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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154992/structural-and-biophysical-characterization-of-rv3716c-a-hypothetical-protein-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
A Gopalan, G Deka, M Prabhavathi, H S Savithri, M R N Murthy, A Raja
Latent tuberculosis (TB) is the main hurdle in reaching the goal of "Stop TB 2050". Tuberculin skin and Interferon-gamma release assay tests used currently for the diagnosis of TB infection cannot distinguish between active disease and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and hence new and sensitive protein markers need to be identified for the diagnosis. A protein Rv3716c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbRv3716c) has been identified as a potential surrogate marker for the diagnosis of LTBI. Here, we present characterization of MtbRv3716c (∼13 kDa) using both biophysical and X-Ray crystallographic methods...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154757/macrophage-polarization-and-meta-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Chuan Li, Maria M Xu, Kepeng Wang, Adam J Adler, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Chronic overnutrition and obesity induces low-grade inflammation throughout the body. Termed "meta-inflammation," this chronic state of inflammation is mediated by macrophages located within the colon, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A sentinel orchestrator of immune activity and homeostasis, macrophages adopt variable states of activation as a function of time and environmental cues. Meta-inflammation phenotypically skews these polarization states and has been linked to numerous metabolic disorders. The past decade has revealed several key regulators of macrophage polarization, including the signal transducer and activator of transcription family, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, the CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) family, and the interferon regulatory factors...
November 3, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154044/modulating-host-immune-responses-to-fight-invasive-fungal-infections
#3
REVIEW
James E Scriven, Mark W Tenforde, Stuart M Levitz, Joseph N Jarvis
Modulation of host immunity in invasive fungal infection is an appealing but as yet mostly elusive treatment strategy. Animal studies in invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis have demonstrated beneficial effects of colony stimulating factors, interferon-gamma and monoclonal antibodies. More recent studies transfusing leukocytes pre-loaded with lipophilic anti-fungal drugs, or modulated T-cells, along with novel vaccination strategies show great promise. The translation of immune therapies into clinical studies has been limited to date but this is changing and the results of new Candida vaccine trials are eagerly awaited...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151835/opuntia-humifusa-modulates-morphological-changes-characteristic-of-asthma-via-il-4-and-il-13-in-an-asthma-murine-model
#4
Soon-Young Lee, Chun-Sik Bae, Young-Hoon Choi, Nam-Sook Seo, Chang-Su Na, Jin-Cheol Yoo, Seung Sik Cho, Dae-Hun Park
Asthma is a chronic pulmonary disease that affects an estimated 235 million people worldwide, but asthma drugs have many adverse effects. Opuntia humifusa (eastern prickly pear) has been used as a food and traditional medicine worldwide; however, its anti-asthmatic effects have not been reported. We evaluated O. humifusa as a potential therapeutic or preventive component of anti-asthmatic drugs. We divided ovalbumin-sensitized mice into the following groups: normal control, asthma-induced control, dexamethasone-treated group (positive control), 50 mg/kg O...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150430/interferon-%C3%A1%C2%B5-2-signaling-in-melanocytes-and-melanoma-cells-regulates-expression-of-ctla-4
#5
Xuan Mo, Hanghang Zhang, Sarah Preston, Kayla Martin, Bo Zhou, Nish Vadalia, Ana M Gamero, Jonathan Soboloff, Italo Tempera, M Raza Zaidi
CTLA-4 is a cell surface receptor on T cells that functions as an immune checkpoint molecule to enforce tolerance to cognate antigens. Anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy is highly effective at reactivating T cell responses against melanoma, which is postulated to be due to targeting CTLA-4 on T cells. Here we report that CTLA-4 is also highly expressed by most human melanoma cell lines, as well as in normal human melanocytes. Interferon-gamma (IFNG) signaling activated the expression of the human CTLA-4 gene in a melanocyte and melanoma cell-specific manner...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150375/type-i-interferon-and-proinflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-newborns-with-rotavirus-associated-leukoencephalopathy
#6
Kyung Yeon Lee, Chang Hoon Moon, Seong Hoon Choi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify whether there is an increase in type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of newborns with rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: Levels of type I interferons (interferon-alpha and interferon-beta) and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid of 23 newborns with rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy (patient group) and 39 infants under 90 days-of-age (control group)...
