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Electronic nicotine delivery devices

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852893/philip-morris-research-on-precursors-to-the-modern-e-cigarette-since-1990
#1
Lauren M Dutra, Rachel Grana, Stanton A Glantz
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing rapidly. Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik is frequently cited as inventing the modern e-cigarette in 2003. However, tobacco companies have developed electronic nicotine delivery systems since at least 1963. METHODS: We searched the University of California San Francisco Truth (formerly Legacy) Tobacco Industry Documents beginning with the terms 'electric cigarette' and 'electronic cigarettes', 'e-cigarette', 'smokeless cigarettes', 'nicotine aerosol', 'tobacco aerosol', and 'vaping' and then expanded the search using snowball sampling...
November 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816664/documenting-the-emergence-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-as-a-disruptive-technology-in-nicotine-and-tobacco-science
#2
REVIEW
John B Correa, Idan Ariel, Nicole S Menzie, Thomas H Brandon
BACKGROUND: The emergence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or "e-cigarettes") has resulted in nicotine and tobacco scientists committing increased resources to studying these products. Despite this surge of research on various topics related to e-cigarettes, it is important to characterize the evolving e-cigarette research landscape as a way to identify important future research directions. The purpose of this review was to broadly categorize published scholarly work on e-cigarettes using a structured, multi-level coding scheme...
February 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729564/have-combustible-cigarettes-met-their-match-the-nicotine-delivery-profiles-and-harmful-constituent-exposures-of-second-generation-and-third-generation-electronic-cigarette-users
#3
Theodore L Wagener, Evan L Floyd, Irina Stepanov, Leslie M Driskill, Summer G Frank, Ellen Meier, Eleanor L Leavens, Alayna P Tackett, Neil Molina, Lurdes Queimado
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697895/associations-with-resident-physicians-early-adoption-of-electronic-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation
#4
Eric Egnot, Kim Jordan, John O Elliott
BACKGROUND: Use of the electronic cigarette for nicotine delivery has increased dramatically in recent years. Information continues to emerge on its role as a smoking cessation aid, but little is known about resident physician use of the device in clinical practice. METHODS: In 2015, an electronic survey was administered to resident physicians in one healthcare system in Columbus, Ohio. The survey included questions about personal smoking exposure, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes about electronic cigarettes and early adoption of electronic cigarettes with patients...
October 3, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633767/flavourings-significantly-affect-inhalation-toxicity-of-aerosol-generated-from-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-ends
#5
Noel J Leigh, Ralph I Lawton, Pamela A Hershberger, Maciej L Goniewicz
BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are designed to deliver nicotine-containing aerosol via inhalation. Little is known about the health effects of flavoured ENDS aerosol when inhaled. METHODS: Aerosol from ENDS was generated using a smoking machine. Various types of ENDS devices or a tank system prefilled with liquids of different flavours, nicotine carrier, variable nicotine concentrations and with modified battery output voltage were tested...
September 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613914/the-influence-of-a-mouthpiece-based-topography-measurement-device-on-electronic-cigarette-user-s-plasma-nicotine-concentration-heart-rate-and-subjective-effects-under-directed-and-ad-libitum-use-conditions
#6
Tory R Spindle, Marzena M Hiler, Alison B Breland, Nareg V Karaoghlanian, Alan L Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. METHODS: Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed in 29 experienced e-cigarette users using their preferred e-cigarette battery and liquid (≥12mg/mL nicotine) in two sessions differing only by the presence of a mouthpiece-based device...
July 11, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613899/how-us-smokers-refer-to-e-cigarettes-an-examination-of-user-generated-posts-from-a-web-based-smoking-cessation-intervention-2008-2015
#7
Jennifer L Pearson, Michael S Amato, Xi Wang, Kang Zhao, Sarah Cha, Amy M Cohn, George D Papandonatos, Amanda L Graham
INTRODUCTION: A challenge in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) research is how to refer to these devices in ways that are meaningful to current or potential users. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the frequency of ENDS terms in a web-based smoking cessation intervention; and (2) determine whether terms vary by US geographic region and date. METHODS: Data were drawn from public posts between 2008-2015 on http://BecomeAnEX.org and limited to US users...
