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Pediatric hepatic steatosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319602/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225568/liver-histology-and-diffusion-weighted-mri-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-magnet-study
#2
Paul Manning, Paul Murphy, Kang Wang, Jonathan Hooker, Tanya Wolfson, Michael S Middleton, Kimberly P Newton, Cynthia Behling, Hannah I Awai, Janis Durelle, Melissa N Paiz, Jorge E Angeles, Diana De La Pena, J Allen McCutchan, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
PURPOSE: To determine potential associations between histologic features of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and estimated quantitative magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was performed as part of the Magnetic Resonance Assessment Guiding NAFLD Evaluation and Treatment (MAGNET) ancillary study to the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204893/gastrointestinal-system-manifestations-in-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#3
Hafize Emine Sönmez, Asuman Nur Karhan, Ezgi Deniz Batu, Yelda Bilginer, Ersin Gümüş, Hülya Demir, Aysel Yüce, Seza Özen
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease which may involve gastrointestinal system (GIS). The aim of this study was to present GIS manifestations of pediatric SLE patients. The medical files of 69 children with SLE followed between January 2011 and January 2016 were reviewed. All fulfilled the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria. All patients (≤18 years of age) with GIS manifestations were included. GIS manifestations were observed in 19 (27.5%) out of 69 SLE patients and present at the time of SLE diagnosis in 13 (68...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101773/what-is-the-appropriate-strategy-for-diagnosing-nafld-using-ultrasonography-in-obese-children
#4
Jee Hyun Lee, Su Jin Jeong
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify obese children who are candidates for a potential diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We enrolled 242 obese children (122 boys and 120 girls) aged 7-16 years who were examined with abdominal ultrasonography in our pediatric obesity clinic. We compared patients in the normal group with those in the NAFLD group (mild disease, moderate to severe disease) and identified the optimal anthropometric parameters among height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist to hip ratio to predict NAFLD using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998312/rare-presentation-of-subcapsular-hepatic-steatosis-in-a-woman-with-uncontrolled-diabetes-without-peritoneal-dialysis-a-case-report
#5
Varun Chowdhary, Jennifer S Golia Pernicka, Richa Sharma
BACKGROUND: Subcapsular hepatic steatosis is a rare atypical pattern of fatty deposition of the liver reported in patients with diabetic nephropathy receiving peritoneal dialysis with intraperitoneal insulin. To date, there has been only one pediatric and zero adult cases of subcapsular hepatic steatosis with no history of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We report the first published case of subcapsular hepatic steatosis in an adult diabetic patient without any history of peritoneal dialysis or evidence of chronic renal disease...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986169/hepatic-steatosis-etiology-patterns-and-quantification
#6
Ilkay S Idilman, Ilknur Ozdeniz, Musturay Karcaaltincaba
Hepatic steatosis can occur because of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholism, chemotherapy, and metabolic, toxic, and infectious causes. Pediatric hepatic steatosis is also becoming more frequent and can have distinctive features. The most common pattern is diffuse form; however, it can present in heterogenous, focal, multinodular, perilesional, perivascular, subcapsular, and lobar forms. Focal steatosis and fat sparing can occur because of the presence of veins of Sappey, pancreaticoduodenal vein, and aberrant right and left gastric veins, which drain into the liver as third inflow...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762491/resolution-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-after-growth-hormone-replacement-in-a-pediatric-liver-transplant-patient-with-panhypopituitarism
#7
Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
December 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707653/the-impact-of-morbid-obesity-on-solid-organ-injury-in-children-using-the-atomac-protocol-at-a-pediatric-level-i-trauma-center
#8
Nathan Vaughan, Jeff Tweed, Cynthia Greenwell, David M Notrica, Crystal S Langlais, Shawn D St Peter, Charles M Leys, Daniel J Ostlie, R Todd Maxson, Todd Ponsky, David W Tuggle, James W Eubanks, Amina Bhatia, Cynthia Greenwell, Nilda M Garcia, Karla A Lawson, Prasenjeet Motghare, Robert W Letton, Adam C Alder
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an epidemic in the pediatric population. Childhood obesity in trauma has been associated with increased incidence of long-bone fractures, longer ICU stays, and decreased closed head injuries. We investigated for differences in the likelihood of failure of non-operative management (NOM), and injury grade using a subset of a multi-institutional, prospective database of pediatric patients with solid organ injury (SOI). METHODS: We prospectively collected data on all pediatric patients (<18years) admitted for liver or splenic injury from September 2013 to January 2016...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501738/nocturnal-hypoxia-induced-oxidative-stress-promotes-progression-of-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Shikha S Sundaram, Ann Halbower, Zhaoxing Pan, Kristen Robbins, Kelley E Capocelli, Jelena Klawitter, Colin T Shearn, Ronald J Sokol
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oxidative stress is proposed as a central mediator in NAFLD pathogenesis, but the specific trigger for reactive oxygen species generation has not been clearly delineated. In addition, emerging evidence shows that obesity related obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxia are associated with NAFLD progression in adults. The aim of this study was to determine if OSA/nocturnal hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes the progression of pediatric NAFLD. METHODS: Subjects with biopsy proven NAFLD and lean controls were studied...
