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Electronic nicotine delivery devices

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778773/effects-of-electronic-cigarette-liquid-solvents-propylene-glycol-and-vegetable-glycerin-on-user-nicotine-delivery-heart-rate-subjective-effects-and-puff-topography
#1
Tory R Spindle, Soha Talih, Marzena M Hiler, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Matthew S Halquist, Alison B Breland, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a class of tobacco products that produce different effects (e.g., nicotine delivery), depending on the device, liquid, and behavioral factors. However, the influence of the two primary ECIG liquid solvents, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG), on ECIG acute effects is unknown. METHODS: Thirty ECIG-experienced, ≥12-h nicotine- abstinent participants completed four conditions consisting of two ECIG-use bouts (10 puffs, 30 s interpuff-interval) differing only by liquid PG:VG ratio (2PG:98VG, 20PG:80VG, 55PG:45VG, 100PG)...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747109/characterization-of-airborne-particles-emitted-by-an-electrically-heated-tobacco-smoking-system
#2
A Pacitto, L Stabile, M Scungio, V Rizza, G Buonanno
Smoking activities were recognized as a main risk factor for population. Indeed, mainstream smoke aerosol is directly inhaled by smokers then delivering harmful compounds in the deepest regions of the lung. In order to reduce the potential risk of smoking, different nicotine delivery products have been recently developed. The latest device released is an electrically heated tobacco system (iQOS® , Philip Morris) which is able to warm the tobacco with no combustion. In the present paper a dimensional and volatility characterization of iQOS-generated particles was performed through particle number concentration and distribution measurements in the mainstream aerosol...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746421/reducing-the-health-risks-derived-from-exposure-to-addictive-substances
#3
Peter Anderson, Antoni Gual, Jürgen Rehm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the health risks due to exposure to alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine and how these risks might be reduced. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, worldwide, alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine were responsible for some 10 million deaths. There is evolutionary and biological evidence that humans are predisposed to consuming alcohol, illegal drugs and nicotine - present-day problems are caused by high levels of potency, exposure and drug delivery systems...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588352/patterns-perception-and-behavior-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-use-and-multiple-product-use-among-young-adults
#4
Mary P Martinasek, Amy Bowersock, Christopher W Wheldon
BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are battery-operated devices used to inhale vaporized or aerosolized nicotine. There is increasing research uncovering negative health effects of these devices. Less is known about the social and behavioral aspects among college students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a mid-sized private university in Florida. The survey was sent via e-mail to the student body of undergraduates. A final sample size of 989 students was analyzed to understand demographic differences between users and nonusers, initiation factors, and influencers, as well as multiple product behaviors...
March 27, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485005/vaping-versus-smoking-a-quest-for-efficacy-and-safety-of-e-cigarette
#5
Harmeet Singh Rehan, Jahnavi Maini, A Ps Hungin
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are devices with a heating element which produces aerosol for inhalation. They have been propagated as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking and a potential device for smoking cessation, despite non-documentation of their long-term adverse health effects. OBJECTIVES: With the glorification of ECIG, its use has increased even among non-tobacco users. This makes it critical to understand and discuss a true picture about safety and utility of ECIGs by reviewing the literature...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481849/mechanisms-of-toxicity-and-biomarkers-of-flavoring-and-flavor-enhancing-chemicals-in-emerging-tobacco-and-non-tobacco-products
#6
REVIEW
Gurjot Kaur, Thivanka Muthumalage, Irfan Rahman
Tobacco products containing flavorings, such as electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) or e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, waterpipes, and heat-not-burn devices (iQOS) are continuously evolving. In addition to increasing the exposure of teenagers and adults to nicotine containing flavoring products and flavoring enhancers, chances of nicotine addiction through chronic use and abuse also increase. These flavorings are believed to be safe for ingestion, but little information is available about their effects on the lungs...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438183/adolescent-use-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems
#7
Debra Vincent, Jeanne Potts, Jessica Durbin, Jill M Moore, Susan Eley
Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems is flourishing among adolescents. The long-term effects have not been fully determined; however, literature suggests there is potential for significant harm. Providers must be aware of usage trends, device safety, and product knowledge. Adolescents should be evaluated through routine screening, and cessation counseling should be initiated.
