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NAFLD in children

Chetan Mandelia, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the obesity epidemic. Recent studies have clearly shown that the stage of fibrosis in adults with NAFLD is the most important histological feature in long-term outcomes and the development of liver-related complications. Despite the paucity of data regarding the natural history of pediatric NAFLD, its progression to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation is well documented. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in children and adults, there is an urgent need to find safe and cost-effective alternatives to biopsy to determine the stage of liver fibrosis...
March 8, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
Giuseppina R Umano, Sonia Caprio, Anna Di Sessa, Naga Chalasani, Daniel J Dykas, Bridget Pierpont, Allen E Bale, Nicola Santoro
OBJECTIVES: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of liver damage in childhood, its occurrence is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene has been found to be associated with alcoholic liver disease and NAFLD in adults. METHODS: In a multiethnic cohort of obese children and adolescents we genotyped the rs626283 polymorphism in the MBOAT7 gene, evaluated insulin sensitivity by an oral glucose tolerance test, and measured the intra-hepatic fat content (HFF%) by magnetic resonance imaging...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Jake P Mann, Luca Valenti, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne, Valerio Nobili
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children who present with particular risk factors including obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and/or a predisposing genetic background. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD in children is a worrying phenomenon because this disease is closely associated with the development of both cirrhosis and cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood. To date, the etiopathogenesis of primary NAFLD in children is unknown...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Robert Hegarty, Maesha Deheragoda, Emer Fitzpatrick, Anil Dhawan
The recognition of a pattern of steatotic liver injury where histology mimicked alcoholic liver disease but alcohol consumption was denied, led to the identification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has since become the most common chronic liver disease in adults owing to the global epidemic of obesity. However, in pediatrics, the term NAFLD seems incongruous: alcohol consumption is largely not a factor and inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) can mimic or co-exist with a diagnosis of NAFLD...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
John C Rausch, Joel E Lavine, Naga Chalasani, Xiuqing Guo, Soonil Kwon, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Jean P Molleston, Rohit Loomba, Elizabeth M Brunt, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Katherine P Yates, Jerome I Rotter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) disproportionately affects Hispanic boys. Further, obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for NAFLD. No gene localization studies had been performed on children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. This study aims to identify genomic variants associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance in a population of children with varying histologic severity of NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) including 624,297 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed among all 22 autosomal chromosomes in 234 Hispanic boys (up to 18 years of age) who were consecutively recruited in a prospective cohort study in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Studies...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
D F Y Chan, H K So, S C N Hui, R S M Chan, A M Li, M M Sea, W C W Chu, M Chan, J Woo, E A S Nelson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is increasing. This study evaluated the efficacy of a dietitian-led lifestyle modification programme (D-LMP) to reduce NAFLD in obese adolescents. METHODS: Subjects with intra-hepatic triglyceride content (IHTC) equal to or greater than 5% diagnosed by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) were enroled and randomly assigned to either the D-LMP intervention or conventional paediatrician-led consultation (P-CON) group...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
María Medrano, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega, Idoia Labayen
The main purposes of this study were to elucidate the effects of supervised-exercise training (ET) interventions on hepatic fat content and on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence in children and adolescents and to provide information about the optimal ET prescription (type, intensity, volume, and frequency) needed to reduce hepatic fat content in youths. Supervised-ET interventions performed in children and adolescents (6-19 years) that provided results of exercise effects on hepatic fat content or NAFLD prevalence were included...
February 13, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Elizabeth M Brunt
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common underlying causes of chronically elevated liver tests and liver disease in adults and children worldwide and may be strongly suspected if not diagnosed by ever evolving and available serologic and imaging-based noninvasive tests. However, the definitive diagnosis of the most progressive form of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and the identification of fibrosis stage still require liver biopsy evaluation as noninvasive testing has not replaced some of the specifics or the totality of information obtainable from liver biopsy...
July 2017: Hepatology communications
Kimberley D Bruce, Karen R Jonscher
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is present in a third of the general population and the majority of individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Importantly, NAFLD can progress to severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), associated with liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent research efforts have extensively focused on identifying factors contributing to the additional "hit" required to promote NALFD disease progression...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Valerio Nobili, Lorenza Putignani, Antonella Mosca, Federica Del Chierico, Pamela Vernocchi, Anna Alisi, Laura Stronati, Salvatore Cucchiara, Marco Toscano, Lorenzo Drago
Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), considered the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children, can often progress from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is clear that obesity is one of the main risk factors involved in NAFLD pathogenesis, even if specific mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. We investigated the distribution of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the stools of four groups of children: obese, obese with NAFL, obese with NASH, and healthy, age-matched controls (CTRLs)...
January 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Pamela Botero
OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sleep, physical activity (PA), and screen-time habits/behaviors among a multiethnic sample of overweight children/adolescents. METHODS: A retrospective medical chart review (6/2013-7/2014) identified 209 patients (7-21 years old) who were overweight/obese (BMI > 85th% for age/sex). A follow-up telephone survey was completed among 130 of these patients' parents to obtain information on sleep, screen-time, PA habits, and socio-demographics...
