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NAFLD in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544608/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-do-guidelines-provide-enough-guidance
#1
REVIEW
B G P Koot, V Nobili
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the industrialized world in children. Its high prevalence and important health risks make NAFLD highly suitable for screening. In practice, screening is widely, albeit not consistently, performed. AIM: To review the recommendations on screening for NAFLD in children. METHOD: Recommendations on screening were reviewed from major paediatric obesity guidelines and NAFLD guidelines...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540988/pathologic-impact-of-insulin-resistance-and-sensitivity-on-the-severity-of-liver-histopathology-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
Byung Han Park, Jung Min Yoon, Ja Hye Kim, Jin Hwa Moon, Young Ho Lee, Se Min Jang, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Insulin resistance (IR) has an important role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to analyze the association between liver histopathology and IR in pediatric patients with NASH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 24 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated whether the hepatic pathologic characteristics have relations with following three biochemical indices; IR index including homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and insulin sensitivity indices-free fatty acid (ISI-FFA)...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529199/can-fetuin-a-be-a-marker-for-insulin-resistance-and-poor-glycemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Ülkü Gül Sıraz, Murat Doğan, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Sabahttin Muhtaroğlu, Selim Kurtoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Backgroud Metabolic impairment in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) with poor glycemic control causes insulin resistance, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis; thus, increased Carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT). The Fetuin-A has protective effect in cardiovascular disorders, which is increased in hepatosteatosis. We aimed to investigate reliability of Fetuin-A levels in early detection of diabetic complications in children with T1DM and to identify a cut-off value that may show poor metabolic control...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521872/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-update-with-special-focus-on-the-role-of-gut-microbiota
#4
REVIEW
Michael Doulberis, Georgios Kotronis, Dimitra Gialamprinou, Jannis Kountouras, Panagiotis Katsinelos
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant global health burden in children, adolescents and adults with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. Accumulating data from manifold studies support the idea of NAFLD as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, being rather a systemic metabolic disease than a liver confined pathology. Emerging data support that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and progression. Apart from other regimens, probiotics may have a positive role in the management of NAFLD through a plethora of possible mechanisms...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520503/serum-alanine-aminotransferase-trends-and-their-relationship-with-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-united-states-adolescents-1999-2014
#5
Cyrelle R Fermin, Arthur M Lee, Stephanie L Filipp, Matthew J Gurka, Mark D DeBoer
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatocyte dysfunction, fat accumulation, and fibrosis, is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are used clinically to identify potential liver dysfunction. Our goal was to assess for changes in the national prevalence of elevated ALT over time and potential relationship to trends in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) severity and elevated body mass index (BMI)...
May 18, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512764/maternal-fructose-consumption-can-affect-offspring-metabolic-outcomes
#6
Alejandro Gugliucci
High sugar consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) which are in turn linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults and children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511023/efficacy-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-choline-vitamin-e-dha-cho-ve-in-paediatric-nash-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Evelyn Zöhrer, Alisi Anna, Jörg Jahnel, Antonella Moscla, Claudia Della Corte, Annalisa Crudele, Günter Fauler, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial on children with biopsy-proven NASH based on a combinatorial nutritional approach compared to placebo. Participants were assigned to lifestyle modification plus placebo, or lifestyle modification plus a mix containing docosahexaenoic acid, choline and vitamin E (DHA-CHO-VE). Forty children and adolescents concluded the trial...
May 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506362/current-concepts-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Sarah E Fleet, Jay H Lefkowitch, Joel E Lavine
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of disease. Its increasing prevalence is a direct result of historically high rates of obesity. Hepatocyte lipid accumulation is the first step in a cascade of metabolic and inflammatory events thought to precipitate NAFLD. Histologic findings provide insight into these events. Lifestyle modification remains the primary therapy in children. Current recommendations include vitamin E treatment in those with biopsy-proven NASH. Trials of novel drugs are ongoing in adults...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502444/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-hepatic-and-extrahepatic-complications
#9
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Valerio Nobili, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and has become the most common form of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The histologic spectrum of NAFLD is broad ranging, from the relatively benign form of simple steatosis to the aggressive form of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, eventually leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD has also been recognized as an independent risk factor for extrahepatic complications, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep disorders, and osteoporosis...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493388/magnetic-resonance-elastography-measured-shear-stiffness-as-a-biomarker-of-fibrosis-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Cynthia Behling, Jorge Eduardo Angeles, Melissa Paiz, Janis Durelle, Jonathan Africa, Kimberly P Newton, Elizabeth M Brunt, Joel E Lavine, Stephanie H Abrams, Prakash Masand, Rajesh Krishnamurthy, Kelvin Wong, Richard L Ehman, Meng Yin, Kevin J Glaser, Bogdan Dzyubak, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony C Gamst, Jonathan Hooker, William Haufe, Alexandra Schlein, Gavin Hamilton, Michael S Middleton, Claude B Sirlin
Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is promising for non-invasive assessment of fibrosis, a major determinant of outcome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, data in children are limited. Study aims were to determine accuracy of MRE for detection of fibrosis and advanced fibrosis in children with NAFLD, and to assess agreement between manual and novel automated reading methods. We performed a prospective, multi-center study of 2D-MRE in children with NAFLD. MR-elastograms were analyzed manually at 2 reading centers and using a new automated technique...
