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Gamma interferon

Yang Tan, Xingxin Wu, Jing Sun, Wenjie Guo, Fangyuan Gong, Fenli Shao, Tao Tan, Yi Cao, Bingfeng Zheng, Yanhong Gu, Yang Sun, Qiang Xu
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) signaling in T cells plays an important role in developing T helper 1 (Th1)-mediated inflammation. Selective regulation of IFN-γ signaling is an attractive strategy for treating Th1-mediated immune diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore possible means of targeting IFN-γ signaling by using small molecule compound. A synthetic small molecule FC9 was identified as it selectively inhibited IFN-γ signaling in T cells without suppressing interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling. Furthermore, FC9 inhibited IFN-γ-induced Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) activation via competing with IFN-γ for binding to IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γ R1)...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Laziyan Mahemuti, Qixuan Chen, Melanie C Coughlan, Min Zhang, Maria Florian, Ryan J Mailloux, Xu-Liang Cao, Kylie A Scoggan, William G Willmore, Xiaolei Jin
Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to exert biological effects through estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA may increase the risk of childhood asthma. To investigate the underlying mechanisms in the actions of BPA, human fetal lung fibroblasts (hFLFs) were exposed to varying doses of BPA in culture for 24hr. Effects of BPA on localization and uptake of BPA, cell viability, release of immune and developmental modulators, cellular localization and expression of ERα, ERβ and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30), and effects of ERs antagonists on BPA-induced changes in endothelin-1 (ET-1) release were examined...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Patricia Pereiro, Gabriel Forn-Cuni, Antonio Figueras, Beatriz Novoa
Interferon-gamma has been typically described as a pro-inflammatory cytokine playing an important role in the resolution of both viral and bacterial diseases. Nevertheless, some anti-inflammatory functions are also attributed to this molecule. In this work we have characterized for the first time the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) interferon-gamma gene (ifng) and its expression pattern under basal conditions, after type I IFNs administration, and viral and bacterial infection. The intramuscular injection of an expression plasmid encoding turbot Ifng (pMCV1...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Roi Isaac, Ido Goldstein, Noa Furth, Neta Zilber, Sarina Streim, Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Eytan Elhanany, Varda Rotter, Moshe Oren, Yehiel Zick
Earlier reported small interfering RNA (siRNA) high-throughput screens, identified seven-transmembrane superfamily member 3 (TM7SF3) as a novel inhibitor of pancreatic β-cell death. Here we show that TM7SF3 maintains protein homeostasis and promotes cell survival through attenuation of ER stress. Overexpression of TM7SF3 inhibits caspase 3/7 activation. In contrast, siRNA-mediated silencing of TM7SF3 accelerates ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). This involves inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α activity and increased expression of activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3), ATF4 and C/EBP homologous protein, followed by induction of apoptosis...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
John Fenimore, Howard A Young
Interferon gamma, referred to here as IFN-γ, is a major component in immunological cell signaling and is a critical regulatory protein for overall immune system function. First discovered in 1965 (Wheelock Science 149: (3681)310-311, 1965), IFN-γ is the only Type II interferon identified. Its expression is both positively and negatively controlled by different factors. In this chapter, we will review the transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of IFN-γ expression. In the transcriptional control part, the regular activators and suppressors are summarized, we will also focus on the epigenetic control, such as chromosome access, DNA methylation, and histone acetylation...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
R Krishnan Kutty, William Samuel, Kaifa Boyce, Aswini Cherukuri, Todd Duncan, Cynthia Jaworski, Chandrasekharam N Nagineni, T Michael Redmond
PURPOSE: Proinflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secreted by infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages may play a role in triggering RPE dysfunction associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Binding of these proinflammatory cytokines to their specific receptors residing on the RPE cell surface can activate signaling pathways that, in turn, may dysregulate cellular gene expression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β have an adverse effect on the expression of genes essential for RPE function, employing the RPE cell line ARPE-19 as a model system...
