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sustained inflation

Mar Bastero-Gil, Arjun Berera, Rudnei O Ramos, João G Rosa
We show that inflation can naturally occur at a finite temperature T>H that is sustained by dissipative effects, when the inflaton field corresponds to a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of a broken gauge symmetry. Similar to the Little Higgs scenarios for electroweak symmetry breaking, the flatness of the inflaton potential is protected against both quadratic divergences and the leading thermal corrections. We show that, nevertheless, nonlocal dissipative effects are naturally present and are able to sustain a nearly thermal bath of light particles despite the accelerated expansion of the Universe...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Luke Steven Robinson, Mitchell Sarkies, Ted Brown, Lisa O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Injuries sustained to the hand and wrist are common, accounting for 20% of all emergency presentations. The economic burden of these injuries, comprised of direct (medical expenses incurred), indirect (value of lost productivity) and intangible costs, can be extensive and rise sharply with the increase of severity. OBJECTIVE: This paper systematically reviews cost-of-illness studies and health economic evaluations of acute hand and wrist injuries with a particular focus on direct, indirect and intangible costs...
October 1, 2016: Injury
Cliff Reid, Ian Ferguson, Brian Burns, Karel Habig, Mohammed Shareef
BACKGROUND: Life-like end-tidal capnography (ETCO2) waveforms have been demonstrated in recently deceased and fresh-frozen cadavers following tracheal intubation, offering potential for high fidelity airway simulation training. As the mechanism for carbon dioxide production is not fully understood, it is possible that oesophageal intubation may also generate a capnograph. Our aim was to measure ETCO2 levels following (1) oesophageal and (2) tracheal intubation in fresh-frozen cadavers, and to observe the size, shape and duration of any capnographic waveform...
September 23, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Sameer H Halani, Jonathan P Riley, Gustavo Pradilla, Faiz U Ahmad
Traumatic neurologic injury in contact sports is a rare but serious consequence for its players. These injuries are most commonly associated with high-impact collisions, for example in football, but are found in a wide variety of sports. In an attempt to minimize these injuries, sports are trying to increase safety by adding protection for participants. Most recently is the seemingly 'safe' sport of Bubble Soccer, which attempts to protect its players with inflatable plastic bubbles. We report a case of a 16-year-old male sustaining a cervical spine burst fracture with incomplete spinal cord injury while playing Bubble Soccer...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
A L Solevåg, T-F Lee, M Lu, G M Schmölzer, P-Y Cheung
OBJECTIVE: To determine the distending pressure needed to achieve sufficient tidal volume (VT) delivery during continuous chest compressions (CC) superimposed by sustained inflation (SI) (CC+SI). DESIGN: Randomised animal/manikin trial. SETTING: University laboratory. SUBJECTS: Cadaver piglets/manikin. INTERVENTIONS: SI distending pressures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm H2O were delivered in random order during CC+SI for 2 min each...
August 26, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Dimitrios Konstantelos, Jürgen Dinger, Sascha Ifflaender, Mario Rüdiger
BACKGROUND: Over the past years, research on neonatal resuscitation has focused on single interventions. The present study was performed to analyze the process quality of delivery room management of preterm infants born by c-section in our institution. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of videos of preterm infants born by c-section. Videos were analyzed according to time point, duration and number of performed medical interventions. The study period occurred between January 2012 and December 2013...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Giovanni Vento, Roberta Pastorino, Luca Boni, Francesco Cota, Virgilio Carnielli, Filip Cools, Carlo Dani, Fabio Mosca, Jane Pillow, Graeme Polglase, Paolo Tagliabue, Anton H van Kaam, Maria Luisa Ventura, Milena Tana, Chiara Tirone, Claudia Aurilia, Alessandra Lio, Cinzia Ricci, Alessandro Gambacorta, Chiara Consigli, Danila D'Onofrio, Camilla Gizzi, Luca Massenzi, Viviana Cardilli, Alessandra Casati, Roberto Bottino, Federica Pontiggia, Elena Ciarmoli, Stefano Martinelli, Laura Ilardi, Mariarosa Colnaghi, Piero Giuseppe Matassa, Valentina Vendettuoli, Paolo Villani, Francesca Fusco, Diego Gazzolo, Alberto Ricotti, Federica Ferrero, Ilaria Stasi, Rosario Magaldi, Gianfranco Maffei, Giuseppe Presta, Roberto Perniola, Francesco Messina, Giovanna Montesano, Chiara Poggi, Lucio Giordano, Enza Roma, Carolina Grassia, Gaetano Ausanio, Fabrizio Sandri, Giovanna Mescoli, Francesco Giura, Giampaolo Garani, Agostina Solinas, Maria Lucente, Gabriella Nigro, Antonello Del Vecchio, Flavia Petrillo, Luigi Orfeo, Lidia Grappone, Lorenzo Quartulli, Antonio Scorrano, Hubert Messner, Alex Staffler, Giancarlo Gargano, Eleonora Balestri, Stefano Nobile, Caterina Cacace, Valerio Meli, Sara Dallaglio, Betta Pasqua, Loretta Mattia, Eloisa Gitto, Marcello Vitaliti, Maria Paola Re, Stefania Vedovato, Alessandra Grison, Alberto Berardi, Francesco Torcetta, Isotta Guidotti, Sandra di Fabio, Eugenia Maranella, Isabella Mondello, Stefano Visentin, Francesca Tormena
