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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911497/neural-plasticity-across-the-lifespan
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan D Power, Bradley L Schlaggar
An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to change. Neuroscientists use the term 'plasticity' to describe the malleability of neuronal connectivity and circuitry. How does plasticity work? A review of current data suggests that plasticity encompasses many distinct phenomena, some of which operate across most or all of the lifespan, and others that operate exclusively in early development. This essay surveys some of the key concepts related to neural plasticity, beginning with how current patterns of neural activity (e...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911489/palliative-care-interventions-in-advanced-dementia
#2
REVIEW
Edel Murphy, Katherine Froggatt, Sheelah Connolly, Eamon O'Shea, Elizabeth L Sampson, Dympna Casey, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic, progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease. Advanced dementia is characterised by profound cognitive impairment, inability to communicate verbally and complete functional dependence. Usual care of people with advanced dementia is not underpinned universally by a palliative approach. Palliative care has focused traditionally on care of people with cancer but for more than a decade, there have been increased calls worldwide to extend palliative care services to include all people with life-limiting illnesses in need of specialist care, including people with dementia...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911488/hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-an-emerging-morbidity-in-the-thalassemia-syndromes-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Hassan M Moukhadder, Racha Halawi, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Ali T Taher
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassemia is on the rise. The 2 well recognized HCC risk factors in thalassemia are iron overload and chronic viral infection with hepatitis C. The carcinogenicity of iron is related to its induction of oxidative damage, which results in genotoxicity, and to immunologic dysregulation, which attenuates cancer immune surveillance. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections lead to necroinflammation, which can prompt progression to HCC, but an independent role of hepatitis B virus in hepatic carcinogenesis among patients with thalassemia has not been demonstrated...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911487/external-inspection-of-compliance-with-standards-for-improved-healthcare-outcomes
#4
REVIEW
Gerd Flodgren, Daniela C Gonçalves-Bradley, Marie-Pascale Pomey
BACKGROUND: Inspection systems are used in healthcare to promote quality improvements (i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes). These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of healthcare. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational-, provider- and patient-level outcomes are not clear...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911482/meat-quality-and-intramuscular-fatty-acid-composition-of-catria-horse
#5
Maria Federica Trombetta, Francesco Nocelli, Marina Pasquini
In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911471/the-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-supplementation-on-glucose-metabolism-and-lipid-profiles-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Mansooreh Samimi, Maryam Zarezade Mehrizi, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Hossein Akbari, Mehri Jamilian, Shahnaz Ahmadi, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: Data on the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on metabolic profiles among subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study was done to evaluate the effects of CoQ10 supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in subjects with PCOS. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 women diagnosed with PCOS. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups to intake either 100 mg CoQ10 supplements (N=30) or placebo (N=30) per day for 12 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911469/comprehensive-identification-and-clustering-of-clv3-esr-related-cle-genes-in-plants-finds-groups-with%C3%A2-potentially-shared-function
#7
David M Goad, Chuanmei Zhu, Elizabeth A Kellogg
CLV3/ESR (CLE) proteins are important signaling peptides in plants. The short CLE peptide (12-13 amino acids) is cleaved from a larger pre-propeptide and functions as an extracellular ligand. The CLE family is large and has resisted attempts at classification because the CLE domain is too short for reliable phylogenetic analysis and the pre-propeptide is too variable. We used a model-based search for CLE domains from 57 plant genomes and used the entire pre-propeptide for comprehensive clustering analysis. In total, 1628 CLE genes were identified in land plants, with none recognizable from green algae...
