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Pediatric hepatic steatosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762491/resolution-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-after-growth-hormone-replacement-in-a-pediatric-liver-transplant-patient-with-panhypopituitarism
#1
Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
December 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707653/the-impact-of-morbid-obesity-on-solid-organ-injury-in-children-using-the-atomac-protocol-at-a-pediatric-level-i-trauma-center
#2
Nathan Vaughan, Jeff Tweed, Cynthia Greenwell, David M Notrica, Crystal S Langlais, Shawn D St Peter, Charles M Leys, Daniel J Ostlie, R Todd Maxson, Todd Ponsky, David W Tuggle, James W Eubanks, Amina Bhatia, Cynthia Greenwell, Nilda M Garcia, Karla A Lawson, Prasenjeet Motghare, Robert W Letton, Adam C Alder
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an epidemic in the pediatric population. Childhood obesity in trauma has been associated with increased incidence of long-bone fractures, longer ICU stays, and decreased closed head injuries. We investigated for differences in the likelihood of failure of non-operative management (NOM), and injury grade using a subset of a multi-institutional, prospective database of pediatric patients with solid organ injury (SOI). METHODS: We prospectively collected data on all pediatric patients (<18years) admitted for liver or splenic injury from September 2013 to January 2016...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501738/nocturnal-hypoxia-induced-oxidative-stress-promotes-progression-of-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
Shikha S Sundaram, Ann Halbower, Zhaoxing Pan, Kristen Robbins, Kelley E Capocelli, Jelena Klawitter, Colin T Shearn, Ronald J Sokol
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oxidative stress is proposed as a central mediator in NAFLD pathogenesis, but the specific trigger for reactive oxygen species generation has not been clearly delineated. In addition, emerging evidence shows that obesity related obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxia are associated with NAFLD progression in adults. The aim of this study was to determine if OSA/nocturnal hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes the progression of pediatric NAFLD. METHODS: Subjects with biopsy proven NAFLD and lean controls were studied...
September 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391242/an-animal-model-for-the-juvenile-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
Veronica Marin, Natalia Rosso, Matteo Dal Ben, Alan Raseni, Manuela Boschelle, Cristina Degrassi, Ivana Nemeckova, Petr Nachtigal, Claudio Avellini, Claudio Tiribelli, Silvia Gazzin
Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) are the hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome; worrisome is the booming increase in pediatric age. To recreate the full spectrum of juvenile liver pathology and investigate the gender impact, male and female C57Bl/6 mice were fed with high fat diet plus fructose in the drinking water (HFHC) immediately after weaning (equal to 3-years old human), and disease progression followed for 16 weeks, until adults (equal to 30-years old human)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086005/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Vikas Uppal, Sana Mansoor, Katryn N Furuya
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and by 2012, more than one third of American children were overweight or obese. As a result, increasingly, children are developing complications of obesity including liver disease. In fact, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease seen in children today. Recently, there has been a burgeoning literature examining the pathogenesis, genetic markers, and role of the microbiome in this disease. On the clinical front, new modalities of diagnosing hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis are being developed to provide non-invasive methods of surveillance in children...
May 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27039224/comparison-of-controlled-attenuation-parameter-and-liver-biopsy-to-assess-hepatic-steatosis-in-pediatric-patients
#6
Nirav K Desai, Sarah Harney, Roshan Raza, Alyaa Al-Ibraheemi, Nick Shillingford, Paul D Mitchell, Maureen M Jonas
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the degree of steatosis as determined by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurements correlates with that observed on liver biopsies in a single-center pediatric and young adult cohort. STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study included patients undergoing liver biopsy as part of standard clinical care between January 25, 2012, and April 1, 2015, at Boston Children's Hospital. Eligible patients, with a variety of liver diseases, had CAP measurements within 1 year of biopsy...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002331/effect-of-octreotide-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#7
Mao Li, Ting Ye, Xiao-Xia Wang, Xian Li, Ou Qiang, Tao Yu, Cheng-Wei Tang, Rui Liu
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) caused by liver lipid dysregulation is linked to obesity. Somatostatin (SST) and its analogs have been used to treat pediatric hypothalamic obesity. However, the application of such drugs for the treatment of NAFLD has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of important regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism and the possible effect of the SST analog octreotide on these regulators...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820798/models-predictive-of-metabolic-syndrome-components-in-obese-pediatric-patients
#8
Rosa Ortega-Cortes, Xóchitl Trujillo, Erika Fabiola Hurtado López, Ana Laura López Beltrán, Cecilia Colunga Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Barrera-de Leon, Alberto Tlacuilo-Parra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are complications caused by abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Diagnosis of MetS by clinical indicators could help to identify patients at risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We undertook this study to propose predictive indicators of MetS in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out. After obtaining informed consent and the registration of the study with an institutional research committee, 172 obese patients from an Obesity Clinic, aged 6-15 years, were included...