BACKGROUND: Although beneficial in clinical practice, the INtubate-SURfactant-Extubate (IN-SUR-E) method is not successful in all preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, with a reported failure rate ranging from 19 to 69 %. One of the possible mechanisms responsible for the unsuccessful IN-SUR-E method, requiring subsequent re-intubation and mechanical ventilation, is the inability of the preterm lung to achieve and maintain an "optimal" functional residual capacity. The importance of lung recruitment before surfactant administration has been demonstrated in animal studies showing that recruitment leads to a more homogeneous surfactant distribution within the lungs...
2016: Trials
Arjan B Te Pas, Kristina Sobotka, Stuart B Hooper
Historically, recommendations for neonatal resuscitation were largely based on dogma, but there is renewed interest in performing resuscitation studies at birth. The emphasis for resuscitation following birth asphyxia is administering effective ventilation, as adequate lung aeration leads not only to an increase in oxygenation but also increased pulmonary blood flow and heart rate. To aerate the lung, an initial sustained inflation can increase heart rate, oxygenation, and blood pressure recovery much faster when compared with standard ventilation...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Khic-Houy Prang, Janneke Berecki-Gisolf, Sharon Newnam
BACKGROUND: Social support has been identified as a significant factor in the recovery of individuals with musculoskeletal injury (MSI). However, relatively limited research has examined the mechanisms through which social support influences healthcare service use. This research examines the direct effects, mediating effects and effect modification of social support on healthcare service use among people with MSI sustained in a transport accident. METHODS: The study design was secondary data analysis of cross-sectional surveys of compensated transport accident victims in Victoria in 2010 and 2011, linked to compensation claims and payment records...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
David R Foxcroft, Lindsey Coombes, Sarah Wood, Debby Allen, Nerissa M L Almeida Santimano, Maria Teresa Moreira
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use and misuse in young people is a major risk behaviour for mortality and morbidity. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a popular technique for addressing excessive drinking in young adults. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for preventing alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in young adults. SEARCH METHODS: We identified relevant evidence from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2015), EMBASE (January 1988 to July 2015), and PsycINFO (1985 to July 2015)...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mohamed S El-Chimi, Hisham A Awad, Tarek M El-Gammasy, Ola G El-Farghali, Mohamed T Sallam, Dina M Shinkar
AIM: To evaluate efficacy and safety of delivery room (DR) sustained lung inflation (SLI) in resuscitation of preterm neonates. METHODS: Randomized Controlled Trial including 112 preterm infants randomized to either SLI (n = 57) using T-piece resuscitator [maximum three inflations with maximum pressure of 30 cmH2O for 15 s followed by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 5-7 cmH2O] or conventional bag/mask inflation (CBMI) (n = 55) using traditional self-inflating bag (maximum pressure of 40 cmH2O at a rate of 40-60 per min)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hu Yalan, Guo Changying, Guo Lin, Zheng Hua, Zhang Mian
OBJECTIVE: To compare the individual effects of three recruitment maneuvers (RM) in children with congenital heart disease complicated by postoperation acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A prospective single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Thirty-two children with congenital heart disease complicated with ARDS after open-heart surgery undergoing mechanical ventilation were randomized into three groups, to whom three different RM was respectively performed, namely sustained inflation (SI), progressively increased positive end expiratory pressure (IP) and pressure control ventilation (PCV)...
