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NAFLD in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644356/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627213/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-pathophysiology-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-update
#2
Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Ney Christian Boa Sorte, Crésio Dantas Alves, Patricia S Almeida Mendes, Carlos Roberto Brites Alves, Luciana Rodrigues Silva
OBJECTIVE: Although the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was first identified in 1980, it presents multifactorial and unclear pathophysiology. In this review, we intend to update the pathophysiological mechanisms of a high morbidity and mortality associated disease that is affecting obese children worldwide. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were used in the search strategy for articles related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and published in the last three decades...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606575/good-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-reduces-the-risk-for-nash-and-diabetes-in-pediatric-patients-with-obesity-the-results-of-an-italian-study
#3
Claudia Della Corte, Antonella Mosca, Andrea Vania, Arianna Alterio, Salvatore Iasevoli, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, it was demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet (MD) represents an ideal diet for all age groups and has an important role in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between adherence to the MD and NAFLD, with laboratory and histologic evaluation, in a group of children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: We enrolled 243 patients with obesity referred to our department from March 2014 to November 2015...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600116/features-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-severely-obese-children-and-adolescents-undergoing-sleeve-gastrectomy
#4
Aayed Alqahtani, Mohamed Elahmedi, Khalid Alswat, Maha Arafah, Mosa Fagih, Jaehoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an underrecognized co-morbidity of obesity. The characteristic features and severity of NAFLD in severe childhood obesity remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate features of NAFLD in obese children and identify predictors of significant disease. SETTING: Academic center with a standardized pathway for pediatric bariatric surgery and a dedicated multidisciplinary team. DESIGN: This is a baseline cross-sectional analysis for a data set obtained from a prospective clinical outcome study that included severely obese children (≤14 yr of age) and adolescents (14-21 yr of age) who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between March 2008 and March 2015...
April 7, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587303/the-role-of-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Massimo Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a "multiple-hit process" where the first "hit" is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity...
June 6, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586157/role-of-point-shear-wave-elastography-in-the-determination-of-the-severity-of-fibrosis-in-pediatric-liver-diseases-with-pathologic-correlations
#6
Mehmet Burak Özkan, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Esra Eren, Gonul Caltepe, Gulay Yilmaz, Cengiz Kara, Seda Gun
OBJECTIVES: Our aims in this study were as follows: (1) to determine the cutoff value that can distinguish between advanced liver fibrosis and normal liver tissue for two different elastographic techniques; (2) to determine the cutoff value that can distinguish mild liver fibrosis from normal liver tissue for the techniques; and (3) to assess tissue stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Seventy-five patients assessed for liver biopsy on the same day were evaluated by point shear wave elastography...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585279/serum-bile-acid-level-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-chinese-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Li Ping Lu, Yan Ping Wan, Peng Cheng Xun, Ke Jun Zhou, Cheng Chen, Si Yang Cheng, Min Zhong Zhang, Chun Hua Wu, Wei Wei Lin, Ying Jiang, Hai Xia Feng, Jia Lu Wang, Ka He, Wei Cai
OBJECTIVE: To determine serum bile acid (BA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in Chinese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) METHODS: Seventy-six children aged 4-17 years were categorized into three groups: none NAFLD (control), mild, and moderate/severe NAFLD groups respectively based on liver ultrasonography. Serum BAs and FAs were quantified by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography separately. General linear models were performed to assess the differences across groups...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556786/elevated-hemoglobin-level-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Valentina Giorgio, Antonella Mosca, Arianna Alterio, Anna Alisi, Antonio Grieco, Valerio Nobili, Luca Miele
OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been reported to be a risk marker of metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). No study exists on pediatric populations. We aimed to determine the association between hematological parameters, and the severity of disease in children with biopsy proven NAFLD. METHODS: 117 children (85 males, mean age 12 years) with ultrasound (US) evidence of NAFLD undergoing liver biopsy for diagnosis of non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), were prospectively enrolled between January 2011 and May 2013 in the setting of a tertiary care centre...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556755/effects-of-exercise-training-alone-on-depot-specific-body-fat-stores-in-youth-review-of-recent-literature
#9
YoonMyung Kim
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased at an alarming rate. The increased obesity rate in pediatrics parallels the increased risks for developing metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In particular, the strong relationship between obesity and such health consequences are well explained by the excessive accumulation of depot-specific body adiposity such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid content, intermuscular AT (IMAT), and/or intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content...