2016: Molecular Vision
Sourabh Sulabh, Bharat Bhushan, Manjit Panigrahi, Ankita Verma, Naseer Ahmad Baba, Pushpendra Kumar
AIM: To study the effect of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall antigens, peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) challenge on immune cells present in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, efforts have been made to investigate the effects of three combinations (10+10, 20+20 and 30+30 μg/ml) of PGN and LTA obtained from S. aureus. These antigens were used to challenge the bovine PBMCs. After 6 h of incubation quantitative, real time-polymerase chain reaction was used to study toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and major cytokine mRNA expression in bovine PBMC challenged with three different antigen blends...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Chung-Jong Kim, Eun Jung Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Ji Hwan Bang, Eu Suk Kim, Sang Won Park, Hong-Bin Kim, Myoung-Don Oh, Nam Joong Kim
BACKGROUND: Differences between the characteristics of culture positive pyogenic spondylitis (CPPS) and tuberculous spondylitis (TS) are well known. However, differences between the characteristics of culture negative pyogenic spondylitis (CNPS) and TS have not been reported; these would be more helpful in clinical practice especially when initial microbiologic examination of blood and/or biopsy tissue did not reveal the causative bacteria in patients with infectious spondylitis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with CNPS and TS...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Li Li, Yan Ma, Shuang Liu, Jin Zhang, Xin-Yan Xu
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific CD8(+) T cells are present in HPV-infected cervical cancer patients and have demonstrated potent antitumor properties. However, these cells cannot control tumor progression in most patients. To investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in suppressing or promoting CD8(+) T cell functions, we focused on interleukin 10 (IL-10), a pleiotropic cytokine with controversial roles in antitumor immunity. We found that compared to healthy controls, circulating CD8(+) T cells in HPV 16-infected cervical cancer patients expressed significantly higher levels of IL-10...
October 11, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Marie Maumus, Gautier Roussignol, Karine Toupet, Geraldine Penarier, Isabelle Bentz, Sandrine Teixeira, Didier Oustric, Mireille Jung, Olivier Lepage, Regis Steinberg, Christian Jorgensen, Danièle Noel
OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adipose tissue (ASC) have been shown to influence the course of osteoarthritis (OA) in different animal models and are promising in veterinary medicine for horses involved in competitive sport. The aim of this study was to characterize equine ASCs (eASCs) and investigate the role of interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-priming on their therapeutic effect in a murine model of OA, which could be relevant to equine OA. METHODS: ASC were isolated from subcutaneous fat...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Larry D Teeter, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Blanca I Restrepo, Eric L Brown, Susan E Dorman, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: The TSPOT.TB (TSPOT) diagnostic test for latent tuberculosis infection is based on a cell-mediated response to the Mycobacteria tuberculosis antigens, ESAT-6 and/or CFP-10, producing an "interferon-gamma footprint". We investigated the within-sample and within-subject variability of positive TSPOT assays due to the individual assay antigens' reactivity. METHODS: Positive TSPOT assay frequencies due to ESAT-6 or CFP-10 among health care workers (HCWs) at 6-month intervals for 18 months were compared...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Larry D Teeter, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Blanca I Restrepo, Eric L Brown, Susan E Dorman, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: The interferon gamma release assay, TSPOT.TB (TSPOT) can be read by several methodologies, including an Elispot reader or manually by technician. We compared the results from these two counting methods. METHODS: Automated and manual TSPOT results among 2481 United States health care workers were compared. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to determine the inter-rater agreement. Univariate and multiple logistic regression were used to investigate selected variable contributions...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Patricia J Simner, Gail L Woods, Nancy L Wengenack
The immunocompromised host is at increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is a significant mycobacterial pathogen, nontuberculous mycobacteria causes substantial disease in those with suppressed immune responses. Mycobacterial infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in this patient population, and rapid identification and susceptibility testing of the mycobacterial species is paramount to patient management and outcomes...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Mona Afify, Amal H Hamza, Reem A Alomari
To provide fundamental insights into the mechanism of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), we conduct the present study to improve further understanding of the interaction between HCV and cytokines. Two hundred one patients were enrolled in this study. Seventy-eight patients matching the study group in terms of age and gender with negative serology for hepatitis viruses, HIV virus, and with liver enzyme levels within normal range were selected as the control group. Patients were diagnosed with positive hepatitis C by detection of positive HCV antibodies in serum...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Qiang Ding, Panpan Lu, Yujia Xia, Shuping Ding, Yuhui Fan, Xin Li, Ping Han, Jingmei Liu, Dean Tian, Mei Liu
Chemokines are a group of low molecular weight peptides. Their major function is the recruitment of leukocytes to inflammation sites, but they also play a key role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In the last few years, accumulated experimental evidence supports that monokine induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma (CXCL9), a member of CXC chemokine family and known to attract CXCR3- (CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B) T lymphocytes, is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of physiologic diseases during their initiation and their maintenance...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Medicine
M Tebruegge, D Buonsenso, F Brinkmann, A Noguera-Julian, I Pavić, A Sorete Arbore, Z Vančíková, S Velizarova, S B Welch, N Ritz
SETTING: In June 2014, we became aware that shortages of purified protein derivative (PPD), the test substance used for the tuberculin skin test (TST), had occurred in several European health care institutions providing care for children with tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To establish the extent of the shortage, a survey was performed. DESIGN: Survey conducted over a 1-month period (June-July 2014) among members of the Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (ptbnet)...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Anuradha Basavaraju
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
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