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Secondhand smoke

Tariq A Bhat, Suresh Gopi Kalathil, Paul N Bogner, Austin Miller, Paul V Lehmann, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime, Yasmin Thanavala
Despite advocacy to reduce smoking-related diseases, >1 billion people worldwide continue to smoke. Smoking is immunosuppressive and an important etiological factor in the development of several human disorders including respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, there is a critical gap in the knowledge of the role of secondhand smoke (SHS) in inflammation and immunity. We therefore studied the influence of SHS on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses to respiratory infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) recurrently found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Liya Lu, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell
BACKGROUND: Active smoking is an important risk factor for all-cause mortality and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In contrast, published studies on the associations with secondhand smoke (SHS) are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between SHS exposure and incident PAD, as well as mortality, among middle-aged non-smokers. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective, cohort study using record linkage of the Scottish Health Surveys between 1998 and 2010 to hospital admissions and death certificates...
March 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ji Hyun Moon, Mi Hee Kong, Hyeon Ju Kim
Background: We evaluated the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) inhalation, as verified by urinary cotinine levels, and bone health. Methods: We analyzed the nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional health survey. We included 1936 men aged 50 years or older who checked bone mineral density (BMD) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010). Current smokers assessed by urinary cotinine levels higher than 500 ng/mL were excluded ( n = 616)...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Isatou K Jallow, John Britton, Tessa Langley
BACKGROUND: Annually, 600 000 deaths are attributed to exposure of non-smokers to secondhand smoke (SHS). These include 165 000 among children, about 60% of which occur in Africa and Southeast Asia. As of 2017, only seven countries in the African region had comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all public places. Given the increasing prevalence of smoking in many low-income countries, preventing exposure to SHS is an urgent public health priority, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Kristina M Jordahl, Timothy W Randolph, Xiaoling Song, Cassandra L Sather, Lesley F Tinker, Amanda I Phipps, Karl T Kelsey, Emily White, Parveen Bhatti
BACKGROUND: Differential DNA methylation as measured in blood is a promising marker of bladder cancer susceptibility. However, previous studies have exclusively used post-diagnostic blood samples, meaning that observed associations may be markers of disease rather than susceptibility. METHODS: Genome-wide methylation was measured in pre-diagnostic blood samples, using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Array, among 440 bladder cancer cases with the transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) subtype and 440 matched cancer-free controls from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohort...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Romano Endrighi, Elizabeth L McQuaid, Yvonne Kiera Bartlett, Ashley H Clawson, Belinda Borrelli
Background: Depressive symptoms are elevated in parents of asthmatic children compared with parents of healthy children. The role of depression in smoking cessation and pediatric asthma outcomes in this population is unclear. Purpose: To prospectively examine the effect of parent depression on smoking cessation and child asthma outcomes. Methods: Secondary analysis from a cessation induction trial involving Motivational Interviewing (MI) and biomarker feedback on secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe)...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Phuong Nguyen-Hoang, Ryan Yeung
This is the first study in the United States to examine the effect of prenatal maternal passive smoking on student learning outcomes. We use a national sample of children in combination with ordinary least squares regression and matching methods to examine this effect. We find evidence that prenatal maternal exposure to secondhand smoke leads to lower academic performance in language/literacy and mathematics in the later years of elementary school, particularly for mothers who did not actively smoke while pregnant...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Jeonghoon Kim, Eunsun Lee, Kiyoung Lee, KyooSang Kim
Introduction: Secondhand smoke (SHS) incursion can occur in units of multi-unit housing (MUH). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between SHS incursion and allergic symptoms in children living in MUH without smokers. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from May to September 2015 in Seoul, Korea. Children were recruited from elementary schools, kindergartens, and daycare centers. In total, 16676 children between 1 and 13 years of age living in MUH without smokers were included in the analysis...
March 6, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Gagandeep Kaur, Prathyusha Bagam, Rakeysha Pinkston, Dhirendra P Singh, Sanjay Batra
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, life-threatening disease that causes irreversible lung damage. Cigarette smoking is the chief etiologic factor for the commencement of this condition. Despite constant efforts to develop therapeutic interventions and to ascertain the molecular mechanism leading to the pathophysiology of this disease, much remains unknown. However, pattern recognition receptor (PRRs), i.e., Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are believed to play important roles in this disease and could serve as effective therapeutic targets...
February 28, 2018: Toxicology
Elizabeth Kwon, Dong-Chul Seo, Hsien-Chang Lin, Zhongxue Chen
OBJECTIVES: Given that nicotine is one of the most addictive substances and that adolescents who are exposed to nicotine via e-cigarettes can progress to conventional cigarette smoking, there is a need to identify youth who are susceptible to e-cigarette use and prevent them from initiating e-cigarette use. Susceptibility to e-cigarette use, defined as the absence of a firm decision not to use e-cigarettes, is a useful concept that can be used to predict e-cigarette initiation and identify youth who have high risk of initiating e-cigarettes...
February 22, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Alan R Clough, Kristy Grant, Jan Robertson, Matthew Wrigley, Nina Nichols, Tracey Fitzgibbon
INTRODUCTION: Rates of secondhand smoke exposure are currently significantly higher among remote indigenous communities in the top end of Australia. By implementing a 'smoke-free home' rule, secondhand smoke exposure can be reduced. Smoke-free homes encourage quit attempts and improve the health of children. The prevalence of indigenous smoking rates in remote, discrete communities in Australia is elevated compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. The primary aim of this project is to examine the feasibility of conducting a health-driven intervention to encourage community members to make their homes a smoke-free zone...