November 14, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149056/characterization-of-ovine-a3z1-restriction-properties-against-small-ruminant-lentiviruses-srlvs
#7
Lorena de Pablo-Maiso, Idoia Glaria, Helena Crespo, Estanislao Nistal-Villán, Valgerdur Andrésdóttir, Damián de Andrés, Beatriz Amorena, Ramsés Reina
Intrinsic factors of the innate immune system include the apolipoprotein B editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) protein family. APOBEC3 inhibits replication of different virus families by cytosine deamination of viral DNA and a not fully characterized cytosine deamination-independent mechanism. Sheep are susceptible to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLVs) infection and contain three APOBEC3 genes encoding four proteins (A3Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3) with yet not deeply described antiviral properties...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147627/stat1-gene-deficient-mice-develop-accelerated-breast-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-which-is-reduced-by-il-17-blockade
#8
Sanjay Varikuti, Steve Oghumu, Mohamad Elbaz, Greta Volpedo, Dinesh K Ahirwar, Pablo C Alarcon, Rachel H Sperling, Ellen Moretti, Marissa S Pioso, Jennifer Kimble, Mohd W Nasser, Ramesh K Ganju, Cesar Terrazas, Abhay R Satoskar
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) mediates interferon gamma signaling which activates the expression of various genes related to apoptosis, inflammation, cell cycle and angiogenesis. Several experimental and clinical studies have investigated the role of STAT1 in primary tumor growth in breast cancer; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains to be determined. To determine the role of STAT1 in breast cancer metastasis, we analyzed growth and metastasis in WT or STAT1(-/-) mice orthotopically implanted with metastatic 4T1...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146054/lymphocytic-thrombophilic-arteritis-a-distinct-inflammatory-type-i-interferon-and-c5b-9-mediated-subcutaneous-endovasculitis
#9
Cynthia M Magro, Jad Saab
BACKGROUND: Lymphocytic thrombophilic arteritis is a recently recognized subcuticular larger vessel vasculitis characterized by striking vascular luminal thrombosis. METHODS: The clinical features, histopathology and phenotypic profile of ten patients with lymphocytic thrombophilic arteritis were explored in an attempt to better define the entity from a clinical and pathophysiologic perspective. RESULTS: The patients were all female (mean age of 43) presenting with generally asymptomatic lower and upper extremity hyperpigmented macules...
December 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145844/development-and-evaluation-of-an-interferon-gamma-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-red-deer-experimentally-infected-with-mycobacterium-bovis
#10
María Ángeles Risalde, Jobin Thomas, Iker Sevilla, Miriam Serrano, Jose Antonio Ortíz, Joseba Garrido, Mercedes Domínguez, Lucas Domínguez, Christian Gortázar, Jose Francisco Ruíz-Fons
BACKGROUND: Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is regarded as an epidemiologically relevant host for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that cause animal tuberculosis (TB). The standard antemortem screening test for the detection of TB in deer is the intradermal tuberculin skin test, but the detection of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) produced by white blood cells exposed to M. bovis antigens can be used as an alternative or supplemental assay in most TB eradication/control programs...
November 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145422/missense-mutation-at-cldn8-associated-with-a-high-plasma-interferon-gamma-inducible-protein-10-level-in-methadone-maintained-patients-with-urine-test-positive-for-morphine
#11
Tung-Hsia Liu, Ren-Hua Chung, Sheng-Chang Wang, Chiu-Ping Fang, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Chia-Lung Shih, Hsiang-Wei Kuo, Yun Wang, Yu-Li Liu
We previously reported a high plasma chemokine interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) level and prolonged electrocardiography QT-interval in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients with HIV or HCV infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genetic association of high plasma IP-10 level in the MMT patients. The gene-based and pathway-based association analyses were conducted using a genome-wide association study dataset in 344 MMT patients for identifying genes and pathways associated with plasma IP-10 level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144049/characterization-of-children-with-recurrent-eczema-herpeticum-and-response-to-treatment-with-interferon-gamma
#12
Kavita Darji, Stephanie Frisch, Eric Adjei Boakye, Elaine Siegfried
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has been used treat severe atopic dermatitis, with equivocal results. Recurrent eczema herpeticum is an underappreciated, therapeutically challenging complication of severe atopic dermatitis. Defects in IFN-γ and other cytokine pathways have been identified in individuals with confirmed eczema herpeticum. This suggests possible benefit from IFN-γ treatment for confirmed eczema herpeticum. The objective of the current study was to evaluate immunologic and microbial parameters and response to IFN-γ treatment in children with confirmed eczema herpeticum...
November 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143896/modulation-of-stimulator-of-interferon-genes-sting-expression-by-interferon-%C3%AE-in-human-keratinocytes
#13
Yohei Nishikawa, Yasushi Matsuzaki, Kazuyuki Kimura, Akiko Rokunohe, Hajime Nakano, Daisuke Sawamura
Infection of microbial pathogen triggers the innate immune system, and the induction of interferons (IFNs) play a vital role in host antiviral response. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was identified as a crucial regulator of the DNA sensing pathway, and activates both nuclear factor-κB and interferon regulatory factor 3 transcription pathways to evoke IFNs production. In this study, we studied the upregulation of STING mRNA expression, induced by IFN-γ in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). STING promoter assays clarified that a gamma-activated sequence (GAS), located at - 7 to - 15-bp, is required for IFN-γ-upregulated promoter activity...