May 30, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555633/low-birthweight-increases-the-likelihood-of-severe-steatosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Elisabetta Bugianesi, Carla Bizzarri, Chiara Rosso, Antonella Mosca, Nadia Panera, Silvio Veraldi, Andrea Dotta, Germana Giannone, Massimiliano Raponi, Marco Cappa, Anna Alisi, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVES: Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate the correlation of birthweight with the severity of liver damage in a large cohort of children with NAFLD. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-eight consecutive Caucasian Italian overweight/obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in the study. We examined the relative association of each histological feature of NAFLD with metabolic alterations, insulin-resistance, I148M polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene, and birthweight relative to gestational age...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544608/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-do-guidelines-provide-enough-guidance
#11
REVIEW
B G P Koot, V Nobili
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. AIM: To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. METHOD: Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540988/pathologic-impact-of-insulin-resistance-and-sensitivity-on-the-severity-of-liver-histopathology-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#12
Byung Han Park, Jung Min Yoon, Ja Hye Kim, Jin Hwa Moon, Young Ho Lee, Se Min Jang, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Insulin resistance (IR) has an important role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to analyze the association between liver histopathology and IR in pediatric patients with NASH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated whether the hepatic pathologic characteristics have relations with following three biochemical indices; IR index including homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and insulin sensitivity indices-free fatty acid (ISI-FFA)...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529199/can-fetuin-a-be-a-marker-for-insulin-resistance-and-poor-glycemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Ülkü Gül Sıraz, Murat Doğan, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Sabahttin Muhtaroğlu, Selim Kurtoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Backgroud Metabolic impairment in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) with poor glycemic control causes insulin resistance, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis; thus, increased Carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT). The Fetuin-A has protective effect in cardiovascular disorders, which is increased in hepatosteatosis. We aimed to investigate reliability of Fetuin-A levels in early detection of diabetic complications in children with T1DM and to identify a cut-off value that may show poor metabolic control...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521872/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-update-with-special-focus-on-the-role-of-gut-microbiota
#14
REVIEW
Michael Doulberis, Georgios Kotronis, Dimitra Gialamprinou, Jannis Kountouras, Panagiotis Katsinelos
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant global health burden in children, adolescents and adults with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. Accumulating data from manifold studies support the idea of NAFLD as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, being rather a systemic metabolic disease than a liver confined pathology. Emerging data support that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and progression. Apart from other regimens, probiotics may have a positive role in the management of NAFLD through a plethora of possible mechanisms...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520503/serum-alanine-aminotransferase-trends-and-their-relationship-with-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-united-states-adolescents-1999-2014
#15
Cyrelle R Fermin, Arthur M Lee, Stephanie L Filipp, Matthew J Gurka, Mark D DeBoer
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatocyte dysfunction, fat accumulation, and fibrosis, is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are used clinically to identify potential liver dysfunction. Our goal was to assess for changes in the national prevalence of elevated ALT over time and potential relationship to trends in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) severity and elevated body mass index (BMI)...
May 18, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512764/maternal-fructose-consumption-can-affect-offspring-metabolic-outcomes
#16
Alejandro Gugliucci
High sugar consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) which are in turn linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults and children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511023/efficacy-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-choline-vitamin-e-dha-cho-ve-in-paediatric-nash-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Evelyn Zöhrer, Alisi Anna, Jörg Jahnel, Antonella Moscla, Claudia Della Corte, Annalisa Crudele, Günter Fauler, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial on children with biopsy-proven NASH based on a combinatorial nutritional approach compared to placebo. Participants were assigned to lifestyle modification plus placebo, or lifestyle modification plus a mix containing docosahexaenoic acid, choline and vitamin E (DHA-CHO-VE). Forty children and adolescents concluded the trial...
May 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506362/current-concepts-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Sarah E Fleet, Jay H Lefkowitch, Joel E Lavine
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disease. Its increasing prevalence is a direct result of historically high rates of obesity. Hepatocyte lipid accumulation is the first step in a cascade of metabolic and inflammatory events thought to precipitate NAFLD. Histologic findings provide insight into these events. Lifestyle modification remains the primary therapy in children. Current recommendations include vitamin E treatment in those with biopsy-proven NASH. Trials of novel drugs are ongoing in adults...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502444/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-hepatic-and-extrahepatic-complications
#19
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Valerio Nobili, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and has become the most common form of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The histologic spectrum of NAFLD is broad ranging, from the relatively benign form of simple steatosis to the aggressive form of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, eventually leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD has also been recognized as an independent risk factor for extrahepatic complications, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep disorders, and osteoporosis...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493388/magnetic-resonance-elastography-measured-shear-stiffness-as-a-biomarker-of-fibrosis-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Cynthia Behling, Jorge Eduardo Angeles, Melissa Paiz, Janis Durelle, Jonathan Africa, Kimberly P Newton, Elizabeth M Brunt, Joel E Lavine, Stephanie H Abrams, Prakash Masand, Rajesh Krishnamurthy, Kelvin Wong, Richard L Ehman, Meng Yin, Kevin J Glaser, Bogdan Dzyubak, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony C Gamst, Jonathan Hooker, William Haufe, Alexandra Schlein, Gavin Hamilton, Michael S Middleton, Claude B Sirlin
Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is promising for non-invasive assessment of fibrosis, a major determinant of outcome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, data in children are limited. Study aims were to determine accuracy of MRE for detection of fibrosis and advanced fibrosis in children with NAFLD, and to assess agreement between manual and novel automated reading methods. We performed a prospective, multi-center study of 2D-MRE in children with NAFLD. MR-elastograms were analyzed manually at 2 reading centers and using a new automated technique...
May 11, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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