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NAFLD in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785076/role-of-osteoprotegerin-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-axis-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Lucia Pacifico, Gian Marco Andreoli, Miriam D'Avanzo, Delia De Mitri, Pasquale Pierimarchi
Concomitantly with the increase in the prevalences of overweight/obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has worldwide become the main cause of chronic liver disease in both adults and children. Patients with fatty liver display features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), like insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Recently, epidemiological studies have linked obesity, MetS, and NAFLD to decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis, highlighting an intricate interplay among bone, adipose tissue, and liver...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781841/carbohydrates-and-diet-patterns-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Ahlia Sekkarie, Jean A Welsh, Miriam B Vos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is lifestyle change, including a healthier diet. However, there are no agreed upon expert recommendations for a specific diet in the prevention or treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we review studies published between 2015 and 2017 contributing to further understanding of the role of diet in the development and progression of NAFLD, particularly those addressing sugars and dietary patterns...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761652/vitamin-d-status-and-associated-genetic-polymorphisms-in-a-cohort-of-uk-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
P S Gibson, A Quaglia, A Dhawan, H Wu, S Lanham-New, K H Hart, E Fitzpatrick, J B Moore
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of polymorphisms determining vitamin D status remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine in UK children with biopsy-proven NAFLD (i) their vitamin D status throughout a 12-month period and (ii) interactions between key vitamin D-related genetic variants (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthase-1/dehydrocholesterol reductase-7, vitamin D receptor, group-specific component, CYP2R1) and disease severity...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752170/treating-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-improves-the-severity-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#4
Shikha S Sundaram, Ann C Halbower, Jelena Klawitter, Zhaoxing Pan, Kristen Robbins, Kelley E Capocelli, Ronald J Sokol
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of treating obstructive sleep apnea/nocturnal hypoxia on pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity and oxidative stress. STUDY DESIGN: Biopsy proven participants (n = 9) with NAFLD and obstructive sleep apnea/hypoxia were studied before and after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for sleep disordered breathing, including laboratory testing and markers of oxidative stress, urine F(2)-isoprostanes...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751874/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-histopathology-basics-within-a-broader-context
#5
REVIEW
Michael H Schild, Cynthia D Guy
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health concern and the prevalence continues to increase in many industrialized and developing countries around the world. NAFLD affects adults and children. NAFLD-related cirrhosis is expected to become the top indication for liver transplantation in the near future, and the incidence of NAFLD-related hepatocellular carcinoma is also increasing. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the more severe form of NAFLD. The pathogenesis of NALFD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is complex and new concepts continue to evolve...
June 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740791/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-not-a-small-matter
#6
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased substantially in the past two decades and NAFLD has now become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. NAFLD is a broad clinicopathologic spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of necroinflammation called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and subsequently to cirrhosis. Despite the increasing prevalence and progressive nature of NAFLD even among children, therapy for NAFLD in both adults and children are limited...
May 9, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735796/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-lifestyle-change-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Melina Utz-Melere, Cristina Targa-Ferreira, Bernardo Lessa-Horta, Matias Epifanio, Marialena Mouzaki, Angelo A Mattos
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: This manuscript seeks to analyze the impact of lifestyle changes on body mass index (BMI), aminotransferases and steatosis in children and adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of PubMed, BIREME, Scopus, EMBASE, Medline and Web of Science databases 2015 was performed seeking studies addressing the impact of lifestyle interventions on children and/or adolescents with NAFLD. Inclusion were manuscripts written in Portuguese, English and Spanish, as well as age less than 18 years...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728744/free-breathing-quantification-of-hepatic-fat-in-healthy-children-and-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-a-multi-echo-3-d-stack-of-radial-mri-technique
#8
Tess Armstrong, Karrie V Ly, Smruthi Murthy, Shahnaz Ghahremani, Grace Hyun J Kim, Kara L Calkins, Holden H Wu
BACKGROUND: In adults, noninvasive chemical shift encoded Cartesian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy (SVS) accurately quantify hepatic steatosis but require breath-holding. In children, especially young and sick children, breath-holding is often limited or not feasible. Sedation can facilitate breath-holding but is highly undesirable. For these reasons, there is a need to develop free-breathing MRI technology that accurately quantifies steatosis in all children...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699915/dyslipidemia-is-associated-with-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Shima Dowla, Stella Aslibekyan, Amy Goss, Kevin Fontaine, Ambika P Ashraf
BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disorder. Factors underlying the pathophysiology of NAFLD remain poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the metabolic characteristics of children with NAFLD differing in race/ethnicity and to test associations between dyslipidemia and NAFLD. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at a tertiary referral university hospital among 309 children with a diagnosis of NAFLD...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661561/clinically-actionable-hypercholesterolemia-and-hypertriglyceridemia-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Kathryn E Harlow, Jonathan A Africa, Alan Wells, Patricia H Belt, Cynthia A Behling, Ajay K Jain, Jean P Molleston, Kimberly P Newton, Philip Rosenthal, Miriam B Vos, Stavra A Xanthakos, Joel E Lavine, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in whom intervention for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides was indicated based on National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: This multicenter, longitudinal cohort study included children with NAFLD enrolled in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651819/biochemical-predictors-of-early-onset-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-young-children-with-obesity
#11
Ju Young Kim, Jinmin Cho, Hye Ran Yang
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their associated risk factors are not well-established in young children with obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of early onset NAFLD and identify its biochemical predictors in obese children aged less than 10 years. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629177/risk-factors-for-progression-of-and-treatment-options-for-nafld-in-children
#12
Phillipp Hartmann, Bernd Schnabl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Clinical Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601997/effectiveness-of-a-carbohydrate-restricted-diet-to-treat-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adolescents-with-obesity-trial-design-and-methodology
#13
Shima Dowla, May Pendergrass, Mark Bolding, Barbara Gower, Kevin Fontaine, Ambika Ashraf, Taraneh Soleymani, Shannon Morrison, Amy Goss
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder among children in the developed world and can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. No evidence-based dietary guidelines exist on the most effective diet prescription to treat NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of a carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted diet vs fat-restricted diet, the current standard of care, on changes in hepatic fat infiltration, body composition, and metabolic health over an 8-week period among overweight and obese children diagnosed with NAFLD...