September 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391242/an-animal-model-for-the-juvenile-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Veronica Marin, Natalia Rosso, Matteo Dal Ben, Alan Raseni, Manuela Boschelle, Cristina Degrassi, Ivana Nemeckova, Petr Nachtigal, Claudio Avellini, Claudio Tiribelli, Silvia Gazzin
Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) are the hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome; worrisome is the booming increase in pediatric age. To recreate the full spectrum of juvenile liver pathology and investigate the gender impact, male and female C57Bl/6 mice were fed with high fat diet plus fructose in the drinking water (HFHC) immediately after weaning (equal to 3-years old human), and disease progression followed for 16 weeks, until adults (equal to 30-years old human)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086005/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Vikas Uppal, Sana Mansoor, Katryn N Furuya
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and by 2012, more than one third of American children were overweight or obese. As a result, increasingly, children are developing complications of obesity including liver disease. In fact, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease seen in children today. Recently, there has been a burgeoning literature examining the pathogenesis, genetic markers, and role of the microbiome in this disease. On the clinical front, new modalities of diagnosing hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis are being developed to provide non-invasive methods of surveillance in children...
May 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27039224/comparison-of-controlled-attenuation-parameter-and-liver-biopsy-to-assess-hepatic-steatosis-in-pediatric-patients
#12
Nirav K Desai, Sarah Harney, Roshan Raza, Alyaa Al-Ibraheemi, Nick Shillingford, Paul D Mitchell, Maureen M Jonas
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the degree of steatosis as determined by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurements correlates with that observed on liver biopsies in a single-center pediatric and young adult cohort. STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study included patients undergoing liver biopsy as part of standard clinical care between January 25, 2012, and April 1, 2015, at Boston Children's Hospital. Eligible patients, with a variety of liver diseases, had CAP measurements within 1 year of biopsy...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002331/effect-of-octreotide-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#13
Mao Li, Ting Ye, Xiao-Xia Wang, Xian Li, Ou Qiang, Tao Yu, Cheng-Wei Tang, Rui Liu
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) caused by liver lipid dysregulation is linked to obesity. Somatostatin (SST) and its analogs have been used to treat pediatric hypothalamic obesity. However, the application of such drugs for the treatment of NAFLD has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of important regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism and the possible effect of the SST analog octreotide on these regulators...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820798/models-predictive-of-metabolic-syndrome-components-in-obese-pediatric-patients
#14
Rosa Ortega-Cortes, Xóchitl Trujillo, Erika Fabiola Hurtado López, Ana Laura López Beltrán, Cecilia Colunga Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Barrera-de Leon, Alberto Tlacuilo-Parra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are complications caused by abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Diagnosis of MetS by clinical indicators could help to identify patients at risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We undertook this study to propose predictive indicators of MetS in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out. After obtaining informed consent and the registration of the study with an institutional research committee, 172 obese patients from an Obesity Clinic, aged 6-15 years, were included...