March 12, 2018: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355593/an-approach-to-testing-undiluted-e-cigarette-aerosol-in-vitro-using-3d-reconstituted-human-airway-epithelium
#8
E Bishop, L Haswell, J Adamson, S Costigan, D Thorne, M Gaca
The data presented here show that to provide an estimate of the relative cytotoxicity and therefore potency of e-cigarettes, undiluted aerosol techniques can be used. With the emergence of electronic nicotine delivery systems, fit-for-purpose in vitro screening methods are required. Reconstituted 3D human airway epithelium, was exposed to undiluted aerosols at the air-liquid interface, using a Vitrocell VC 10. TEER, cilia beat frequency and cytotoxic responses were assessed. Using two smoking regimes (ISO and HCI) a 3R4F reference cigarette, produced IC50 s of 5...
January 31, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351185/brief-report-lead-levels-in-selected-electronic-cigarettes-from-canada-and-the-united-states
#9
Zachary R Dunbar, Ananth Das, Richard J O'Connor, Maciej L Goniewicz, Binnian Wei, Mark J Travers
Few published studies have investigated the presence of lead in the e-liquid of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Lead inhalation is associated with increased risk of stroke, heart disease, and other diseases. This study used a novel application of graphite furnace technology to compare the concentration of lead between e-liquids of different packaging and product designs using e-liquids that are or were commercially available in the United States and Canada. Eleven nicotine-free disposable ENDS devices and 12 bottled refill solutions that contained nicotine were purchased from retailers in Canada and the United States between 2015 and 2017...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187865/a-novel-method-of-nicotine-quantification-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-and-aerosols
#10
Mumiye A Ogunwale, Yizheng Chen, Whitney S Theis, Michael H Nantz, Daniel J Conklin, Xiao-An Fu
The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) has emerged as popular electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDs). However, the general safety and validity of e-cigarettes for nicotine delivery efficacy are still not well understood. This study developed a new method for efficient measurement of nicotine levels in both the liquids (e-liquids) used in e-cigarettes and the aerosols generated from the e-cigarettes. Protonation of the pyrrolidine nitrogen of nicotine molecules by addition of excess hydrochloric acid affords an aminium salt that is readily quantified by Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)...
August 7, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173942/establishing-consensus-on-survey-measures-for-electronic-nicotine-and-non-nicotine-delivery-system-use-current-challenges-and-considerations-for-researchers
#11
REVIEW
Scott R Weaver, Hyoshin Kim, Allison M Glasser, Erin L Sutfin, Jessica Barrington-Trimis, Thomas J Payne, Megan Saddleson, Alexandra Loukas
The development and validation of survey measures for electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use has not kept pace with the burgeoning research on them. This, along with the diverse and evolving nature of ENDS, presents several unique measurement challenges and hampers surveillance and tobacco regulatory research efforts. In this commentary, we identify four important areas related to ENDS use (describing ENDS products; defining current use; evaluating frequency and quantity of use; and characterizing devices and e-liquids) and summarize a selective review of the measurement and definitions of these constructs across prominent national tobacco use surveys and 30 projects within the 14 federally-funded Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science...
April 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122804/the-messages-presented-in-online-electronic-cigarette-promotions-and-discussions-a-scoping-review-protocol
#12
Kahlia McCausland, Bruce Maycock, Jonine Jancey
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes have become increasingly popular over the last 10 years. These devices represent a new paradigm for tobacco control offering smokers an opportunity to inhale nicotine without inhaling tobacco smoke. To date there are no definite conclusions regarding the safety and long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes; however, there is evidence that they are being marketed online as a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes. This scoping review aims to identify and describe the breadth of messages (eg, health, smoking-cessation and price related claims) presented in online electronic cigarette promotions and discussions...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097588/the-impact-of-flavour-device-type-and-warning-messages-on-youth-preferences-for-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-evidence-from-an-online-discrete-choice-experiment
#13
Ce Shang, Jidong Huang, Frank J Chaloupka, Sherry L Emery
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of flavour, device type and health warning messages on youth preference for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and to provide evidence and data to inform the Food and Drug Administration's potential regulatory actions on ENDS. DESIGN: An online discrete choice experiment was conducted in September 2015. Each participant was given nine choice sets and asked to choose one out of two alternative ENDS products, with varying characteristics in three attributes (flavour, device type and warning message)...