March 27, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601441/the-membrane-bound-o-acyltransferase7-rs641738-variant-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Grazia Cirillo, Angela Del Prete, Roberta Iacomino, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice
BACKGROUND: The rs641738 polymorphism in the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain containing protein 7 (MBOAT7) gene has been associated with increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between the MBOAT7 rs641738 polymorphism and both hepatic steatosis and biochemical markers of liver damage and to evaluate the potential additive effect of this variant and the I148M patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) and the rs58542926 transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) polymorphisms...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565153/inflammatory-cytokines-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#15
Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Ney Christian Amaral Boa Sorte, Crésio De Aragão Dantas Alves, Patrícia S Almeida Mendes, Carlos Roberto Brites Alves, Luciana Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by the intrahepatic deposition of fat. It is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, affecting obese children and adolescents. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood, although it is often related to insulin resistance. This in turn would be due to an inflammatory condition common to obesity. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the behavior of proinflammatory cytokines in obese children and adolescents, with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 16, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564257/relationship-between-serum-ferritin-level-and-transient-elastography-findings-among-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Seyed Saeed Seyedian, Eskandar Hajiani, Seyed Jalal Hashemi, Abdolrahim Masjedizadeh, Ali Akbar Shayesteh, Pezhman Alavinejad, Ahmad Hormati, Ali Javaherforoushzadeh, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is raising prevalence among children, and adolescence population in developed and developing countries as a major public health concern. The present study aims to determine the relationship between serum ferritin level and transient elastography findings in patients suffering from NAFLD. Materials and Methods: The demographic and biochemical profile of included individuals such as body mass index, age, level of serum transaminases, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and serum ferritin level were determined and a transient elastography was performed for all of them...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547047/pediatric-visceral-adiposity-index-adaptation-correlates-with-homa-ir-matsuda-and-transaminases
#17
María José Garcés Hernández, Miguel Klünder, Nayely Garibay Nieto, Juan Carlos López Alvarenga, Jenny Vilchis Gil, Samuel Flores Huerta, Rosa Quispe Siccha, Joselin Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical model associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults, but studies on children failed to support this association. Our group has proposed a pediatric VAI model using pediatric ranges, but it has not yet been evaluated and needs further adjustments. The objective of this study was to further adjust the proposed pediatric VAI by age, creating a new pediatric metabolic index (PMI), and assess the correlation of the PMI with insulin resistance indexes and hepatic enzymes...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544992/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-evidence-of-efficacy-and-mechanism-of-action
#18
REVIEW
Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism...
March 22, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517271/the-search-for-noninvasive-methods-to-identify-liver-fibrosis-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Chetan Mandelia, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the obesity epidemic. Recent studies have clearly shown that the stage of fibrosis in adults with NAFLD is the most important histological feature in long-term outcomes and the development of liver-related complications. Despite the paucity of data regarding the natural history of pediatric NAFLD, its progression to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation is well documented. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in children and adults, there is an urgent need to find safe and cost-effective alternatives to biopsy to determine the stage of liver fibrosis...
March 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485130/the-rs626283-variant-in-the-mboat7-gene-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-and-fatty-liver-in-caucasian-obese-youth
#20
Giuseppina R Umano, Sonia Caprio, Anna Di Sessa, Naga Chalasani, Daniel J Dykas, Bridget Pierpont, Allen E Bale, Nicola Santoro
OBJECTIVES: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of liver damage in childhood, its occurrence is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene has been found to be associated with alcoholic liver disease and NAFLD in adults. METHODS: In a multiethnic cohort of obese children and adolescents we genotyped the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene, evaluated insulin sensitivity by an oral glucose tolerance test, and measured the intra-hepatic fat content (HFF%) by magnetic resonance imaging...
March 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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