November 16, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141239/exposing-toxoplasma-gondii-hiding-inside-the-vacuole-a-role-for-gbps-autophagy-and-host-cell-death
#14
REVIEW
Jeroen P Saeij, Eva-Maria Frickel
The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides inside a vacuole, which shields it from the host's intracellular defense mechanisms. The cytokine interferon gamma (IFNγ) upregulates host cell effector pathways that are able to destroy the vacuole, restrict parasite growth and induce host cell death. Interferon-inducible GTPases such as the Guanylate Binding Proteins (GBPs), autophagy proteins and ubiquitin-driven mechanisms play important roles in Toxoplasma control in mice and partly also in humans. The host inflammasome is regulated by GBPs in response to bacterial infection in murine cells and may also respond to Toxoplasma infection...
November 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141128/immune-enhancing-effect-of-nanometric-lactobacillus-plantarum-nf1-nlp-nf1-in-a-mouse-model-of-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppression
#15
Dae-Woon Choi, Sun Young Jung, Jisu Kang, Young-Do Nam, Seong-Il Lim, Ki Tae Kim, Hee Soon Shin
Nanometric Lactobacillus plantarum nF1 (nLp-nF1) is a biogenics consisting of dead L. plantarum pre-treated with heat and a nanodispersion process. In this study, we investigated the immune-enhancing effects of nLp-nF1 in vivo and in vitro. To evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of nLp-nF1, mice immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide (CPP) treatment were administered with nLp-nF1. As expected, CPP restricted the immune response of mice, whereas oral administration of nLp-nF1 significantly increased total IgG in serum, and cytokine production [interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in bone marrow cells...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140946/comparison-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-with-tuberculin-skin-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-children
#16
Walter Dehority, Rolando M Viani, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Graciano Lopez, Stephen A Spector
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is facilitated by tuberculin skin testing (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays such as the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube (QTF-GIT) assays. Limited data exist on the utility of interferon-gamma release assays in HIV-infected children, which may be falsely negative due to immunosuppression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing TST to QTF-GIT for the diagnosis of suspected LTBI was performed in children in Tijuana, Mexico, and in San Diego, California...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137590/a-closing-chapter-hepatitis-c-genotype-3-elimination-in-liver-transplant-sofosbuvir-daclatasvir-in-a-hard-to-treat-population
#17
Eva Maria Teegen, Brigitta Globke, Eckart Schott, Johann Pratschke, Dennis Eurich
OBJECTIVES: Historically, hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection has not been as hard to treat as genotype 1 using interferon-based therapy. Now, genotype 3 infection can be treated using interferon-free regimes such as the combination of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, which is a highly successful and reliable therapeutic option before liver transplant. However, real world data are rather limited regarding the use of antivirals (sofosbuvir/daclatasvir) for hepatitis C virus genotype 3 recurrence after liver transplant...
November 15, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136358/is-secretion-of-ifn-gamma-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-in-youngest-children-sufficient-to-play-a-role-in-tb-diagnostics
#18
Teresa Bielecka, Anna Komorowska-Piotrowska, Katarzyna Krenke, Wojciech Feleszko, Marek Kulus
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether children ≤5 years of age, produce sufficient amounts of interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ) in response to phytohaemagglutinin (mitogen), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens (TB antigens) in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-Tube test (QFT-GIT), (Cellestis Ltd., Australia). WORKING HYPOTHESIS: Is TB-antigen-induced IFN-ɣ response in children ≤5 years sufficient to consider QFT-GIT a possible tool for TB diagnostics? Study design, patient-subject selection, and methods: We recruited children 0-17 years old suspected of TB infection to this cross-sectional study, in whom QFT-GIT and TST were performed...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126656/the-effect-of-i%C3%AE%C2%BAk-16-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-impaired-monocytes
#19
Norman J Galbraith, Stephen Manek, Samuel Walker, Campbell Bishop, Jane V Carter, Meredith Cahill, Sarah A Gardner, Hiram C Polk, Susan Galandiuk
This study focuses on impaired monocyte function, which occurs in some patients after trauma, major elective surgery, or sepsis. This monocyte impairment increases the risk of secondary infection and death. We aimed to determine the influence IκK-16 had on monocytes using an ex-vivo model of human monocyte impairment. We included the effects of the well-studied comparators interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on impaired monocytes. Primary human monocytes were stimulated with 10ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 16h and then challenged with 100ng/mL LPS to assess the monocyte inflammatory response...
October 28, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126292/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-inactivated-varicella-zoster-virus-vaccine-in-adults-with-autoimmune-disease-a-phase-2-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Michael Eberhardson, Stephen Hall, Kim A Papp, Tina M Sterling, Jon E Stek, Lei Pang, Yanli Zhao, Janie Parrino, Zoran Popmihajlov
Background: Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated zoster vaccine (ZVIN) were evaluated in adults with autoimmune disease. Methods: Adults with autoimmune disease treated with immunosuppressive therapy (biologic or nonbiologic) were randomized to receive 4 doses of ZVIN, ZVIN containing a higher quantity of antigen, or placebo. To measure varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific immune responses using glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT), blood samples were collected at baseline, post-doses 2, 3, and 4...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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