November 2, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059443/availability-and-placement-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-at-the-point-of-sale
#14
Kimberly G Wagoner, Eunyoung Song, Jessica King, Kathleen L Egan, Beata Debinski, Mark Wolfson, John Spangler, Erin L Sutfin
Introduction: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are widely available and come in a variety of forms, including disposable cigalikes and refillable tank systems. However, little is known about their placement at the point-of-sale. We explored the placement of various ENDS types among tobacco retailers. Methods: Systematic assessments at the point-of-sale were completed by trained data collectors in 90 tobacco retailers, including grocery stores, convenience stores, and pharmacies in North Carolina, U...
September 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048187/electronic-cigarette-user-plasma-nicotine-concentration-puff-topography-heart-rate-and-subjective-effects-influence-of-liquid-nicotine-concentration-and-user-experience
#15
Marzena Hiler, Alison Breland, Tory Spindle, Sarah Maloney, Thokozeni Lipato, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Alan Shihadeh, Alexa Lopez, Carolina Ramôa, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarette (ECIG) nicotine delivery and other effects may depend on liquid nicotine concentration and user experience. This study is the first to systematically examine the influence of ECIG liquid nicotine concentration and user experience on nicotine delivery, heart rate, puff topography, and subjective effects. Thirty-three ECIG-experienced individuals and 31 ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed 4 laboratory conditions consisting of 2, 10-puff bouts (30-sec interpuff interval) with a 3.3-V ECIG battery attached to a 1...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884423/electronic-cigarette-use-in-us-adults-at-risk-for-or-with-copd-analysis-from-two-observational-cohorts
#16
Russell P Bowler, Nadia N Hansel, Sean Jacobson, R Graham Barr, Barry J Make, MeiLan K Han, Wanda K O'Neal, Elizabeth C Oelsner, Richard Casaburi, Igor Barjaktarevic, Chris Cooper, Marilyn Foreman, Robert A Wise, Dawn L DeMeo, Edwin K Silverman, William Bailey, Kathleen F Harrington, Prescott G Woodruff, M Bradley Drummond
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated nicotine-delivery devices used by some smokers as a cessation tool as well as by never smokers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the usage of e-cigarettes in older adults at risk for or with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Prospective cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: COPDGene (N = 3536) and SPIROMICS (N = 1060) subjects who were current or former smokers aged 45-80...
December 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819633/clinical-laboratory-evaluation-of-electronic-cigarettes-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-methodological-challenges
#17
Melissa D Blank, Alison B Breland, Caroline O Cobb, Tory Spindle, Carolina Ramôa, Thomas Eissenberg
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) in the clinical laboratory is critical to understanding their effects. However, laboratory evaluation of ECIGs can be challenging, as they are a novel, varied, and evolving class of products. The objective of this paper is to describe some methodological challenges to the clinical laboratory evaluation of ECIGs. METHODS: The authors gathered information about challenges involved in the laboratory evaluation of ECIGs...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678400/nicotine-vapor-method-to-induce-nicotine-dependence-in-rodents
#18
Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George
Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, induces potentiation of brain stimulation reward, increases locomotor activity, and induces conditioned place preference. Nicotine cessation produces a withdrawal syndrome that can be relieved by nicotine replacement therapy. In the last decade, the market for electronic cigarettes has flourished, especially among adolescents. The nicotine vaporizer or electronic nicotine delivery system is a battery-operated device that allows the user to simulate the experience of tobacco smoking without inhaling smoke...
July 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640563/-smoking-vaping-and-cardiovascular-risk-an-update
#19
Sofia Dalkou, Carole Clair
It is well known that tobacco smoking increases cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity, however, smoking cessation is often neglected compared to other CV risk factors. Behavioral counseling as well as smoking cessation treatments are efficient and do not increase the risk of CV events when used for a defined duration. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) contain potentially cardiotoxic substances but in lower concentrations than in cigarettes. The CV effect of ENDS is to date difficult to assess and depends on the type of device used and its mode of consumption...
June 7, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640562/-vaping-electronic-cigarette-how-to-advise-smokers-in-2017
#20
Isabelle Jacot Sadowski, Jean-Paul Humair, Jacques Cornuz
Questions about electronic cigarettes, also called electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), are very common when advising patients to stop smoking in medical practice. It is widely recognized that the risks of vaping are significantly lower than those of smoking, although there are uncertainties about its long-term health effects. Some studies suggest that vaping helps to stop smoking. Effective smoking cessation medications should be recommended in first line but vaping should not be discouraged when patients choose to use this device, as the main aim is smoking cessation...
June 7, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
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