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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737923/co-silencing-intestinal-transglutaminase-2-and-interleukin-15-using-gelatin-based-nanoparticles-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-celiac-disease
#1
Husain Attarwala, Valerie Clausen, Prasoon Chaturvedi, Mansoor M Amiji
In this study, we have developed type B gelatin-based nanoparticle based siRNA delivery system for silencing of intestinal transglutaminase-2 (TG2) and interleukin-15 (IL-15) genes in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) and murine alveolar macrophage cells (J774A.1). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the TG2 or IL-15 gene was encapsulated within gelatin nanoparticles using ethanol-water solvent displacement method. Size, charge and morphology of gelatin nanoparticles were evaluated using Zetasizer instrument and transmission electron microscopy...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736945/tim-1-b-cells-suppress-t-cell-interferon-gamma-production-and-promote-foxp3-expression-but-have-impaired-regulatory-function-in-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Xiao-Long Gu, Huan He, Lin Lin, Guo-Xin Luo, Yan-Fei Wen, Ding-Cheng Xiang, Jian Qiu
Atherosclerosis and its associated coronary artery disease (CAD) represent another chronic low-grade inflammatory disorder. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) possess essential functions in maintaining peripheral tolerance and inhibiting pathogenic inflammation through IL-10. Here, we investigated one subset of Bregs, Tim-1(+) B cell, and its role in atherosclerosis and CAD patients. In healthy individuals, IL-10-producing B cells were predominantly found in the Tim-1(+) B cells. Upon stimulation of the B cell receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) by anti-BCR antibodies and CpG, respectively, the Tim-1(+) B cells could further upregulate IL-10 expression...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736298/calcitriol-mediated-reduction-in-ifn-%C3%AE-output-in-t-cell-large-granular-lymphocytic-leukemia-requires-vitamin-d-receptor-upregulation
#3
M Paige Kulling, C Kristine Olson, L Thomas Olson, E Cait Hamele, N Kathryn Carter, J David Feith, P Thomas Loughran
Constitutively activated STAT1 and elevated IFN-γ are both characteristic of T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGLL), a rare incurable leukemia with clonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells due to defective apoptosis. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an inflammatory cytokine that correlates with worse progression and symptomology in multiple autoimmune diseases and cancers. In canonical IFN-γ-STAT1 signaling, IFN-γ activates STAT1, a transcription factor, via phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 701 (p-STAT1)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736027/suppression-of-delayed-xenograft-rejection-by-resveratrol-in-a-hamster-to-rat-cardiac-transplantation-model
#4
Y Lian, C Gao, Y Wu, J Xia, Y Leng, Y Liu, M Zhu, J Chen, Z Qi
BACKGROUND: Delayed xenograft rejection (DXR) is an insurmountable barrier for xenotransplantation. Previous studies reported that hamster hearts transplanted into rats undergo DXR and stop functioning after the cessation of immunosuppression. Herein, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on preventing DXR in a hamster-to-rat vascularized cardiac xenograft model. METHODS: Hamster hearts were engrafted into Lewis rat recipients. Recipient rats received a graft acceptance-inducing treatment of leflunomide and FK506 for 2 weeks to prevent acute xenograft rejection (AXR)...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732078/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-indeterminate-results-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#5
Hong-Joon Shin, Tae-Ok Kim, Hyung-Joo Oh, Ha-Young Park, Jin-Sun Chang, Seong Ahn, Yu-Il Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Yong-Soo Kwon
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection could be affected by conditions of immune dysregulation. For this reason, diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase the frequency of indeterminate results of IGRAs. However, there have been inconsistent reports of role of DM on indeterminate IGRA results. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube testing (QFT-GIT) at Chonnam National University Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732046/qualitative-differences-in-cellular-immunogenicity-elicited-by-hepatitis-c-virus-t-cell-vaccines-employing-prime-boost-regimens
#6
Wendy G Tan, Iryna Zubkova, Alla Kachko, Frances Wells, Heiko Adler, Gerd Sutter, Marian E Major
T-cell based vaccines have been considered as attractive candidates for prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. In this study we compared the magnitude and phenotypic characteristics of CD8+ T-cells induced by three commonly used viral vectors, Adenovirus-5 (Ad5), Vaccinia virus (VV) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein. C57/BL6 mice were primed with DNA expressing NS3/4A and boosted with each of the viral vectors in individual groups of mice. We then tracked the vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell responses using pentamer binding and cytokine production analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730751/tuberculosis-and-biologics-in-rheumatology-india-a-special-situation
#7
REVIEW
Rohini Handa, Sundeep Upadhyaya, Sanjiv Kapoor, Ramesh Jois, Bimlesh D Pandey, Anuj K Bhatnagar, Ashwani Khanna, Vishal Goyal, Kamal Kumar
