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Secondhand smoke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351929/prevalence-of-invehicle-smoking-and-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-uruguay
#1
Laura Llambi, Mary Barros, Carolina Parodi, Antonella Pippo, Virginia Nunez, Mercedes Colomar, Alvaro Ciganda, Fiorella Cavalleri, Juan J Goyeneche, Alicia Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Protection from secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of the fundamental principles of the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. Objective data on SHS exposure in vehicles in South America is scarce. This study aimed to estimate prevalence of smoking inside vehicles. METHODS: The point prevalence of smoking in vehicles was observed, and a method for estimating smoking prevalence was piloted. RESULTS: We observed 10 011 vehicles...
January 19, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-anti-viral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#2
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection we used an air-liquid interface culture system, and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351435/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-on-pulmonary-endothelial-cells
#3
Qing Lu, Eric Gottlieb, Sharon Rounds
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the US. Cardiovascular co-morbidities associated with both active and secondhand cigarette smoking indicate the vascular toxicity of smoke exposure. Growing evidence supports the injurious effect of cigarette smoke on pulmonary endothelial cells and the roles of endothelial cell injury in development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes results from studies of humans, preclinical animal models, and cultured endothelial cells that document toxicities of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary endothelial cell functions, including barrier dysfunction, endothelial activation and inflammation, apoptosis, and vasoactive mediator production...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346338/current-cigarette-smoking-among-adults-united-states-2016
#4
Ahmed Jamal, Elyse Phillips, Andrea S Gentzke, David M Homa, Stephen D Babb, Brian A King, Linda J Neff
The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that the burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products (1). Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults, and about 480,000 U.S. deaths per year are caused by cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (1). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years who smoke cigarettes to ≤12...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345998/key-factors-inhibiting-legislative-progress-toward-smoke-free-coverage-in-appalachia
#5
J Travis Donahoe, Andrea R Titus, Nancy L Fleischer
The Appalachian Region has among the highest rates of smoking and smoking-related illness in the United States. Strong smoke-free legislation could help protect nonsmoking residents from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. However, there is a dearth of state, county, city, and subcounty smoke-free law coverage throughout Appalachia. As of July 2016, only 21% of Appalachian residents were covered by comprehensive smoke-free laws (i.e., 100% coverage for workplaces, restaurants, and bars). Only 46% of Appalachians lived in places with 100% smoke-free workplace laws, only 30% lived in places with 100% smoke-free restaurant laws, and only 29% lived in places with 100% smoke-free bar laws...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330242/patient-perspectives-on-discussions-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-primary-care
#6
Mark P Doescher, Ming Wu, Elizabeth Rainwater, Ali S Khan, Dorothy A Rhoades
PURPOSE: Patient preferences regarding the role of the primary care provider (PCP) in discussing electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use are unknown. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional survey to 568 adult patients in a family medicine clinic to explore e-cigarette use, sources of information on e-cigarettes, perceived knowledge about e-cigarette health effects, views regarding PCP knowledge of e-cigarettes, interest in discussing e-cigarettes with PCPs and preferred format for e-cigarette information...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327094/association-between-secondhand-smoke-exposure-and-quality-of-life-in-pregnant-women-and-postpartum-women-and-the-consequences-on-the-newborns
#7
Rasmon Kalayasiri, Waranya Supcharoen, Pichanan Ouiyanukoon
PURPOSE: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is prevalent and could damage the health of non-smokers, especially that of pregnant women (PW) and postpartum women (PPW). Nevertheless, there is no study on the impact of SHS during pregnancy on the quality of life (QOL) of PW and PPW. The study's purpose is to study the effects of exposure to SHS on the QOL of pregnant and postpartum women and health of the newborns. METHODS: Self-reports and urine tests for cotinine were used to obtain data on SSH exposure in 296 women in the second trimester of pregnancy and 106 women in the postpartum period at the Obstetrics & Gynecology Clinic located in a university hospital...
