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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344309/adult-stem-cells-in-vascular-remodeling
#1
REVIEW
Dong Wang, LeeAnn K Li, Tiffany Dai, Aijun Wang, Song Li
Understanding the contribution of vascular cells to blood vessel remodeling is critical for the development of new therapeutic approaches to cure cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and regenerate blood vessels. Recent findings suggest that neointimal formation and atherosclerotic lesions involve not only inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells, but also several types of stem cells or progenitors in arterial walls and the circulation. Some of these stem cells also participate in the remodeling of vascular grafts, microvessel regeneration, and formation of fibrotic tissue around biomaterial implants...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343525/lack-of-remuscularization-following-transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells-in-infarcted-nonhuman-primates
#2
Keyang Zhu, Qiang Wu, Cheng Ni, Peng Zhang, Zhiwei Zhong, Yan Wu, Yingchao Wang, Yinchuan Xu, Minjian Kong, Haifeng Cheng, Zhihua Tao, Qian Yang, He Liang, Yun Jiang, Qingju Li, Jing Zhao, Jijun Huang, Fengjiang Zhang, Qi Chen, Yi Li, Jinghai Chen, Wei Zhu, Hong Yu, Jianyi Zhang, Huang-Tian Yang, Xinyang Hu, Jian'an Wang
Rationale: Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (hPSC-CVPCs) should be thoroughly investigated in large animal studies before testing in clinical trials. Objective: To clarify if hPSC-CVPCs can engraft for long time in the heart of primates after myo-cardial infarction (MI) and compare the effectiveness and safety of immunosuppression with cy-closporine alone or multiple-drug regimen (MDR) containing cyclosporine, methylprednisolone, and Simulect in cynomolgous monkeys that had received intramyocardial injections of 1×107 EGFP-expressing hPSC-CVPCs after MI...
January 17, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336212/simulated-microgravity-impairs-cardiac-autonomic-neurogenesis-from-neural-crest-cells
#3
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Zhijie Jiang, Krystalenia Valasaki, Lauro M Takeuchi, Wayne Balkan, Preethi Atluri, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Darcy DiFede, Joshua M Hare
Microgravity-induced alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribute to derangements in both the mechanical and electrophysiologic function of the cardiovascular system, leading to severe symptoms in humans following space travel. Because the ANS forms embryonically from neural crest progenitors (NCs), we hypothesized that microgravity can impair NC derived cardiac structures. Accordingly, we conducted in vitro simulated microgravity experiments employing NC genetic lineage-tracing in mice with cKitCreERT2/+, Isl1nLacZ and Wnt1-Cre reporter alleles...
January 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328364/genetically%C3%A2-modified-stem-cells-in-treatment-of-human-diseases-tissue-kallikrein-klk1-%C3%A2-based-targeted-therapy-review
#4
Marina Devetzi, Maria Goulielmaki, Nicolas Khoury, Demetrios A Spandidos, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Ioannis Christodoulou, Vassilis Zoumpourlis
The tissue kallikrein‑kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous multiprotein metabolic cascade which is implicated in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular, renal and central nervous system. Human tissue kallikrein (KLK1) is a serine protease, component of the KKS that has been demonstrated to exert pleiotropic beneficial effects in protection from tissue injury through its anti‑inflammatory, anti‑apoptotic, anti‑fibrotic and anti‑oxidative actions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute populations of well‑characterized, readily obtainable multipotent cells with special immunomodulatory, migratory and paracrine properties rendering them appealing potential therapeutics in experimental animal models of various diseases...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323265/redox-dependent-bmi1-activity-drives-in-vivo-adult-cardiac-progenitor-cell-differentiation
#5
Diego Herrero, María Tomé, Susana Cañón, Francisco M Cruz, Rosa María Carmona, Encarna Fuster, Enrique Roche, Antonio Bernad
Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with several cardiovascular pathologies and with cell cycle exit by neonanatal cardiomyocytes, a key limiting factor in the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian heart. The polycomb complex component BMI1 is linked to adult progenitors and is an important partner in DNA repair and redox regulation. We found that high BMI1 expression is associated with an adult Sca1+ cardiac progenitor sub-population with low ROS levels. In homeostasis, BMI1 repressed cell fate genes, including a cardiogenic differentiation program...