January 23, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
Shuang Liang, Zhen Yu, Xiaobo Song, Yu Wang, Meng Li, Jiang Xue
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between arginine-levodopa-induced growth hormone (GH) secretion and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. This study includes a total of 84 obese and 43 normal weight children. The obese subjects are divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of NAFLD. Clinical examination, anthropometric and laboratory examinations, and liver ultrasonography are assessed for all participants. The obese group had significantly lower peak stimulated GH (p<0...
January 16, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Jennifer K Frediani, Eric A Naioti, Miriam B Vos, Janet Figueroa, Carmen J Marsit, Jean A Welsh
BACKGROUND: While associated with obesity, the cause of the rapid rise in prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children, which is highest among Hispanics, is not well understood. Animal experiments have demonstrated that arsenic exposure contributes to liver injury. Our objective was to examine the association between arsenic exposure and NAFLD in humans and to determine if race/ethnicity modifies the association. METHODS: Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations among those ≥12 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2014 were used to assess the cross-sectional association with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, a marker of liver dysfunction...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Tingting Shi, Xingxin Yang, Hongping Zhou, Jianjun Xi, Jingjing Sun, Yunling Ke, Jiankang Zhang, Yidan Shao, Xiaojie Jiang, Xuwang Pan, Shourong Liu, Rangxiao Zhuang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming one of the world's most common chronic liver diseases in childhood, yet no therapy is available that has been approved by the food and drug administration (FDA). Previous studies have reported that telomere and telomerase are involved the development and progression of NAFLD. This study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of activated carbon N-acetylcysteine (ACNAC) microcapsules on the development of NAFLD in young rats as well as the underlying mechanism(s) involved...
2018: PloS One
Manoja Kumar Das, Vidyut Bhatia, Anupam Sibal, Abha Gupta, Sarath Gopalan, Raman Sardana, Reeti Sahni, Ankur Roy, Narendra K Arora
OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic parameters among normal-weight and overweight schoolchildren. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Thirteen private schools in urban Faridabad, Haryana. PARTICIPANTS: 961 school children aged 5-10 years. METHODS: Ultrasound testing was done, and 215 with fatty liver on ultrasound underwent further clinical, biochemical and virological testing...
December 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
Yu-Cheng Lin, Pi-Feng Chang, Mei-Hwei Chang, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are substantial genetic components contributing to the susceptibility of nonalcoholic NAFLD disease (NAFLD). It has recently been reported that the rs641738 C>T variant in the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing protein 7 (MBOAT7) gene increased severity of NAFLD in adults of European descent. We aimed to test the hypothesis that MBOAT7 rs641738 variant would increase hepatic steatosis and hepatocellular injury in obese children. METHODS: A total of 831 obese children aged 7-15 years were recruited...
January 4, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Valerio Nobili, Antonella Mosca, Rita De Vito, Massimiliano Raponi, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND & AIMS: As dietary components are delivered directly to the periportal zone of the liver lobule, there is the potential for greater injury in this zone (zone 1) compared to the perivenous zone (zone 3). We investigated the associations between dietary fructose consumption and uric acid concentrations and differential zonal injury in periportal and perivenous zones. METHODS: A total of 271 children's histological images were scored in 5 periportal and 5 perivenous zones for steatosis, ballooning, inflammation and fibrosis severity...
December 9, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Ryosuke Nakata, Fuminori Hyodo, Masaharu Murata, Hinako Eto, Tomoko Nakaji, Takahito Kawano, Sayoko Narahara, Keiji Yasukawa, Tomohiko Akahoshi, Morimasa Tomikawa, Makoto Hashizume
Given the rising incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in both adults and children, the development of a non-invasive diagnostic method for assessing disease progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become an important research goal. Currently available non-invasive imaging technologies are only able to assess fat accumulation in the liver. Therefore, these methods are not suitable for a precise diagnosis of NASH. The standard diagnostic technique for NASH, liver biopsy, has several drawbacks, including the higher risk of complications that accompanies invasive procedures...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hongping Zhou, Tingting Shi, Jun Yan, Xiaojin Chen, Li Liao, Shiyong Zhao, Hongying Fang, Rangxiao Zhuang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children has become the most common liver disease influencing adolescent health and one of the most influencing chronic liver diseases among children in Chinese wealthy families, particularly in coastal regions. However, the medicine available for the treatment of NAFLD is deficient. In order to solve this problem, our team studied the activated carbon N -acetylcysteine (NAC) sustained-release microcapsule, which improves the oxidation resistance, bioavailability and drug stability of acetylcysteine and reduces toxic and side effects...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Inez Martincevic, Marialena Mouzaki
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) require targeted nutrition therapy that relies on calculating energy needs. Common energy equations are inaccurate in predicting resting energy expenditure (REE), influencing total energy expenditure (TEE) estimates. Equations based on allometric scaling are simple, accurate, void of subjective activity and/or stress factor bias, and they estimate TEE. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive accuracy of an allometric energy equation (AEE) in predicting TEE of children and adolescents with NAFLD...
March 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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