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Jungmin Seo, Jee Hye Wee, Jeong Hoan Park, Pona Park, Jeong-Whun Kim, Sung June Kim
OBJECTIVE: A novel nerve cuff electrode with embedded magnets was fabricated and developed. In this study, a pair of magnets was fully embedded and encapsulated in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate to utilize magnetic force in order to replace the conventional installing techniques of cuff electrodes. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the magnet-embedded nerve cuff electrode (MENCE). Lastly, several issues pertaining to the MENCE such as the cuff-to-nerve diameter ratio, the force of the magnets, and possible concerns were discussed in the discussion section...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Juan Chen, Zhi-Jun Shen, Wei-Zhi Lu, Xiang Liu, Fei-Hua Wu, Gui-Feng Gao, Yi-Ling Liu, Chun-Sheng Wu, Chong-Ling Yan, Hang-Qing Fan, Yi-Hui Zhang, Hai-Lei Zheng
Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh is a widespread mangrove species along the southeast coasts of China. Recently, the outbreak of herbivorous insect, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, a leaf miner, have impacted on the growth of A. marina Little is reported about the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. Here, we reported the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection from the aspects of leaf structure, photosynthesis, and antioxidant system and miner responsive genes expression...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
Pietro Milanesi, R Holderegger, R Caniglia, E Fabbri, M Galaverni, E Randi
Landscape genetics aims to investigate functional connectivity among wild populations by evaluating the impact of landscape features on gene flow. Genetic distances among populations or individuals are generally better explained by least-cost path (LCP) distances derived from resistance surfaces than by simple Euclidean distances. Resistance surfaces reflect the cost for an organism to move through particular landscape elements. However, determining the effects of landscape types on movements is challenging...
October 11, 2016: Oecologia
Maxime Maréchal, Ana Amoroso, Cécile Morlot, Thierry Vernet, Jacques Coyette, Bernard Joris
BACKGROUND: Proteins from the LytR-CpsA-Psr family are found in almost all Gram-positive bacteria. Although LCP proteins have been studied in other pathogens, their functions in enterococci remain uncharacterized. The Psr protein from Enterococcus hirae, here renamed LcpA, previously associated with the regulation of the expression of the low-affinity PBP5 and β-lactam resistance, has been characterized. RESULTS: LcpA protein of E. hirae ATCC 9790 has been produced and purified with and without its transmembrane helix...
October 12, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Jin Xiang, Eugene Chun, Chang Liu, Liang Jing, Zina Al-Sahouri, Lan Zhu, Wei Liu
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest class of drug targets in the human genome, which highlights the importance of understanding the molecular basis of their activation, downstream signaling, and regulation. Since 2007, great progress has been made in the field of GPCR structure determination and their signaling complexes at the molecular level. Here, we summarize the high-resolution structures of over 30 different GPCRs with their co-crystallized ligands, and outline the successful strategies involved, including construct design, expression systems, and lipidic cubic phase (LCP) composition, and the many key technical parameters of the crystallization methods...
October 7, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Mark Lenz, Karl Stoffel, Heike Kielstein, Keith Mayo, Gunther O Hofmann, Boyko Gueorguiev
INTRODUCTION: Proximal plate fixation in periprosthetic femur fractures can be improved by plate anchorage in the greater trochanter (lateral tension band principle) or bicortical locking screw placement beside the prosthesis stem in an embracement configuration. Both concepts were compared in a biomechanical test using a femoral hook plate (hook) or a locking attachment plate (LAP). METHODS: After bone mineral density (BMD) measurement in the greater trochanter, six pairs of fresh frozen human femora were assigned to two groups and instrumented with cemented hip endoprostheses...
September 30, 2016: Injury
Tim Pearson, Mark R Glyde, Robert E Day, Giselle L Hosgood
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of intramedullary pin size and plate working length on plate strain in locking compression plate-rod constructs. METHODS: A synthetic bone model with a 40 mm fracture gap was used. Locking compression plates with monocortical locking screws were tested with no pin (LCP-Mono) and intramedullary pins of 20% (LCPR-20), 30% (LCPR-30) and 40% (LCPR-40) of intramedullary diameter. Two screws per fragment modelled a long (8-hole) and short (4-hole) plate working length...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Predrag Grubor, Milorad Mitković, Milan Grubor, Milan Mitković, Luigi Meccariello, Gabriele Falzarano
INTRODUCTION: Artificial models can be useful at approximate and qualitative research, which should give the preliminary results. Artificial models are usually made of photo-elastic plastic e.g.. juvidur, araldite in the three-dimensional contour shape of the bone. Anatomical preparations consist of the same heterogeneous, structural materials with extremely anisotropic and unequal highly elastic characteristics, which are embedded in a complex organic structure. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Examine the budget voltage and deformation of: dynamic compression plate (DCP), locking compression plate (LCP), Mitkovic internal fixator (MIF), Locked intramedullary nailing (LIN) on the compressive and bending forces on juvidur and veal bone models and compared the results of these two methods (juvidur, veal bone)...
July 16, 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Akira Umemura, Hiroyuki Nitta, Takeshi Takahara, Yasushi Hasegawa, Akira Sasaki
This review describes the recent advances in, and current status of, minimally invasive pancreatic surgery (MIPS). Typical MIPS procedures are laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD), laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP), laparoscopic central pancreatectomy (LCP), and laparoscopic total pancreatectomy (LTP). Some retrospective studies comparing LPD or LDP and open procedures have demonstrated the safety and feasibility as well as the intraoperative outcomes and postoperative recovery of these procedures...