January 11, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324662/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-antagonists-mitigate-the-effects-of-dioxin-on-critical-cellular-functions-in-differentiating-human-osteoblast-like-cells
#8
Chawon Yun, Karina M Katchko, Michael S Schallmo, Soyeon Jeong, Jonghwa Yun, Charlotte H Chen, Joseph A Weiner, Christian Park, Andrew George, Samuel I Stupp, Wellington K Hsu, Erin L Hsu
The inhibition of bone healing in humans is a well-established effect associated with cigarette smoking, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent work using animal cell lines have implicated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as a mediator of the anti-osteogenic effects of cigarette smoke, but the complexity of cigarette smoke mixtures makes understanding the mechanisms of action a major challenge. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) is a high-affinity AhR ligand that is frequently used to investigate biological processes impacted by AhR activation...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324052/the-expression-profile-of-claudin-family-members-in-the-developing-mouse-lung-and-expression-alterations-resulting-from-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-shs
#9
Joshua B Lewis, Felix R Jimenez, Brigham J Merrell, Brent Kimbler, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
Claudins are tight junctional proteins implicated in cell polarity and epithelial barrier maintenance. Claudin misregulation adversely impacts developmental aspects of cell differentiation and proliferation. The current research evaluated transcriptional expression for Claudins 1-11 and 18 in the developing murine lung at embryonic days (E) 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5 and at post-natal day (PN) 3 and PN15. Mouse lungs were also assessed by immunohistochemical analysis to qualitatively evaluate Claudin protein expression...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319726/second-hand-tobacco-smoke-adversely-affects-the-bone-of-immature-rats
#10
Rodrigo César Rosa, Sângela Cunha Pereira, Fabrizio Antônio Gomide Cardoso, Abadio Gonçalves Caetano, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha de Santiago, José Batista Volpon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase...
December 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317411/exposure-to-tobacco-secondhand-smoke-and-its-associated-factors-among-non-smoking-adults-in-smoking-restricted-and-non-restricted-areas-findings-from-a-nationwide-study-in-malaysia
#11
Kuang Hock Lim, Chien Huey Teh, Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamed, Sayan Pan, Miaw Yn Ling, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Noraryana Hassan, Nizam Baharom, Netty Darwina Dawam, Norliana Ismail, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Kee Chee Cheong, Kar Hon Chong, Hui Li Lim
OBJECTIVES: Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aims of the paper are to assess SHS exposure among non-smoking adults in Malaysia attending various smoking-restricted and non-restricted public areas according to the Control of Tobacco Product Regulations (CTPR) as well as its relationship with various sociodemographic variables. DESIGN: Data were extracted from a cross-sectional study, the Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2011 which involved 3269 non-smokers in Malaysia...
January 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301029/primary-care-healthcare-professionals-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-towards-promoting-the-reduction-of-children-s-secondhand-smoke-exposure-a-mixed-methods-review-and-synthesis
#12
Jaidev Kaur, Amanda Farley, Kate Jolly, Laura L Jones
Introduction: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) leads to increased mortality and morbidity. Primary care healthcare professionals (HCPs) are well-placed to support patients to reduce SHSe. This paper explores HCPs': (i) knowledge around SHSe; (ii) current practices to promote SHSe reduction; (iii) beliefs and experiences regarding delivering interventions to reduce SHSe; and (iv) identified factors that influence the delivery of SHSe-related interventions. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for relevant literature published January 1980 - February 2016...
December 28, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296002/exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-and-validation-of-smoking-status-during-pregnancy-in-the-mirec-study
#13
Tye E Arbuckle, Chun Lei Liang, Mandy Fisher, Nicolas J Caron, William D Fraser
Given that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke can lead to increased risks of adverse health effects, having valid measures of exposure is important. In a Canadian cohort (n = 2000), maternal and infant biospecimens were analysed for cotinine. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported active smoking status were estimated. Regression modelling was used to identify potential predictors of maternal and infant plasma cotinine in non-smoking women. During the first trimester, 60.6% of the women reported never smoking, 27...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288781/healthcare-costs-attributable-to-secondhand-smoke-exposure-at-home-for-u-s-adults
#14
Tingting Yao, Hai-Yen Sung, Yingning Wang, James Lightwood, Wendy Max
OBJECTIVE: To estimate healthcare costs attributable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home among nonsmoking adults (18+) in the U.S. METHODS: We analyzed data on nonsmoking adults (N=67,735) from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 (the latest available data on SHS exposure at home) U.S. National Health Interview Surveys. This study was conducted from 2015 to 2017. We examined hospital nights, home care visits, doctor visits, and emergency room (ER) visits. For each, we analyzed the association of SHS exposure at home with healthcare utilization with a Zero-Inflated Poisson regression model controlling for socio-demographic and other risk characteristics...
