while minimizing lung injury opening and protecting the premature lung from the first breath onwards. An appropriate management from birth should lead to the achievement of an early functional residual capacity (FRC), and the following steps should aim at maintaining an adequate lung volume. To date, different strategies are available to optimize fetal-neonatal transition and promote lung recruitment...
October 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793089/-evolution-in-the-use-and-the-expenditures-of-a-healthcare-provider
#12
André Luís de Castro Moura Duarte, Felippe de Medeiros Oliveira, Anderson de Andrade Santos, Bento Fortunato Cardoso Dos Santos
Brazil's aging population and the rising number of people reliant upon the country's supplementary healthcare system have elicited the concern of public and private managers regarding the increase in healthcare costs. In this paper, the costs per gender, per type of medical expenses and per age group of a major Brazilian self-managed healthcare provider between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. This healthcare provider is of interest because, besides portraying a single condition of revenue growth restricted to the existing contributors, it also replicates the demographic profile expected for Brazil in 2050, when approximately one-third of its population will be over 60 years of age...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771527/claudin5a-is-required-for-proper-inflation-of-kupffer-s-vesicle-lumen-and-organ-laterality
#13
Jeong-Gyun Kim, Sung-Jin Bae, Hye Shin Lee, Ji-Hyeon Park, Kyu-Won Kim
Left-right asymmetric organ development is critical to establish a proper body plan of vertebrates. In zebrafish, the Kupffer's vesicle (KV) is a fluid-filled sac which controls asymmetric organ development, and a properly inflated KV lumen by means of fluid influx is a prerequisite for the asymmetric signal transmission. However, little is known about the components that support the paracellular tightness between the KV luminal epithelial cells to sustain hydrostatic pressure during KV lumen expansion. Here, we identified that the claudin5a (cldn5a) is highly expressed at the apical surface of KV epithelial cells and tightly seals the KV lumen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768280/chest-compressions-during-sustained-inflations-improve-recovery-when-compared-to-a-3-1-compression-ventilation-ratio-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-neonatal-porcine-model-of-asphyxia
#14
Elliott S Li, Immanuel Görens, Po-Yin Cheung, Tze-Fun Lee, Min Lu, Megan O'Reilly, Georg M Schmölzer
BACKGROUND: Recently, sustained inflations (SI) during chest compression (CC) (CC+SI) have been suggested as an alternative to the current approach during neonatal resuscitation. No previous study compared CC+SI using CC rates of 90/min to the current 3:1 compression:ventilation ratio (C:V). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CC+SI versus a 3:1 C:V reduces the time to the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and improves hemodynamic recovery in newborn piglets with asphyxia-induced bradycardia...
August 3, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707404/sustained-versus-standard-inflations-during-neonatal-resuscitation-to-prevent-mortality-and-improve-respiratory-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Matteo Bruschettini, Colm Pf O'Donnell, Peter G Davis, Colin J Morley, Lorenzo Moja, Simona Zappettini, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: At birth, infants' lungs are fluid-filled. For newborns to have a successful transition, this fluid must be replaced by air to enable effective breathing. Some infants are judged to have inadequate breathing at birth and are resuscitated with positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Giving prolonged (sustained) inflations at the start of PPV may help clear lung fluid and establish gas volume within the lungs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of an initial sustained (> 1 second duration) lung inflation versus standard inflations (≤ 1 second) in newly born infants receiving resuscitation with intermittent PPV...
July 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664661/randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-submucosal-endoscopy-with-mucosal-resection-semr-and-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-esd-in-the-esophagus-and-stomach-an-animal-study
#16
Kohei Takizawa, Mary A Knipschield, Christopher J Gostout
OBJECTIVES: In Western countries ESD (Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection) has not prevailed due to training issues and a target patient population. We reported a hybrid ESD technique, SEMR (submucosal endoscopy with mucosal resection), in which the submucosal dissection is performed chiefly by blunt balloon dissection. We have reported successful application in the porcine colon. In this study we compared the safety and efficacy between SEMR with ESD in the porcine esophagus and stomach...
June 30, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661972/continuous-chest-compressions-during-sustained-inflations-in-a-perinatal-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest-lamb-model
#17
Payam Vali, Praveen Chandrasekharan, Munmun Rawat, Sylvia Gugino, Carmon Koenigsknecht, Justin Helman, Bobby Mathew, Sara Berkelhamer, Jayasree Nair, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
OBJECTIVE: Continuous chest compressions are more effective during resuscitation in adults. Sustained inflation rapidly establishes functional residual capacity in fluid-filled lungs at birth. We sought to compare the hemodynamics and success in achieving return of spontaneous circulation in an asphyxial cardiac arrest lamb model with transitioning fetal circulation and fluid-filled lungs between subjects receiving continuous chest compressions during sustained inflation and those receiving conventional 3:1 compression-to-ventilation resuscitation...
August 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605615/cancer-drugs-an-international-comparison-of-postlicensing-price-inflation
#18
Philip Savage, Sarah Mahmoud, Yogin Patel, Hagop Kantarjian
PURPOSE: The cost of cancer drugs forms a rising proportion of health care budgets worldwide. A number of studies have examined international comparisons of initial cost, but there is little work on postlicensing price increases. To examine this, we compared cancer drug prices at initial sale and subsequent price inflation in the United States and United Kingdom and also reviewed relevant price control mechanisms. METHODS: The 10 top-selling cancer drugs were selected, and their prices at initial launch and in 2015 were compared...
June 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604757/time-to-lung-aeration-during-a-sustained-inflation-at-birth-is-influenced-by-gestation-in-lambs
#19
Karen E McCall, Andreas D Waldmann, Prue Pereira-Fantini, Regina Oakley, Martijn Miedema, Elizabeth J Perkins, Peter G Davis, Peter A Dargaville, Stephan H Böhm, Raffaele Dellacà, Magdy Sourial, Emanuela Zannin, Anushi E Rajapaksa, Andre Tan, Andy Adler, Inéz Frerichs, David G Tingay
BackgroundCurrent sustained lung inflation (SI) approaches use uniform pressures and durations. We hypothesized that gestational-age-related mechanical and developmental differences would affect the time required to achieve optimal lung aeration, and resultant lung volumes, during SI delivery at birth in lambs.Methods49 lambs, in five cohorts between 118 and 139 days of gestation (term 142 d), received a standardized 40 cmH2O SI, which was delivered until 10 s after lung volume stability (optimal aeration) was visualized on real-time electrical impedance tomography (EIT), or to a maximum duration of 180 s...
October 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596379/using-exhaled-co2-to-guide-initial-respiratory-support-at-birth-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ashley Y Ngan, Po-Yin Cheung, Ann Hudson-Mason, Megan O'Reilly, Sylvia van Os, Manoj Kumar, Khalid Aziz, Georg M Schmölzer
IMPORTANCE: A sustained inflation (SI) provided at birth might reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine whether an SI-guided exhaled carbon dioxide (ECO2) compared with positive pressure ventilation (PPV) alone at birth decreases BPD. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. Infants were randomly allocated to either SI (SI group) or PPV (PPV group). PARTICIPANTS: Participants of this study include infants between 23+0 and 32+6 weeks gestation with a need for PPV at birth...
November 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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