January 11, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320953/spaceflight-activates-protein-kinase-c-alpha-signaling-and-modifies-the-developmental-stage-of-human-neonatal-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells
#6
Jonathan Baio, Aida F Martinez, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh Hasaniya, Michael Pecaut, Mary Kearns-Jonker
Spaceflight impacts cardiovascular function in astronauts; however, its impact on cardiac development and the stem cells that form the basis for cardiac repair is unknown. Accordingly, further research is needed to uncover the potential relevance of such changes to human health. Using simulated microgravity (SMG) generated via two-dimensional clinorotation and culture aboard the International Space Station (ISS), we assessed the effects of mechanical unloading on human neonatal cardiovascular progenitor cell (CPC) developmental properties and signaling...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311024/-stem-cells-searching-predisposition-to-cardiac-commitment-by-surface-markers-expression
#7
Luis A Lara-Martínez, Ingrid Gutiérrez-Villegas, Victor M Arenas-Luna, Salomón Hernández-Gutierrez
It is well-known that cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, and represent an important economic burden to health systems. In an attempt to solve this problem, stem cell therapy has emerged as a therapeutic option. Within the last 20 years, a great variety of stem cells have been used in different myocardial infarction models. Up until now, the use of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has seemed to be the best option, but the inaccessibility and scarcity of these cells make their use unreliable...
January 5, 2018: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304136/effect-of-intensive-multifactorial-treatment-on-vascular-progenitor-cells-in-hypertensive-patients
#8
Charbel Maroun-Eid, Adriana Ortega-Hernández, Javier Modrego, María Abad-Cardiel, José Antonio García-Donaire, Leonardo Reinares, Nieves Martell-Claros, Dulcenombre Gómez-Garre
BACKGROUND: Most hypertensive patients, despite a proper control of their cardiovascular risk factors, have cardiovascular complications, evidencing the importance of controlling and/or reversing target-organ damage. In this sense, endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and related cardiovascular outcomes. Since hypertension often clusters with other risk factors such as dyslipemia, diabetes and obesity, in this study we have investigated the effect of intensive multifactorial treatment on circulating vascular progenitor cell levels on high-risk hypertensive patients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298774/kidney-transplantation-in-a-patient-lacking-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-proves-renal-origins-of-urinary-pgi-m-and-tx-m
#9
Jane Mitchell, Rebecca B Knowles, Nicholas S Kirkby, Daniel M Reed, Matthew L Edin, William E White, Melissa V Chan, Hilary Longhurst, Magdi Yaqoob, Ginger L Milne, Darryl C Zeldin, Timothy D Warner
Rationale: The balance between vascular prostacyclin which is anti-thrombotic and platelet thromboxane A2 which is pro-thrombotic is fundamental to cardiovascular health. Prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 are formed following the concerted actions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) and cyclooxygenase. Urinary 2,3-dinor-6-keto PGF1α (PGI-M) and 11-dehydro-TXB2 (TX-M) have been taken as biomarkers of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 formation with the circulation and used to explain cyclooxygenase biology and patient phenotypes, despite concerns that urinary PGI-M and TX-M originate in the kidney...