December 27, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283610/adverse-childhood-experiences-screening-and-health-in-children-from-birth-to-age-5
#15
Lorraine M McKelvey, Nicola A Conners Edge, Shalese Fitzgerald, Shashank Kraleti, Leanne Whiteside-Mansell
INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have lifetime consequences for health and development. This study examined whether there is evidence to support a screening approach that assesses children's current exposures to risks that act as proxies for ACEs, measured in a way that falls below a threshold of explicit abuse, neglect, or illegal behavior. METHOD: We used data collected during routine home visitations of at-risk children aged 0-5. Home visitors used the Family Map Inventories (FMI; Whiteside-Mansell et al...
December 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228385/secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-primary-school-children-a-survey-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#16
Sarwat Shah, Mona Kanaan, Rumana Huque, Aziz Sheikh, Omara Dogar, Heather Thomson, Steve Parrott, Kamran Siddiqi
Introduction: We report on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure based on saliva cotinine levels among children in Bangladesh-a country with laws against smoking in public places. Methods: A survey of primary school children from two areas of the Dhaka district was conducted in 2015. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided saliva samples for cotinine measurement to assess SHS exposure with a cut-off range of ≥0.1ng/mL. Results: Four hundred and eighty-one children studying in year-5 were recruited from 12 primary schools...
December 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224186/secondhand-smoke-is-associated-with-heavy-metal-concentrations-in-children
#17
Li Li, Li Guo, Xingjie Chen, Mingli Xiang, Fang Yang, Jing-Chao Ren, Guang-Hui Zhang
Secondhand smoke (SHS) has adverse effects on health, particularly for children. Our purpose was to analyze the correlation between SHS exposure and heavy metal concentrations in children. The investigation was conducted in Xinxiang County, Henan Province, China, from August 2015 to December 2015. In total, 821 students (433 boys and 388 girls) were recruited, and the contents of heavy metals in their hair-including chromium, manganese, nickel, arsenic, lead, and cadmium-were detected by ICP-MS. The children's parents were informed, and a questionnaire was conducted, which included questions about smoking habits and demographic characteristics...
December 9, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205330/secondhand-smoke-exposure-declines-among-nonsmoking-cancer-survivors
#18
Carrie Printz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202249/smoke-free-home-and-vehicle-policies-among-community-college-smokers
#19
Deborah J Ossip, Tye Johnson, Vanessa Assibey-Mensah, Sijiu Wang, Donald McLaren, Karen Calabro, Alexander V Prokhorov, Scott McIntosh
BACKGROUND: Personal smoke-free policies (home and vehicle) reduce secondhand smoke exposure, improve health, and increase quitting among smokers. Overall, 83.0% and 78.1% of Americans report smoke-free homes and vehicles, respectively. However, little is known about such policies among 2-year community college (CC) students, who represent a large, diverse population with higher smoking rates and less negative attitudes toward smoking than 4-year college students. METHODS: Prevalence of, and factors associated with, personal smoke-free policies were examined for 2,475 CC smokers enrolled in a national trial of web-assisted tobacco intervention...
December 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199684/the-increasing-challenge-of-never-smokers-with-adenocarcinoma-lung-need-to-look-beyond-tobacco-exposure
#20
A Das, A Krishnamurthy, V Ramshankar, T G Sagar, R Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer continues to remain as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the decreasing trends in smoking prevalence worldwide. An earlier study from the authors' institute reported the increasing trends of "Nonsmoking associated lung cancers." MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive histologically confirmed patients with lung cancer who presented to the outpatient department over a year (November 2014-October 2015) were included in this current prospective study...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
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