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Thirdhand smoke

Lok Tung Leung, Sai Yin Ho, Man Ping Wang, Tai Hing Lam
INTRODUCTION: Reports on involuntary tobacco smoke exposure in children have focused mostly on secondhand smoke (SHS) from smoking inside the home. We studied the separate and combined prevalence of SHS exposure from multiple sources and thirdhand smoke (THS) and the associations with respiratory symptoms in Hong Kong adolescents. METHODS: In 2010-11, 61810 Secondary 1 (US Grade 7) to 7 students reported their smoking status, respiratory symptoms and exposure to 4 sources of tobacco smoke in the past 7 days...
November 2, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Miyuki Noguchi, Saya Tanaka, Kaede Watanabe, Akihiro Yamasaki
We examined the correlation between the odor concentration and the chemical composition of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Three types of ETS samples were prepared: secondhand smoke (SHS), thirdhand smoke (THS), and field ETS samples from an outside smoking area. The odor concentrations of the ETS, SHS, and THS samples were determined by the triangle-odor-bag method, and the chemical compositions were determined by proton transfer mass spectrometry. The odor concentration of the SHS samples was three or four orders of magnitude higher than that of the field ETS samples, and three orders of magnitude higher than that of the THS samples...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Denise Conceição Mesquita Dantas, Rafael Linden, Ana Luiza Ziulkoski
The risks associated to tobacco smoking are not ceased with smoke extinction. Many toxic compounds remain in the environment after the cigarette is extinguished and accumulated in the air or on surfaces. However, little is known about the risks of this exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate procedures to collect thirdhand smoke (THS) and prepare the samples to perform three in vitro toxicity tests. Cellulose papers and cotton wipes were used to impregnate with nicotine solution and smoke cigarette in a chamber or in smoker's home...
June 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Vasundhra Bahl, Kimberly Johnson, Rattapol Phandthong, Atena Zahedi, Suzaynn F Schick, Prue Talbot
Thirdhand cigarette smoke (THS) was recently recognized as an environmental health hazard; however, little is known about it effects on cells. Mitochondria are sensitive monitors of cell health and report on environmentally induced stress. We tested the effects of low levels of THS extracted from terry cloth on mitochondrial morphology and function using stem cells with well-defined mitochondria. Concentrations of THS that did not kill cells caused stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion (SIMH), which was characterized by changes in mitochondrial morphology indicative of fusion, increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased ATP levels, increased superoxide production, and increased oxidation of mitochondrial proteins...
September 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Susan D Darlow, Carolyn J Heckman, Teja Munshi, Bradley N Collins
Thirdhand smoke (THS) refers to tobacco smoke contaminants and by-products that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished. The purpose of this study was to assess beliefs and behaviors regarding THS among healthcare professionals, and to examine associations among smoking attitudes/beliefs, provider demographics, and THS beliefs and behaviors. Healthcare professionals (N = 204) at a comprehensive cancer center and affiliated general hospital in a northeastern urban area completed online questionnaires...
May 26, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Bo Xu, Minjian Chen, Mengmeng Yao, Xiaoli Ji, Zhilei Mao, Wei Tang, Shanlei Qiao, Suzaynn F Schick, Jian-Hua Mao, Bo Hang, Yankai Xia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas F Northrup, Peyton Jacob, Neal L Benowitz, Eunha Hoh, Penelope J E Quintana, Melbourne F Hovell, Georg E Matt, Angela L Stotts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Public Health Reports
Neema Adhami, Shelley R Starck, Cristina Flores, Manuela Martins Green
Thirdhand smoke (THS) is the accumulation of secondhand smoke on environmental surfaces. THS is found on the clothing and hair of smokers as well as on surfaces in homes and cars of smokers. Exposure occurs by ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption. Children living in homes of smokers are at highest risk because they crawl on the floor, touch parents' clothing/hair and household objects. Using mice exposed to THS under conditions that mimic exposure of humans, we show that THS increases cellular oxidative stress by increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels while reducing the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) that break down H2O2 into H2O and O2...
2016: PloS One
Vasundhra Bahl, Hyung Jun Shim, Peyton Jacob, Kristen Dias, Suzaynn F Schick, Prue Talbot
We tested the toxicity of thirdhand smoke (THS) using two controlled laboratory exposure scenarios and low levels of THS. One exposure modeled THS in a car parked outdoors, while the second modeled THS in a room without sunlight. The fabrics were exposed to cigarette smoke and then extracted in culture medium. Concentrations of nicotine, nicotine related alkaloids, and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were determined in fresh and aged extracts. The concentration of TSNAs increased with aging in the indoor experiment...
April 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Noelia Ramírez, Laura Vallecillos, Alastair C Lewis, Francesc Borrull, Rosa M Marcé, Jacqueline F Hamilton
Thirdhand tobacco smoke (THS) constitutes a poorly understood pathway of exposure of non-smokers, especially toddlers, to tobacco-related carcinogens. However, to date most of the carcinogens present in tobacco smoke have not been detected in THS and, therefore, the significance of THS health risk is still unknown. In this study, we have compared the performance of two analytical methods - one based on gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry detection (GC-IT-MS) and the other on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (GC×GC-NCD) - for simultaneously determining, in settled house dust, the presence of 16 organic nitrogen carcinogens already detected in tobacco smoke...
December 24, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
Thomas F Northrup, Amir M Khan, Peyton Jacob, Neal L Benowitz, Eunha Hoh, Melbourne F Hovell, Georg E Matt, Angela L Stotts
BACKGROUND: Tobacco has regained the status of the world's number two killer behind heart/vascular disease. Thirdhand smoke (THS) residue and particles from secondhand smoke (SHS) are suspected health hazards (eg, DNA damage) that are likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality, especially in vulnerable children. THS is easily transported and deposited indoors, where it persists and exposes individuals for months, creating potential health consequences in seemingly nicotine-free environments, particularly for vulnerable patients...