December 2015: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Philipp Götze, Jan Rücknagel, Anna Jacobs, Bernward Märländer, Heinz-Josef Koch, Olaf Christen
Avoiding soil compaction caused by agricultural management is a key aim of sustainable land management, and the soil compaction risk should be considered when assessing the environmental impacts of land use systems. Therefore this project compares different crop rotations in terms of soil structure and the soil compaction risk. It is based on a field trial in Germany, in which the crop rotations (i) silage maize (SM) monoculture, (ii) catch crop mustard (Mu)_sugar beet (SB)-winter wheat (WW)-WW, (iii) Mu_SM-WW-WW and (iv) SB-WW-Mu_SM are established since 2010...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Elliott S Li, Po-Yin Cheung, Tze-Fun Lee, Min Lu, Megan O'Reilly, Georg M Schmölzer
OBJECTIVE: Recently, sustained inflations (SI) during chest compression (CC) have been suggested as an alternative to the current approach during neonatal resuscitation. However, the optimal rate of CC during SI has not yet been established. Our aim was to determine whether different CC rates during SI reduce time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and improve hemodynamic recovery in newborn piglets with asphyxia-induced bradycardia. INTERVENTION AND MEASUREMENTS: Term newborn piglets were anesthetized, intubated, instrumented and exposed to 45-min normocapnic hypoxia followed by asphyxia...
2016: PloS One
Luis E Okamoto, André Diedrich, Franz J Baudenbacher, René Harder, Jonathan S Whitfield, Fahad Iqbal, Alfredo Gamboa, Cyndya A Shibao, Bonnie K Black, Satish R Raj, David Robertson, Italo Biaggioni
UNLABELLED: Splanchnic venous pooling is a major hemodynamic determinant of orthostatic hypotension, but is not specifically targeted by pressor agents, the mainstay of treatment. We developed an automated inflatable abdominal binder that provides sustained servo-controlled venous compression (40 mm Hg) and can be activated only on standing. We tested the efficacy of this device against placebo and compared it to midodrine in 19 autonomic failure patients randomized to receive either placebo, midodrine (2...
August 2016: Hypertension
Gianluca Lista, Paola Azzurra La Verde, Francesca Castoldi
A noninvasive approach in the delivery room in place of intubation and mechanical ventilation can reduce rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and death. Nevertheless, the rate of nasal continuous positive airway pressure failure still remains high. In order to prevent lung injury and to enhance the success of continuous positive airway pressure, sustained inflation (administration by face mask or nasopharyngeal tube of a high peak pressure of 20-25 cm H2O, maintained for 10-15 s) has been recently proposed to establish an early and efficient functional residual capacity in the delivery room...
2016: Neonatology
Teresa Mayer, Adriana Blachowicz, Alexander J Probst, Parag Vaishampayan, Aleksandra Checinska, Tiffany Swarmer, Pablo de Leon, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
BACKGROUND: For potential future human missions to the Moon or Mars and sustained presence in the International Space Station, a safe enclosed habitat environment for astronauts is required. Potential microbial contamination of closed habitats presents a risk for crewmembers due to reduced human immune response during long-term confinement. To make future habitat designs safer for crewmembers, lessons learned from characterizing analogous habitats is very critical. One of the key issues is that how human presence influences the accumulation of microorganisms in the closed habitat...
2016: Microbiome
Perihan Ergin Özcan, Özkan İbrahim Akıncı, İpek Edipoğlu, Evren Şentürk, Sevil Baylan, Atahan Arif Cağatay, Kemal H Türköz, Figen Esen, Lütfi Telci, Nahit Çakar
BACKGROUND: Investigated in the present study were the effects of various recruitment maneuvers (RMs) using the same inflation pressure-time product on bacterial translocation from lung to blood, and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). METHODS: Tracheotomy was performed on anesthetized rats, and ventilation was initiated using pressure-controlled mode. Subsequently, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inoculated through the tracheotomy tube and ventilated for 30 minutes before rats were randomly separated into 4 groups...
March 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Kristina S Sobotka, Stuart B Hooper, Kelly J Crossley, Tracey Ong, Georg M Schmölzer, Samantha K Barton, Annie R A McDougall, Suzie L Miller, Mary Tolcos, Claus Klingenberg, Graeme R Polglase
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146574.].
2016: PloS One
Ramyar Azar, Pejman Shadpour
PURPOSE: Clinically significant urinary tract infection may be the most familiar complication of urinary catheterization; however, catheter-associated trauma can entail even more significant morbidity. We have designed and patented a novel atraumatic urinary catheter (AUC) and through this study, we compare its efficacy with the conventional Foley catheter (FC) in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male rabbits were divided into two equal groups for FC and AUC. The animals were catheterized on day 4 for 8 hours to compare the maintenance of the tubes and sedated before standardized forcible extraction of the catheter under sedation with the balloon still inflated...
July 2016: Journal of Endourology
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