March 2, 2018: BMJ Open
Neal L Benowitz, Natalie Nardone, Shonul Jain, Delia A Dempsey, Newton Addo, Gideon St Helen, Peyton Jacob
Background: Many adolescents are exposed to tobacco smoke, from either active smoking (CS) or secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Tobacco-specific biomarkers of exposure include cotinine (detects use in past 2-4 days) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL; detects use for a month or longer). NNAL is expected to detect more intermittent tobacco exposure. We compared NNAL and cotinine as biomarkers of exposure to tobacco in urban adolescents and determined the optimal NNAL cutoff point to distinguish CS from SHS exposure...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Dallin N Christensen, Zechariah G Franks, Hilary C McCrary, Ahlam A Saleh, And Eugene H Chang
Objectives Cigarette smoking and passive smoke exposure have been associated with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Our goal in this systematic review was to (1) determine if there was a strong correlative effect in large population studies between cigarette smoke exposure and the prevalence of CRS, (2) investigate pathogenic mechanisms of cigarette smoke in the upper airway, and (3) determine if a history of cigarette smoking affects the medical and surgical outcomes of CRS. Data Sources MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science SCI and CPCI-S, and websites...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Amy Robinson, Helen Sweeting, Kate Hunt
BACKGROUND: Prisoner smoking rates remain high, resulting in secondhand smoke exposures for prison staff and non-smoker prisoners. Several jurisdictions have introduced prison smoking bans with little evidence of resulting disorder. Successful implementation of such bans requires staff support. As news media representations of health and other issues shape public views and as prison smoking bans are being introduced in the UK, we conducted content analysis of UK news media to explore representations of smoking in prisons and smoke-free prisons...
February 19, 2018: Tobacco Control
Georg E Matt, Penelope J E Quintana, Eunha Hoh, Joy M Zakarian, Zohir Chowdhury, Melbourne F Hovell, Peyton Jacob, Kayo Watanabe, Teaba S Theweny, Victoria Flores, Anh Nguyen, Narinder Dhaliwal, Gary Hayward
BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) in US casinos is common, but little is known about the residue of tobacco smoke pollutants left behind in dust and on surfaces, commonly referred to as thirdhand smoke (THS). We examined SHS and THS pollution and exposure before and during a casino smoking ban and after smoking resumed. METHODS: A casino was visited nine times over a 15-month period to collect dust, surface and air samples in eight locations. Finger wipe and urine samples were collected from non-smoking confederates before and after a 4-hour casino visit...
February 8, 2018: Tobacco Control
Ashley Comiford, Eva Garroutte, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Sixia Chen, Michael McDonell
More than 58 million nonsmokers in the U.S. encounter secondhand smoke that leads to tobacco-related diseases and deaths every year, making voluntary household smoking bans an important public health goal. American Indians/Alaska Natives are rarely included in research related to household smoking bans. Further, most studies dichotomize household smoking bans into complete bans versus partial/no bans, rendering it impossible to determine if partial and no bans are associated with different or similar risk factors...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Amy M Lavery, Bradley N Collins, Amy T Waldman, Chantelle N Hart, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Ann Marrie, Douglas Arnold, Julia O'Mahony, Brenda Banwell
BACKGROUND: Pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADSs) are monophasic (mono-ADS) in 70% of cases and represent the first attack of multiple sclerosis (MS) in 30%. Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for adult-onset MS. Little is known about whether SHS presents an additive risk beyond genetic factors and other environmental exposures associated with pediatric MS. METHODS: This study examined SHS exposure in 216 children with mono-ADS and 81 children with MS...
January 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Min-Li Chen, Li-Na Chou, Ya-Cheng Zheng
Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke are major environmental risk factors that negatively influence health. It is recommended that tobacco product manufacturers and retailers receive empowerment counseling programs to achieve adolescent health targets. The present study conducted an empowerment counseling session to counsel tobacco product retailers in refusing to sell tobacco products to minors. The three stages of this study were conducted from March 2015 to February 2017. The results revealed that 74% of retailers were selling tobacco products to minors at baseline, 40% at stage two and 15% at stage three...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sarah D Kowitt, Amira Osman, Leah M Ranney, Courtney Heck, Adam O Goldstein
INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that adolescents who use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), including adolescents not susceptible to smoking cigarettes (ie, those who have never smoked cigarettes and are not attitudinally susceptible to using cigarettes), are more likely to initiate using cigarettes or other combustible tobacco products than adolescents who do not use e-cigarettes. In this study, we examined correlates of e-cigarette use and susceptibility among adolescents not susceptible to future cigarette smoking...
February 1, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Xi Pan, Ye Luo, Amy Restorick Roberts
Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is known to be harmful to health. However, the association between household SHS and cognitive function among middle-aged and older women in China is understudied. Lagged dependent variable regression is used to examine the association between household SHS exposure and the cognitive function of married women who have been exposed to SHS from two waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011-2013). Controlling for age, educational attainment, geographic residence, household expenditures, and chronic conditions (i...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
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