September 26, 2016: Asian Journal of Surgery
Andrii Ishchenko, Vadim Cherezov, Wei Liu
Membrane proteins (MPs) are essential components of cellular membranes and primary drug targets. Rational drug design relies on precise structural information, typically obtained by crystallography; however MPs are difficult to crystallize. Recent progress in MP structural determination has benefited greatly from the development of lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization methods, which typically yield well-diffracting, but often small crystals that suffer from radiation damage during traditional crystallographic data collection at synchrotron sources...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
J Pardo, A M Mena, C Chiaramello, N Aymar, I Ortiz, P Mateos, B Rodriguez, D Morera, F Romero, M Sintes, M Vidal, J Martinez, J Romero, M Gimenez, C Peña, J Font
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Mashooq Khan, Soo-Young Park
We developed a new technology that uses backscattering interferometry (BSI) to quantitatively measure nematic liquid crystal (NLC)-based biosensors, those usually relied on texture reading for on/off signals. The LC-based BSI comprised an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-coated square capillary filled with 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB, a nematic LC at room temperature). The LC/water interface in the capillary was functionalized by a coating of poly(acrylicacid-b-4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate) (PAA-b-LCP) and immobilized with the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) through covalent linkage to the PAA chains (5CBPAA-GOx:HRP) for glucose detection...
September 20, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Nirmal Marasini, Zeinab G Khalil, Ashwini Kumar Giddam, Khairunnisa Abdul Ghaffar, Waleed M Hussein, Robert J Capon, Michael R Batzloff, Michael F Good, Mariusz Skwarczynski, Istvan Toth
Rheumatic heart disease represents a leading cause of mortality caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections transmitted through the respiratory route. Although GAS infections can be treated with antibiotics these are often inadequate. An efficacious GAS vaccine holds more promise, with intranasal vaccination especially attractive, as it mimics the natural route of infections and should be able to induce mucosal IgA and systemic IgG immunity. Nanoparticles were prepared by either encapsulating or coating lipopeptide-based vaccine candidate (LCP-1) on the surface of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hyun-Gyu Lee, Sundas Munir, Soo-Young Park
By utilizing a microfluidics approach, we prepared uniformly sized cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) droplets from MLC-2132 doped with a chiral dopant (S)-4-cyano-4'-(2-methylbutyl)biphenyl (CB15). We studied the helical structures and reflecting color patterns of high- and low-dopant CLC droplets coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). One central large spot with reflecting color in the CLC droplets (initially coated with PVA for planar anchoring) changed to many small spots with the same reflecting color (chicken-skin pattern) when an SDS aqueous solution was introduced to increase the homeotropic anchoring power...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Osman Lapcin, Yavuz Arıkan, Umut Yavuz, Yunus Emre Akman, Engin Çetinkaya, Volkan Gür, Bilal Demir
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of locking compression plate (LCP) and autografting application in patients with nonunion of forearm fractures on radiologic and clinical outcome. METHODS: A total of 26 patients (16 males, 10 females; mean age: 45.7 years) with nonunion after surgical treatment of forearm fractures were included. Nonunion was located in the ulna in 14 patients, in the radius in 5 patients, and in both in 7 patients (21 ulna, 12 radius)...
May 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Wolf Röther, Stefanie Austen, Jakob Birke, Dieter Jendrossek
: Gram-positive rubber-degraders such as Streptomyces sp. K30 cleave rubber [poly(cis-1,4-isoprene)] to low molecular oligoisoprenoid products with terminal keto and aldehyde groups by the secretion of a latex clearing protein (Lcp)-designated rubber oxygenase. LcpK30 is a heme b cytochrome and has a domain of unknown function (DUF2236) that is characteristic for orthologous Lcps. Proteins with a DUF2236 domain are characterized by three highly conserved residues (R164, T168 and H198 in LcpK30)...
September 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Matthew T Haynes, Leaf Huang
Traditional liposomes degrade into lower-order micelles when PEGylated to even minor degrees (6-7 mol %) and therefore can offer only limited steric exclusion against opsonization during in vivo delivery. In this work, we present for the first time a liposome coated exclusively by PEGylated phospholipids, utilizing lipid-coated calcium phosphate (CaP) cores of diverse sizes (10-15 nm, 30-40 nm) as well as varying polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain lengths (350-5000 Da). Such fully-PEGylated liposome calcium phosphate (LCP) particles exhibit a PEG chain length-dependent circulation longevity and robust immune evasion, while facilitating both strong accumulation within solid tumors upon intravenous injection and a more rapid and extensive lymphatic drainage upon subcutaneous administration...
September 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Margaret J Penning, Denise S Cloutier, Kim Nuernberger, Stuart W S MacDonald, Deanne Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Drawing on a structural life course perspective (LCP), we examined the most common trajectories experienced by older long-term care (LTC; home and community-based care, assisted living, and nursing home care) recipients. The overall sequencing of care transitions was considered along with the role of social structural location, social and economic resources, and health factors in influencing them. METHOD: Latent class and latent transition analyses were conducted using administrative data obtained over a 4-year period for clients aged 65 and older (n = 2,951) admitted into publicly funded LTC in 1 Canadian health region...
August 24, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Lan Zhu, Uwe Weierstall, Vadim Cherezov, Wei Liu
Membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), constitute the most important drug targets. The increasing number of targets requires new structural information, which has proven tremendously challenging due to the difficulties in growing diffraction-quality crystals. Recent developments of serial femtosecond crystallography at X-ray free electron lasers combined with the use of membrane-mimetic gel-like matrix of lipidic cubic phase (LCP-SFX) for crystal growth and delivery hold significant promise to accelerate structural studies of membrane proteins...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kathrin Jaeger, Florian Dworkowski, Przemyslaw Nogly, Christopher Milne, Meitian Wang, Joerg Standfuss
Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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