January 3, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296222/effect-of-cilostazol-on-plasma-levels-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9
#10
I-Chih Chen, Wei-Kung Tseng, Yi-Heng Li, Shih-Ya Tseng, Ping-Yen Liu, Ting-Hsing Chao
The protein complex proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) serves as an important target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and lipid homeostasis. This study investigated the effect of cilostazol on plasma PCSK9 concentrations. We performed a post hoc analysis of two prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trials including 115 patients of whom 61 received cilostazol 200 mg/day and 54 received placebo for 12 weeks. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the associations between several parameters and changes in PCSK9 levels...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288185/cohort-profile-the-emory-cardiovascular-biobank-emcab
#11
Yi-An Ko, Salim Hayek, Pratik Sandesara, Ayman Samman Tahhan, Arshed Quyyumi
PURPOSE: The Emory Cardiovascular Biobank (EmCAB) is an ongoing prospective registry of patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation, which was established to identify novel factors associated with the pathobiological process and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 18 years and older undergoing cardiac catheterisation at three Emory Healthcare sites in Atlanta are asked to participate in this prospective registry. Around 95% agree to participate...
December 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226690/low-levels-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-their-association-with-systemic-inflammation-and-monocyte-activation-in-older-hiv-infected-men
#12
Sophie Seang, Theodoros Kelesidis, Diana Huynh, Sangeun Park, Ardis Moe, Judith Currier, Jordan E Lake
BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) repair damaged vascular endothelium and low circulating EPC levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). CD34+/KDR+ EPCs are commonly reported in literature and CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ EPCs are rare in circulation but highly specific for endothelial lineage. HIV-infected (HIV+) adults have chronic inflammation and increased CVD risk, but the relationship between CVD, vascular inflammation and EPCs in HIV remains unclear. METHODS: In a pilot study, EPCs were measured in 57 HIV+ men (≧50 years old, HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL on ART) by real-time flow cytometry using cellular immaturity (CD34 and/or CD133) and endothelial commitment (KDR) markers...
December 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223822/exposure-to-acrylamide-induces-cardiac-developmental-toxicity-in-zebrafish-during-cardiogenesis
#13
Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Jun Wang, Zhidan Xia, Yu Zhang
Acrylamide (AA), an environmental pollutant, has been linked to neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. AA is widely used to synthesize polymers for industrial applications, is widely found in Western-style carbohydrate-rich foods and cigarette smoke, and can also be detected in human umbilical cord blood and breast milk. This is the first study that demonstrated the cardiac developmental toxicity of AA in zebrafish embryos. Post-fertilization exposure to AA caused a clearly deficient cardiovascular system with a shrunken heart and abortive morphogenesis and function...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192185/association-of-circulating-progenitor-cells-with-angiotensin-ii-in-newly-diagnosed-hypertensive-patients
#14
Maria W Skrzypkowska, Monika E Ryba-Stanisławowska, Bartosz Słomiński, Piotr G Gutknecht, Janusz Siebert, Jolanta M Myśliwska
Populations of CD34- and VEGFR2-expressing cells are responsible for regeneration of damaged endothelium and vascular remodelling. As their quantity and activity changes during cardiovascular diseases, they are potentially useful markers of cardiovascular health. The aim of our study was to investigate changes of various CD34+ and CD34+ VEGFR2+ populations in subjects with newly recognised hypertension and to evaluate whether observed alterations are influenced by clinical parameters and angiotensin II. Circulating CD34+ and CD34+ VEGFR2+ cells were analysed in peripheral blood samples by flow cytometry...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181122/oxidative-stress-and-cellular-response-to-doxorubicin-a-common-factor-in-the-complex-milieu-of-anthracycline-cardiotoxicity
#15
REVIEW
Donato Cappetta, Antonella De Angelis, Luigi Sapio, Lucia Prezioso, Michela Illiano, Federico Quaini, Francesco Rossi, Liberato Berrino, Silvio Naviglio, Konrad Urbanek
The production of reactive species is a core of the redox cycling profile of anthracyclines. However, these molecular characteristics can be viewed as a double-edged sword acting not only on neoplastic cells but also on multiple cellular targets throughout the body. This phenomenon translates into anthracycline cardiotoxicity that is a serious problem in the growing population of paediatric and adult cancer survivors. Therefore, better understanding of cellular processes that operate within but also go beyond cardiomyocytes is a necessary step to develop more effective tools for the prevention and treatment of progressive and often severe cardiomyopathy experienced by otherwise successfully treated oncologic patients...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173898/human-pluripotent-stem-cell-differentiation-into-functional-epicardial-progenitor-cells
#16
Juan Antonio Guadix, Valeria V Orlova, Elisa Giacomelli, Milena Bellin, Marcelo C Ribeiro, Christine L Mummery, José M Pérez-Pomares, Robert Passier
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced) to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (pro)epicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes...