December 1, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911463/vascular-access-types-in-patients-starting-hemodialysis-after-failed-kidney-transplant-does-close-nephrology-follow-up-matter
#8
Naveed Ul Haq, Mohamed Said Abdelsalam, Mohammed Mahdi Althaf, Abdulrahman Ali Khormi, Hassan Al Harbi, Bader Alshamsan, Mamdouh Nasser Albaqumi, Dieter Clemens Broering, Lutfi Alkorbi, Hassan Ali Aleid
BACKGROUND: Native arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are preferred while central venous catheters (CVCs) are least suitable vascular access (VA) in patients requiring hemodialysis (HD). Unfortunately, around 80% of patients start HD with CVCs. Late referral to nephrologist is thought to be a factor responsible for this. We retrospectively analyzed the types of VA at HD initiation in renal transplant recipients followed by nephrologists with failed transplant. If early referral to nephrologist improves AVF use, these patients should have higher prevalence of AVF at HD initiation...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911459/evaluation-of-bone-metastases-by-18f-choline-pet-ct-in-a-patient-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-treated-with-radium-223
#9
Piera Scalzi, Cinzia Baiocco, Sabrina Genovese, Antonella Trevisan, Zuzana Sirotova, Carlo Poti
BACKGROUND: To date, bone metastases remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Therefore, the combination of accurate early detection of bony disease and effective treatment of these lesions is crucial in the management of mCRPC patients, but clinical trials specifically designed to test novel approaches are currently lacking. CASE DESCRIPTION: This report describes the case of a 74-year-old male with bone mCRPC and symptomatic and biochemical progression, who underwent radium-223 therapy, following previous treatment failure...
December 2, 2016: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911451/influence-of-specific-intermolecular-interactions-on-the-thermal-and-dielectric-properties-of-bulk-polymers-atomistic-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-nylon-6
#10
N V Lukasheva, D A Tolmachev, V M Nazarychev, J M Kenny, S V Lyulin
Specific intermolecular interactions, in particular H-bonding, have a strong influence on the structural, thermal and relaxation characteristics of polymers. We report here the results of molecular dynamics simulations of Nylon 6 which provides an excellent example for the investigation of such an influence. To demonstrate the effect of proper accounting for H-bonding on bulk polymer properties, the AMBER99sb force field is used with two different parametrization approaches leading to two different sets of partial atomic charges...
December 2, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911446/treatment-patterns-of-ranibizumab-intravitreal-injection-and-dexamethasone-intravitreal-implant-for-retinal-vein-occlusion-in-the-usa
#11
S Nghiem-Buffet, S Baillif, S Regnier, A Skelly, N Yu, A Sodi
PurposeRanibizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid, have been shown to be effective in treating macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (central RVO (CRVO) and branch RVO (BRVO)). Their real-world usage, however, has yet to be compared. We therefore evaluated ophthalmology visits for both drugs using US patient-level data.MethodsThe IMS Health Real-World Data Medical Claims database was used to identify treatment-naive patients receiving ranibizumab intravitreal injections or dexamethasone intravitreal implants between June 2010 and February 2014 who had 12 months of follow-up data...
December 2, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911444/impact-of-optical-coherence-tomography-scanning-density-on-quantitative-analyses-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#12
S B Velaga, M G Nittala, R K Konduru, F Heussen, P A Keane, S R Sadda
PurposeTo assess the influence of varying B-scan frame-sampling densities on retinal thickness and volume measurements from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).MethodsVolume OCT data (512 × 128 macular cube over 6 × 6 mm) were collected from 39 eyes with neovascular AMD. All 128 B-scans in each image set were manually segmented, allowing quantification of the neurosensory retina, subretinal fluid (SRF), subretinal hyperreflective material (SRHM), and pigment epithelium detachment (PED)...