August 16, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613896/exposure-to-nicotine-and-selected-toxicants-in-cigarette-smokers-who-switched-to-electronic-cigarettes-a-longitudinal-within-subjects-observational-study
#8
Maciej L Goniewicz, Michal Gawron, Danielle M Smith, Margaret Peng, Peyton Jacob, Neal L Benowitz
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are purported to deliver nicotine aerosol without any toxic combustion products present in tobacco smoke. In this longitudinal within-subjects observational study, we evaluated the effects of e-cigarettes on nicotine delivery and exposure to selected carcinogens and toxicants. METHODS: We measured seven nicotine metabolites and 17 tobacco smoke exposure biomarkers in the urine samples of 20 smokers collected before and after switching to pen-style M201 e-cigarettes for 2 weeks...
August 17, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613880/a-pilot-randomized-crossover-trial-of-electronic-cigarette-sampling-among-smokers
#9
Ellen Meier, Amy E Wahlquist, Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Brett Froeliger, Matthew J Carpenter
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (EC) use is proliferating, but initial uptake patterns and their influence on smoking remains unclear. This study of EC sampling examines naturalistic uptake of ECs, as well as effects on smoking and perceived reward from smoking and vaping. METHODS: Within a double-blind randomized crossover design, smokers (n = 24; 75% male; M age = 48.5 years) smoked as usual for 1 week, followed by two counterbalanced naturalistic (ie, ad libitum use) weeks of either placebo or active first generation ECs...
August 22, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599520/prevalence-of-use-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-ends-to-vape-recreational-drugs-by-club-patrons-in-south-london
#10
Natalie Thurtle, Rachelle Abouchedid, John R H Archer, James Ho, Takahiro Yamamoto, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
INTRODUCTION: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, often called e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that heat nicotine into vapour that is inhaled, a process called 'vaping'. Use eclipsed nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) in 2014 but ENDS role in smoking cessation remains controversial. Safety has not been proven and there have been reports to US poison centres regarding potential ENDS-related nicotine toxicity. A further concern is use of ENDS to vape recreational drugs, but there is limited data to substantiate this...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597300/-efficacy-and-security-of-electronic-cigarette-for-tobacco-harm-reduction-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Paul Vanderkam, Rémy Boussageon, Michel Underner, Nicolas Langbourg, Yann Brabant, Philippe Binder, Bernard Freche, Nematollah Jaafari
CONTEXT: Smoking is the first cause of preventable death in France and in the world. Without help, it was shown that 80 % of smokers who try to quit smoking relapse after one month with a low long-term success rate. Smoking reduction can concern smokers who did not want to quit or failed in their attempt to weaning. The final aim is to increase attractiveness of drug therapies by developing new products, such as electronic cigarettes, that can compete cigarette without reproducing its harmful effects...
September 2, 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562412/what-are-kids-vaping-results-from-a-national-survey-of-us-adolescents
#12
Richard Miech, Megan E Patrick, Patrick M O'Malley, Lloyd D Johnston
OBJECTIVE: To examine what substances US youth vape. METHODS: Data come from Monitoring the Future, an annual, nationally representative survey of USA 12th-grade, 10th-grade and 8th-grade students. Respondents reported what substance they vaped the last time they used a vaporiser such as an e-cigarette. RESULTS: Among students who had ever used a vaporiser, 65-66% last used 'just flavouring' in 12th, in 10th and in 8th grade, more than all other responses combined...
August 25, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559692/monitoring-nicotine-intake-from-e-cigarettes-measurement-of-parent-drug-and-metabolites-in-oral-fluid-and-plasma
#13
Esther Papaseit, Magí Farré, Silvia Graziano, Roberta Pacifici, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Oscar García-Algar, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cig) known as electronic nicotine devices recently gained popularity among smokers. Despite many studies investigating their safety and toxicity, few examined the delivery of e-cig-derived nicotine and its metabolites in alternative biological fluids. METHODS: We performed a randomized, crossover, and controlled clinical trial in nine healthy smokers. Nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HCOT) were measured in plasma and oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after consumption of two consecutive e-cig administrations or two consecutive tobacco cigarettes...