May 11, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492501/urinary-metabolomics-in-pediatric-obesity-and-nafld-identifies-metabolic-pathways-metabolites-related-to-dietary-habits-and-gut-liver-axis-perturbations
#11
Jacopo Troisi, Luca Pierri, Annamaria Landolfi, Francesca Marciano, Antonella Bisogno, Federica Belmonte, Carmen Palladino, Salvatore Guercio Nuzio, Pietro Campiglia, Pietro Vajro
To get insight into still elusive pathomechanisms of pediatric obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) we explored the interplay among GC-MS studied urinary metabolomic signature, gut liver axis (GLA) abnormalities, and food preferences (Kid-Med). Intestinal permeability (IP), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were investigated in forty children (mean age 9.8 years) categorized as normal weight (NW) or obese (body mass index <85th or >95th percentile, respectively) ± ultrasonographic bright liver and hypertransaminasemia (NAFLD)...
May 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475023/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-for-detection-of-liver-fibrosis-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#12
Juan D Berná-Serna, Regina Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca Velázquez-Marín, Pilar Sainz de Baranda, Florentina Guzmán-Aroca, Carmen Fernández-Hernández, Ernesto Doménech-Abellán, Dolores Abellán-Rivero, Guadalupe Ruiz-Merino, Juan Madrid-Conesa, Manuel Canteras-Jordana
Background Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is a non-invasive alternative to a liver biopsy for the evaluation of liver fibrosis (LF). Purpose To investigate the potential usefulness of acoustic radiation force impulse ARFI for detecting LF in overweight and obese children Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 148 schoolchildren. A diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and LF was based on ultrasound (US) and ARFI shear wave velocity (SWV). Results The laboratory parameters were normal in all the children...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448433/prevalence-and-correlates-of-suspected-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-chinese-children
#13
Peige Song, Jinyue Yu, Manli Wang, Xinlei Chang, Jiawen Wang, Lin An
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious public health problem worldwide; however, the availability of information on the prevalence of NAFLD in the general pediatric population is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the prevalence and correlates of suspected NAFLD in Chinese children at the national level. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) was used. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP) were measured for children aged 7-18 years...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426902/hepatic-steatosis-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#14
Emily R Perito, Tabitha Vase, Rageshree Ramachandran, Andrew Phelps, Kuang-Yu Jen, Robert H Lustig, Vickie A Feldstein, Philip Rosenthal
RATIONALE: Hepatic steatosis develops after liver transplant in 30% of adults, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in non-transplanted children. However, post-transplant steatosis has been minimally studied in pediatric liver transplant recipients. We explored the prevalence, persistence, and association with chronic liver damage of hepatic steatosis in these children. RESULTS: In this single-center study of pediatric patients transplanted 1988-2015 (n=318), 31% of those with any post-transplant biopsy (n=271) had ≥1 biopsy with steatosis...
April 20, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397375/elevation-of-circulating-microrna-levels-in-obese-children-compared-to-healthy-controls
#15
M D Thompson, M J Cismowski, M Serpico, A Pusateri, D R Brigstock
As childhood obesity increases, it is becoming important to understand the complications of obesity in children and develop novel biomarkers. Evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNA) are dys-regulated in obesity and may serve as sensitive and specific circulating biomarkers. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complication of obesity that ultimately requires a liver biopsy to determine disease severity. While studies have been conducted in adults, no study to date has examined circulating miRNAs in children with obesity and NAFLD...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366357/low-and-high-birth-weights-are-risk-factors-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#16
Kimberly P Newton, Haruna S Feldman, Christina D Chambers, Laura Wilson, Cynthia Behling, Jeanne M Clark, Jean P Molleston, Naga Chalasani, Arun J Sanyal, Mark H Fishbein, Joel E Lavine, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
OBJECTIVES: To examine the distribution of birth weight in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) compared with the general US population, and to investigate the relationship between birth weight and severity of NAFLD. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, cross-sectional study of children with biopsy-proven NAFLD enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Database. Birth weight was categorized as low birth weight (LBW), normal birth weight (NBW), or high birth weight (HBW) and compared with the birth weight distribution in the general US population...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356335/childhood-adiposity-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adulthood
#17
Yinkun Yan, Dongqing Hou, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Junting Liu, Hong Cheng, Youfa Wang, Jie Mi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of childhood adiposity and change in adiposity status from childhood to adulthood with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and abnormal liver enzyme levels in adulthood. METHODS: Data were obtained from a population-based cohort of children aged 6 to 18 years started in 1987. From 2010 to 2014, 1350 subjects (aged 28-45 years) from the original cohort were followed. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using BMI and subscapular skinfold thickness, respectively...
March 29, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333768/management-of-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-academic-hepatologists-in-canada-a-nationwide-survey
#18
Marialena Mouzaki, Simon C Ling, Richard A Schreiber, Binita M Kamath
BACKGROUND: The literature on the optimal clinical management of pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is limited. The objective of this study was to identify discrepancies in the care provided to patients with NAFLD by hepatologists practicing in academic centers across Canada. METHODS: A nationwide survey was distributed electronically to all pediatric hepatologists practicing in university-affiliated hospitals using the infrastructure of the Canadian Pediatric Hepatology Research Group...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324110/effects-of-metreleptin-in-pediatric-patients-with-lipodystrophy
#19
Rebecca J Brown, Cristina Adelia Meehan, Elaine Cochran, Kristina I Rother, David E Kleiner, Mary Walter, Phillip Gorden
Context: Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare disorders of deficient adipose tissue. Metreleptin, a human analog of leptin, improved metabolic abnormalities in mixed cohorts of children and adults with lipodystrophy and low leptin. Objective: Determine effects of metreleptin on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), growth, and puberty in pediatric patients with lipodystrophy and low leptin. Design: Prospective, single-arm, open-label studies with continuous enrollment since 2000...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319602/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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