India has a huge patient burden of rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatoid arthritis. The use of biologics has transformed the treatment paradigm for RD; however, biologic treatment-related infections (especially tuberculosis [TB]) are an area of potential concern for TB-endemic nations like India. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy impairs the physiological TNF-mediated signaling and may cause reactivation and dissemination of latent TB infection (LTBI). Careful screening is, thus, crucial in RD patients who are about to commence anti-TNF treatment...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723708/subclinical-herpesvirus-shedding-among-hiv-1-infected-men-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Arcadio Agudelo-Hernandez, Yue Chen, Arlene Bullotta, William G Buchanan, Cynthia R Klamar-Blain, Luann Borowski, Sharon A Riddler, Charles R Rinaldo, Bernard Jc Macatangay
DESIGN: We evaluated the subclinical shedding of 6 different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV(+) men who have sex with men (MSM), and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV(-) MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at 4 timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723140/rapid-and-label-free-detection-of-interferon-gamma-via-an-electrochemical-aptasensor-comprising-a-ternary-surface-monolayer-on-a-gold-interdigitated-electrode-array
#9
Shaowei Ding, Curtis Mosher, Xian Y Lee, Suprem R Das, Allison A Cargill, Xiaohui Tang, Bolin Chen, Eric S McLamore, Carmen Gomes, Jesse M Hostetter, Jonathan C Claussen
A label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) aptasensor for rapid detection (<35 min) of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was fabricated by immobilizing a RNA aptamer capture probe (ACP), selective to IFN-γ, on a gold interdigitated electrode array (Au IDE). The ACP was modified with a thiol group at the 5' terminal end and subsequently co-immobilized with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT) and 6-mercapto-1-hexanolphosphate (MCH) to the gold surface through thiol-gold interactions. This ACP/HDT-MCH ternary surface monolayer facilitates efficient hybridization with IFN-γ and displays high resistance to nonspecific adsorption of nontarget proteins [i...
February 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722570/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-close-childhood-contacts-of-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-is-increased-by-secondhand-exposure-to-tobacco
#10
Ifedayo M O Adetifa, Lindsay Kendall, Simon Donkor, Moses D Lugos, Abdulrahman S Hammond, Patrick K Owiafe, Martin O C Ota, Roger H Brookes, Philip C Hill
Tobacco use is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also a risk factor for TB and to a lesser extent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without disease. We investigated the added risk of M. tuberculosis infection due to SHS exposure in childhood contacts of TB cases in The Gambia. Participants were childhood household contacts aged ≤ 14 years of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) cases. The intensity of exposure to the case was categorized according to whether contacts slept in the same room, same house, or a different house as the case...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720611/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#11
Tariro J Basera, Jabulani Ncayiyana, Mark E Engel
INTRODUCTION: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains a major public health problem and one of the major contributors to the pool of active tuberculosis cases. The true burden of LTBI in Africa is not known. Early modelling studies estimate that over 33% of the world's population is infected with latent tuberculosis. We propose conducting a systematic review and a meta-analysis to evaluate the burden and risk factors of LTBI in Africa reported in studies from 2000 to 2017. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-control studies estimating either tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) confirmed prevalence of LTBI and associated risk factors among people in African countries...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719321/association-of-interferon-%C3%AE-receptor-1-gene-polymorphism-with-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-infection-among-iranian-patients-with-pulmonary-disease
#12
Poopak Farnia, Jalaledin Ghanavi, Shima Saif, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant pulmonary infections in humans. Researchers have reported an association between interferon-gamma receptor-1 (IFN-γR1 or IFNGR1) deficiency and susceptibility to NTM, but the relevance of polymorphism within these genes is not yet clear. In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), T to C, at position-56 in NTM patients with pulmonary disease was investigated. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium isolates was performed with hsp65 genes using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719288/evaluation-of-the-protective-effect-of-deoxyribonucleic-acid-vaccines-encoding-granule-antigen-2-and-5-against-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-balb-c-mice
#13
Xiao Teng Ching, Mun Yik Fong, Yee Ling Lau
AbstractToxoplasma gondii infects a broad range of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Important clinical manifestations include encephalitis in immunocompromised patients as well as miscarriage and fetal damage during early pregnancy. Toxoplasma gondii dense granule antigen 2 and 5 (GRA2 and GRA5) are essential for parasitophorous vacuole development of the parasite. To evaluate the potential of GRA2 and GRA5 as recombinant DNA vaccine candidates, these antigens were cloned into eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA 3...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719267/comparison-of-cytokine-responses-in-ecuadorian-children-infected-with-giardia-ascaris-or-both-parasites
#14
Jill Weatherhead, Andrea Arévalo Cortés, Carlos Sandoval, Maritza Vaca, Martha Chico, Sophia Loor, Philip J Cooper, Rojelio Mejia