August 25, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421270/new-pharmacological-agents-to-aid-smoking-cessation-and-tobacco-harm-reduction-what-has-been-investigated-and-what-is-in-the-pipeline
#14
REVIEW
Emma Beard, Lion Shahab, Damian M Cummings, Susan Michie, Robert West
A wide range of support is available to help smokers to quit and to aid attempts at harm reduction, including three first-line smoking cessation medications: nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion. Despite the efficacy of these, there is a continual need to diversify the range of medications so that the needs of tobacco users are met. This paper compares the first-line smoking cessation medications with (1) two variants of these existing products: new galenic formulations of varenicline and novel nicotine delivery devices; and (2) 24 alternative products: cytisine (novel outside Central and Eastern Europe), nortriptyline, other tricyclic antidepressants, electronic cigarettes, clonidine (an anxiolytic), other anxiolytics (e...
October 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277119/locomotor-stimulant-and-rewarding-effects-of-inhaling-methamphetamine-mdpv-and-mephedrone-via-electronic-cigarette-type-technology
#15
Jacques D Nguyen, Shawn M Aarde, Maury Cole, Sophia A Vandewater, Yanabel Grant, Michael A Taffe
Although inhaled exposure to drugs is a prevalent route of administration for human substance abusers, preclinical models that incorporate inhaled exposure to psychomotor stimulants are not commonly available. Using a novel method that incorporates electronic cigarette-type technology to facilitate inhalation, male Wistar rats were exposed to vaporized methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) in propylene glycol vehicle using concentrations ranging from 12...
October 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117495/a-framework-for-in-vitro-systems-toxicology-assessment-of-e-liquids
#16
Anita R Iskandar, Ignacio Gonzalez-Suarez, Shoaib Majeed, Diego Marescotti, Alain Sewer, Yang Xiang, Patrice Leroy, Emmanuel Guedj, Carole Mathis, Jean-Pierre Schaller, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Stefan Frentzel, Florian Martin, Nikolai V Ivanov, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Various electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), of which electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are the most recognized prototype, have been quickly gaining ground on conventional cigarettes because they are perceived as less harmful. Research assessing the potential effects of ENDS exposure in humans is currently limited and inconclusive. New products are emerging with numerous variations in designs and performance parameters within and across brands. Acknowledging these challenges, we present here a proposed framework for an in vitro systems toxicology assessment of e-liquids and their aerosols, intended to complement the battery of assays for standard toxicity assessments...
July 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099740/successful-use-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-to-quit-e-cigarettes-lack-of-treatment-protocol-highlights-need-for-guidelines
#17
Barbara Silver, Carol Ripley-Moffitt, Jennifer Greyber, Adam O Goldstein
Although use of electronic nicotine delivery system devices, such as e-cigarettes and vapor pens, is on the rise, no treatment protocols exist to help such users quit. We report the case of a 24-year-old patient in a tobacco treatment program who successfully quit e-cigarette use by using nicotine replacement therapy.
April 2016: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029822/using-cognitive-interviewing-to-better-assess-young-adult-e-cigarette-use
#18
Josephine T Hinds, Alexandra Loukas, Sherman Chow, Keryn E Pasch, Melissa B Harrell, Cheryl L Perry, Cristine Delnevo, Olivia A Wackowski
INTRODUCTION: Characteristics of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) make assessment of their use a challenge for researchers. Cognitive interviews are a way of gaining insight into participants' interpretations of survey questions and the methods they use in answering them, to improve survey tools. METHODS: We used cognitive interviews to modify a young adult survey and improve assessment of quantity and frequency of ENDS use, as well as reasons for initiation and use of ENDS products...
October 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850869/oral-trauma-and-tooth-avulsion-following-explosion-of-e-cigarette
#19
James M Rogér, Maricelle Abayon, Sharon Elad, Antonia Kolokythas
Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes), or personal vaporizers, were introduced in 2003 and have been available in the United States since 2007. In addition to the health and safety concerns of the aerosol delivery of nicotine through E-cigarettes, during the past 8 years, reports of explosions and fires caused by the E-cigarette devices have led the US Fire Administration to evaluate the safety of these devices. These explosions have been observed frequently enough that the US Department of Transportation has recently banned E-cigarette devices in checked baggage aboard airplanes...
June 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26681385/nicotine-and-cotinine-levels-with-electronic-cigarette-a-review
#20
A Marsot, N Simon
BACKGROUND: Since their introduction in 2004, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity worldwide. E-cigarettes are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Commonly reported reasons for use include to quit smoking, to reduce urge to smoke, or the perceived lower risk alternative to smoking. But what are the actual amounts of nicotine delivered? AIM: This review summarizes all the published studies concerning nicotine or cotinine levels following e-cigarette use...
March 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
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