January 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594831/liver-disease-in-pediatric-patients-with-ataxia-telangiectasia-a-novel-report
#15
Batia Weiss, Alexander Krauthammer, Michalle Soudack, Avishay Lahad, Ifat Sarouk, Raz Somech, Gali Heimer, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Andreea Nissenkorn
OBJECTIVE: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare genetic multiorgan disease. Although gastrointestinal involvement is known, hepatic involvement in A-T has not been investigated. We aimed to study the hepatic involvement in a large cohort of patients with A-T. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients, studied from January 1986 to January 2015 at a National A-T Center. Clinical data including demographic, genetic, laboratory, nutritional, radiographic, and histological data were retrieved...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26390101/a-report-of-three-cases-with-acquired-generalized-lipodystrophy-with-distinct-autoimmune-conditions-treated-with-metreleptin
#16
Jasmin Lebastchi, Nevin Ajluni, Adam Neidert, Elif A Oral
CONTEXT: Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is associated with leptin deficiency as a result of adipose tissue loss and hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. It may coexist with other autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, hemolytic anemia, and chronic active hepatitis. Metreleptin therapy has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities in lipodystrophy, but the effect on AGL patients with active autoimmune disease is unknown...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273604/the-potential-role-of-iron-and-copper-in-pediatric-obesity-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
REVIEW
Alexandra Feldman, Elmar Aigner, Daniel Weghuber, Katharina Paulmichl
Obesity is a rapidly growing health problem and is paralleled by a multitude of comorbidities, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD has become the most common chronic liver disease in both adults and children. The current understanding of NAFLD is still fragmentary. While simple steatosis is characterized by the interplay between excessive free fatty acid accumulation and hepatic insulin resistance, the progression to NASH has been related to oxidative stress and a proinflammatory state with dysbalanced adipokine, cytokine levels, and endotoxin-mediated immune response...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26252914/clinical-features-of-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#18
Barbara K Burton, Patrick B Deegan, Gregory M Enns, Ornella Guardamagna, Simon Horslen, Gerard K Hovingh, Steve J Lobritto, Vera Malinova, Valerie A McLin, Julian Raiman, Maja Di Rocco, Saikat Santra, Reena Sharma, Jolanta Sykut-Cegielska, Chester B Whitley, Stephen Eckert, Vassili Valayannopoulos, Anthony G Quinn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize key clinical manifestations of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL D) in children and adults. METHODS: Investigators reviewed medical records of LAL D patients ages ≥5 years, extracted historical data, and obtained prospective laboratory and imaging data on living patients to develop a longitudinal dataset. RESULTS: A total of 49 patients were enrolled; 48 had confirmed LAL D. Mean age at first disease-related abnormality was 9...
December 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26241054/elevated-copper-impairs-hepatic-nuclear-receptor-function-in-wilson-s-disease
#19
Clavia Ruth Wooton-Kee, Ajay K Jain, Martin Wagner, Michael A Grusak, Milton J Finegold, Svetlana Lutsenko, David D Moore
Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in accumulation of copper in the liver as a consequence of mutations in the gene encoding the copper-transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). WD is a chronic liver disorder, and individuals with the disease present with a variety of complications, including steatosis, cholestasis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. Similar to patients with WD, Atp7b⁻/⁻ mice have markedly elevated levels of hepatic copper and liver pathology. Previous studies have demonstrated that replacement of zinc in the DNA-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (ER) with copper disrupts specific binding to DNA response elements...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26202832/histopathology-of-hepatitis-c-in-children-a-systematic-review-implications-for-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Giuseppe Indolfi, Maria Guido, Chiara Azzari, Massimo Resti
Chronic hepatitis C in children is usually considered a clinically mild and slowly progressive disease. Few pediatric studies focused on histopathology of children with hepatitis C are available. Those available show, overall, a wide spectrum of findings ranging from normal liver to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the studies that explored histopathology in children with hepatitis C. Factors affecting the presence and the degree of necroinflammation, fibrosis and steatosis and the risk of progression to advanced liver disease were extensively evaluated...
2015: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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