December 2, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911439/evidence-for-a-role-of-viruses-in-the-thermal-sensitivity-of-coral-photosymbionts
#13
Rachel Ashley Levin, Christian Robert Voolstra, Karen Dawn Weynberg, Madeleine Josephine Henriette van Oppen
Symbiodinium, the dinoflagellate photosymbiont of corals, is posited to become more susceptible to viral infections when heat-stressed. To investigate this hypothesis, we mined transcriptome data of a thermosensitive and a thermotolerant type C1 Symbiodinium population at ambient (27 °C) and elevated (32°C) temperatures. We uncovered hundreds of transcripts from nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA viruses (NCLDVs) and the genome of a novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (+ssRNAV). In the transcriptome of the thermosensitive population only, +ssRNAV transcripts had remarkable expression levels in the top 0...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911430/-clinical-presentations-of-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus-diagnosis-and-therapy
#14
G M Chernakova, E A Kleshcheva, T B Semenova
: Approximately a quarter of the world's population at some point in life is at risk of developing shingles (Herpes Zoster). In 10-20% of cases the first branch of the trigeminal nerve gets involved (Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus, HZO). Ophthalmic complications of HZO are able to cause a significant reduction in visual function. AIM: To study and summarize clinical features of HZO (including the rate of complications and their nature) and to determine the relationship between clinical and laboratory data from these patients...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911410/experimental-infection-with-listeria-monocytogenes-as-a-model-for-studying-host-interferon-%C3%AE-responses
#15
Jeeyoon Jennifer Ahn, Thirumahal Selvanantham, Monan Angela Zhang, Thierry Mallevaey, Shannon E Dunn
L. monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacterium that is a cause of food borne disease in humans. Experimental infection of mice with this pathogen has been highly informative on the role of innate and adaptive immune cells and specific cytokines in host immunity against intracellular pathogens. Production of IFN-γ by innate cells during sublethal infection with L. monocytogenes is important for activating macrophages and early control of the pathogen(1-3). In addition, IFN-γ production by adaptive memory lymphocytes is important for priming the activation of innate cells upon reinfection(4)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911409/measuring-progressive-neurological-disability-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Francesca Gilli, Darlene B Royce, Andrew R Pachner
After intracerebral infection with the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV), susceptible SJL mice develop a chronic-progressive demyelinating disease, with clinical features similar to the progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mice show progressive disability with loss of motor and sensory functions, which can be assessed with multiple apparatuses and protocols. Among them, the Rotarod performance test is a very common behavioral test, its advantage being that it provides objective measurements, but it is often used assuming that it is straightforward and simple...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911398/evaluation-of-bioenergetic-function-in-cerebral-vascular-endothelial-cells
#17
Stephanie L Rellick, Heng Hu, James W Simpkins, Xuefang Ren
The integrity of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is critical to prevent brain injury. Cerebral vascular endothelial (CVE) cells are one of the cell types that comprise the BBB; these cells have a very high-energy demand, which requires optimal mitochondrial function. In the case of disease or injury, the mitochondrial function in these cells can be altered, resulting in disease or the opening of the BBB. In this manuscript, we introduce a method to measure mitochondrial function in CVE cells by using whole, intact cells and a bioanalyzer...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911393/a-detailed-protocol-for-perspiration-monitoring-using-a-novel-small-wireless-device
#18
Kazuhiro Ogai, Masakazu Fukuoka, Kei-Ichiro Kitamura, Kiyoshi Uchide, Tetsu Nemoto
Perspiration monitoring can be utilized for the detection of certain diseases, such as thermoregulation and mental disorders, particularly when the patients are unaware of such disorders or are having difficulty expressing their symptoms. Until now, several devices for perspiration monitoring have been developed; however, such devices tend to have a relatively large exterior, considerable power consumption, and/or less sensitivity. Recently, we developed a small, wireless device for perspiration monitoring...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911379/rapid-acquisition-of-3d-images-using-high-resolution-episcopic-microscopy
#19
Haochuan Zhang, JunGang Huang, Xin Liu, Ping Zhu, Zhongrong Li, Xue Li
High-resolution episcopic microscopic (HREM) technology enables rapid acquisition of high-resolution digital volumetric and three-dimensional (3D) morphometric data. Here, we describe the detailed protocol to image the entire mouse embryo. The protocol consists of four major sections: sample preparation, embedding, image acquisition and finally, 3D visualization. The technology requires specimens to be stained with a fluorescent dye, which can be problematic for large or dense specimens. To overcome this limitation, we have improved the existing protocol to enhance tissue penetration of the dye by pretreating the specimen with a solution containing urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911374/flow-cytometric-analysis-of-particle-bound-bet-v-1-allergen-in-pm10
#20
Katrin Süring, Sabine Bach, Conny Höflich, Wolfgang Straff
Flow cytometry is a method widely used to quantify suspended solids such as cells or bacteria in a size range from 0.5 to several tens of micrometers in diameter. In addition to a characterization of forward and sideward scatter properties, it enables the use of fluorescent labeled markers like antibodies to detect respective structures. Using indirect antibody staining, flow cytometry is employed here to quantify birch pollen allergen (precisely Bet v 1)-loaded particles of 0.5 to 10 µm in diameter in inhalable particulate matter (PM10, particle size ≤10 µm in diameter)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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