November 17, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167274/distinct-cellular-mechanisms-underlie-smooth-muscle-turnover-in-vascular-development-and-repair
#17
Urmas Roostalu, Bashar Aldeiri, Alessandra Albertini, Neil E Humphreys, Maj Simonsen-Jackson, Jason K Wong, Giulio Cossu
Rationale: Vascular smooth muscle turnover has important implications for blood vessel repair and for the development of cardiovascular diseases, yet lack of specific transgenic animal models has prevented it's in vivo analysis. Objective: To characterize the dynamics and mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle turnover from the earliest stages of embryonic development to arterial repair in the adult. Methods and Results: We show that CD146 is transiently expressed in vascular smooth muscle development. By using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing and in vitro smooth muscle differentiation assay we demonstrate that CD146 regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation...
November 22, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167123/lower-resting-and-exercise-induced-circulating-angiogenic-progenitors-and-angiogenic-t-cells-in-older-men
#18
Mark Daniel Ross, Eva M Malone, Richard Simpson, Islay Cranston, Lesley Ingram, Graham P Wright, George Chambers, Geraint D Florida-James
Ageing is associated with a dysfunctional endothelial phenotype, as well as reduced angiogenic capabilities. Exercise exerts beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, possibly by increasing/maintaining the number and/or function of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) that are known to decline with age. However, the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and age related changes in frequency of CACs, as well as the exercise-induced responsiveness of CACs in older individuals has not yet been determined...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162723/the-transcription-factor-foxc1a-in-zebrafish-directly-regulates-expression-of-nkx2-5-encoding-a-transcriptional-regulator-of-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#19
Yunyun Yue, Mingyang Jiang, Luqingqing He, Zhaojunjie Zhang, Qinxin Zhang, Chun Gu, Meijing Liu, Nan Li, Qingshun Zhao
Cardiogenesis is a tightly controlled biological process required for formation of a functional heart. The transcription factor Foxc1 not only plays a crucial role in outflow tract development in mice, but is also involved in  cardiac structure formation and normal function in human. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Foxc1 controls cardiac development remain poorly understood. Previously, we reported that zebrafish embryos deficient in foxc1a, an ortholog of mammalian Foxc1, display pericardial edemas and die 9-10 days post fertilization...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156787/natural-compound-bavachalcone-promotes-the-differentiation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-neovascularization-through-the-ror%C3%AE-erythropoietin-ampk-axis
#20
Shuang Ling, Rong-Zhen Ni, Yunyun Yuan, Yan-Qi Dang, Qian-Mei Zhou, Shuang Liang, Fujiang Guo, Wei Feng, Yuanyuan Chen, Katsumi Ikeda, Yukio Yamori, Jin-Wen Xu
In cardiovascular diseases, endothelial function is impaired and the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is low. This study investigated whether the natural bioactive component bavachalcone (BavaC) induces the differentiation of EPCs and neovascularization in vivo; the underlying mechanisms were also examined. We observed that the treatment of rat bone marrow-derived cells with a very low dose of BavaC significantly promoted EPC differentiation. In our hindlimb ischemia models, low-dose BavaC administered orally for 14 days stimulated the recovery of ischemic hindlimb blood flow, increased circulating EPCs, and promoted capillary angiogenesis...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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