AbstractMore than 2 billion people are infected with parasites globally, and the majority have coinfections. Intestinal protozoa and helminths induce polarizing CD4(+) T-helper cell 1 (Th1) mediated cytokine responses within the host. Such immune polarization may inhibit the ability of the host to mount an adequate immune response for pathogen clearance to concurrent pathogens. The current study evaluated the plasma cytokine profile in Ascaris and Giardia coinfected children compared with Giardia- and Ascaris-only infected children...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716751/rehmannia-glutinosa-polysaccharide-induced-an-anti-cancer-effect-by-activating-natural-killer-cells
#15
Li Xu, Wei Zhang, Ling Zeng, Jun-O Jin
Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP) has exhibited an immune stimulatory effect, such as dendritic cell activation, but it has not been studied in terms of the activation capacity of natural killer (NK) cells in mice in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of RGP on the proliferation and activation of NK cells in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node (mLN), and blood in vivo and compared that function with that of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The administration of RGP to C57BL/6 mice induced the increase in circulating blood NK cell numbers and in the proliferation of NK cells in the spleen, mLN, and blood...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716226/cytokines-do-play-a-role-in-pathogenesis-of-tuberculous-meningitis-a-prospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-india
#16
S Sharma, M K Goyal, K Sharma, M Modi, M Sharma, N Khandelwal, S Prabhakar, N Sharma, Shree R, J Gairolla, A Jain, V Lal
BACKGROUND: Though animal studies have suggested a role for proinflammatory cytokines in pathogenesis their exact role in pathogenesis of human meningeal tuberculosis continues to be controversial with different studies yielding contradictory results. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To study the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with tubercular meningitis (TBM) and to determine whether these correlate with disease severity...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714241/cytokine-profiles-in-tibetan-macaques-following-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosyltransferase-knockout-pig-liver-xenotransplantation
#17
Zhuochao Zhang, Xiao Li, Hong Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Hui Chen, Dengke Pan, Hongchen Ji, Liang Zhou, Juan Ling, Jingshi Zhou, Shuqiang Yue, Desheng Wang, Zhaoxu Yang, Kaishan Tao, Kefeng Dou
BACKGROUND: Pig-to-nonhuman primate orthotopic liver xenotransplantation is often accompanied by thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders. Furthermore, the release of cytokines can trigger cascade reactions of coagulation and immune attacks within transplant recipients. To better elucidate the process of inflammation in liver xenograft recipients, we utilized a modified heterotopic auxiliary liver xenotransplantation model for xeno-immunological research. We studied the cytokine profiles and the relationship between cytokine levels and xenograft function after liver xenotransplantation...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712669/use-of-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test-in-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-lithuanian-adults-a-comparative-analysis
#18
Laura Tamašauskienė, Edita Hansted, Astra Vitkauskienė, Skaidrius Miliauskas, Albinas Naudžiūnas, Brigita Šitkauskienė
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lithuania belongs to the group of countries with a high-incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Some scientific studies show that the interferon-gamma release assay is more accurate and correlates more highly with TB exposure as compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST). This study aimed at comparing the efficacy between the T SPOT TB and TST for diagnosing TB among Lithuanian adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individuals with diagnosed TB, healthcare workers with known risk for TB and individuals without any known risk for TB underwent clinical examinations, interviews about their history of TB exposure and chest radiography...
July 3, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711715/novel-peptide-motifs-from-lysozyme-suppress-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-macrophages-by-antagonizing-toll-like-receptor-and-lps-scavenging-action
#19
Hisham R Ibrahim, Kosuke Hamasaki, Takeshi Miyata
Lysozyme is commonly found in spots where bacterial infections are most likely to enter the body. Earlier we found that lysozyme possesses five antimicrobial peptide motifs in its N-terminal region which can be generated by newborn pepsin. In this study, we explore the role of these peptides in the anti-inflammatory activity of lysozyme. The five peptides, helix1 (H1), helix2 (H2), H1 and H2 connected with a loop (HLH), H2 extended with either 2 β-strands (H2-S12) or 3 β-strands (H2-S13), were synthesized and examined for anti-inflammatory action...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711488/immunomodulatory-intervention-with-gamma-interferon-in-mice-with-sepsis
#20
Yu Wang, Bing-Bing Kong, Wen-Ping Yang, Xin Zhao, Rong Zhang
AIMS: Sepsis-triggered immune paralysis including T-cell dysfunction increase susceptibility to infection. Gamma interferon (IFNg) exert beneficial effects in patients with sepsis. Herein, we speculated that IFNg may attenuate T-cell dysfunction induced by sepsis, although the mechanisms remain elusive. To test this hypothesis, we used a model based on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis in mice. MAIN METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with recombinant human IFNg (0...
July 12, 2017: Life Sciences
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