December 3, 2015: Tobacco Control
Angélica Delgado Rendón, Jennifer B Unger, Tess Cruz, Daniel W Soto, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
Despite the progressive adoption of smoking bans in public spaces, children living in multi-unit housing remain at risk of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and thirdhand smoke (THS). Hispanic populations in California are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of SHS and THS because a large proportion of Hispanics live in multi-unit housing. Three focus groups were conducted in the fall of 2012 (in Spanish and English, N = 24) to understand Hispanics' knowledge of and experiences with SHS and THS, including barriers to avoiding smoke exposure and strategies for protecting their homes from smoke...
November 6, 2015: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Jian Jiu Chen, Sai Yin Ho, Man Ping Wang, Tai Hing Lam
To investigate the associations between reactions to thirdhand smoke (THS) and openness to smoking in young children. In a school-based survey in Hong Kong, 4762 Chinese primary school students reported their reactions to THS (one or more of 'pleasant/happy', 'nausea', 'excited', 'heart beat faster', 'relaxed', 'dislike the smell', 'like the smell', 'dizzy', 'coughing/choking', 'eye uncomfortable' and 'none of the above'), smoking status and openness to smoking (lack of a firm intention not to smoke). Factor structure of reactions to THS was investigated with factor scores calculated and categorised...
June 2016: Journal of Community Health
Bo Xu, Minjian Chen, Mengmeng Yao, Xiaoli Ji, Zhilei Mao, Wei Tang, Shanlei Qiao, Suzaynn F Schick, Jian-Hua Mao, Bo Hang, Yankai Xia
Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a new term for the toxins in cigarette smoke that linger in the environment long after the cigarettes are extinguished. The effects of THS exposure on male reproduction have not yet been studied. In this study, metabolic changes in male germ cell lines (GC-2 and TM-4) were analyzed after THS treatment for 24 h. THS-loaded chromatography paper samples were generated in a laboratory chamber system and extracted in DMEM. At a paper: DMEM ratio of 50 μg/ml, cell viability in both cell lines was normal, as measured by the MTT assay and markers of cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis and ROS production were normal as measured by quantitative immunofluorescence...
2015: Scientific Reports
Thomas F Northrup, Georg E Matt, Melbourne F Hovell, Amir M Khan, Angela L Stotts
INTRODUCTION: Thirdhand smoke (THS) residue results from secondhand smoke, and is emerging as a distinct public health hazard, particularly for medically fragile pediatric patients living with smokers. THS is difficult to remove and readily reacts with other pollutants to form carcinogens and ultrafine particles. This study investigated THS found in homes of high-risk infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit and their association with characteristics (eg, number of household smokers) hypothesized to influence THS...
May 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Jonathan M Samet, Dayana Chanson, Heather Wipfli
Research on active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure has led to policy changes to protect individuals from the adverse health impacts of tobacco smoke. Despite the extensive literature on tobacco, only recently has there been recognition that long-lived tobacco smoke components (known as "thirdhand smoke" or THS) in indoor environments where smoking has taken place may have adverse health consequences. This paper describes THS and addresses the challenges of limiting exposure to THS in vulnerable populations (e...
September 2015: Current Environmental Health Reports
Rachel E Wilbur, Anna H Stein, Elena M Pinzon, Osub S Ahmed, Obie S McNair, Kurt M Ribisl
OBJECTIVE: Multiunit housing (MUH) operators may be motivated to adopt smoke-free policies to achieve cost savings. MUH caretakers provide a unique perspective for understanding the implications of smoke-free policies because of their role in property maintenance. We examine MUH caretakers' perceptions regarding the economic and personal impact of smoke-free policies at their properties. METHODS: We conducted and analyzed qualitative interviews with 20 multiunit housing caretakers from two large property management companies in the southeastern United States that had implemented smoke-free policies...
July 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Bo Hang, Senping Cheng, Yankai Xia, Jianhua Mao
Thirdhand smoke (THS) is defined as residual tobacco components that remain on indoor surfaces after tobacco has been smoked, such as walls furniture, and dust particles, which are re-emitted into the air. THS also includes secondary pollutants generated from the reaction of surface residual smoke compounds with reactive indoor air pollutants. THS is a new hidden health hazard, with infants and children being most at risk of higher exposure. This article summarized the aging process of secondhand smoke and the mechanism of generation of THS; reviewed the current status of research on THS regarding its chemical constituents, physical and chemical properties, biological toxicity, as well as degree of pollution in China and other countries; and finally provided the perspectives on the future study of THS...
April 2015: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Elizabeth A Smith, Rachel Rojo, Ruth E Malone
Secondhand smoke and thirdhand smoke (e.g., smoke residues found on walls and floors) are known to pose health hazards. Some landlords and cities have therefore established smoke-free policies for multiunit housing. The military is in effect the largest landlord in the United States, with approximately 630,000 units of housing. We reviewed the service-level tobacco control policies of the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy and Marine Corps (which share a policy) for references to housing, to see if personnel are adequately protected from secondhand and thirdhand smoke...
June 2015: Military Medicine
Terri Lewinson, Lawrence Oliver Bryant
Hotel environments have been identified as places where hospitality workers and patrons are at an increased risk for smoke exposure and associated health hazards. However, little research has been conducted to understand experiences of long-term hotel residents. This article presents narrative accounts of tobacco smoke exposure from 37 residents at extended-stay hotels in a large metropolitan Atlanta county. Residents' narratives included an awareness of smoking as an unhealthy habit but a shared activity that facilitates social engagement at the hotel...
May 2015: Health & Social Work
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