January 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594831/liver-disease-in-pediatric-patients-with-ataxia-telangiectasia-a-novel-report
#9
Batia Weiss, Alexander Krauthammer, Michalle Soudack, Avishay Lahad, Ifat Sarouk, Raz Somech, Gali Heimer, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Andreea Nissenkorn
OBJECTIVE: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare genetic multiorgan disease. Although gastrointestinal involvement is known, hepatic involvement in A-T has not been investigated. We aimed to study the hepatic involvement in a large cohort of patients with A-T. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients, studied from January 1986 to January 2015 at a National A-T Center. Clinical data including demographic, genetic, laboratory, nutritional, radiographic, and histological data were retrieved...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26390101/a-report-of-three-cases-with-acquired-generalized-lipodystrophy-with-distinct-autoimmune-conditions-treated-with-metreleptin
#10
Jasmin Lebastchi, Nevin Ajluni, Adam Neidert, Elif A Oral
CONTEXT: Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is associated with leptin deficiency as a result of adipose tissue loss and hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. It may coexist with other autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, hemolytic anemia, and chronic active hepatitis. Metreleptin therapy has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities in lipodystrophy, but the effect on AGL patients with active autoimmune disease is unknown...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273604/the-potential-role-of-iron-and-copper-in-pediatric-obesity-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Alexandra Feldman, Elmar Aigner, Daniel Weghuber, Katharina Paulmichl
Obesity is a rapidly growing health problem and is paralleled by a multitude of comorbidities, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD has become the most common chronic liver disease in both adults and children. The current understanding of NAFLD is still fragmentary. While simple steatosis is characterized by the interplay between excessive free fatty acid accumulation and hepatic insulin resistance, the progression to NASH has been related to oxidative stress and a proinflammatory state with dysbalanced adipokine, cytokine levels, and endotoxin-mediated immune response...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26252914/clinical-features-of-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#12
Barbara K Burton, Patrick B Deegan, Gregory M Enns, Ornella Guardamagna, Simon Horslen, Gerard K Hovingh, Steve J Lobritto, Vera Malinova, Valerie A McLin, Julian Raiman, Maja Di Rocco, Saikat Santra, Reena Sharma, Jolanta Sykut-Cegielska, Chester B Whitley, Stephen Eckert, Vassili Valayannopoulos, Anthony G Quinn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize key clinical manifestations of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL D) in children and adults. METHODS: Investigators reviewed medical records of LAL D patients ages ≥5 years, extracted historical data, and obtained prospective laboratory and imaging data on living patients to develop a longitudinal dataset. RESULTS: A total of 49 patients were enrolled; 48 had confirmed LAL D. Mean age at first disease-related abnormality was 9...
December 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26241054/elevated-copper-impairs-hepatic-nuclear-receptor-function-in-wilson-s-disease
#13
Clavia Ruth Wooton-Kee, Ajay K Jain, Martin Wagner, Michael A Grusak, Milton J Finegold, Svetlana Lutsenko, David D Moore
Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in accumulation of copper in the liver as a consequence of mutations in the gene encoding the copper-transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). WD is a chronic liver disorder, and individuals with the disease present with a variety of complications, including steatosis, cholestasis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. Similar to patients with WD, Atp7b⁻/⁻ mice have markedly elevated levels of hepatic copper and liver pathology. Previous studies have demonstrated that replacement of zinc in the DNA-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (ER) with copper disrupts specific binding to DNA response elements...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26202832/histopathology-of-hepatitis-c-in-children-a-systematic-review-implications-for-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Giuseppe Indolfi, Maria Guido, Chiara Azzari, Massimo Resti
Chronic hepatitis C in children is usually considered a clinically mild and slowly progressive disease. Few pediatric studies focused on histopathology of children with hepatitis C are available. Those available show, overall, a wide spectrum of findings ranging from normal liver to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the studies that explored histopathology in children with hepatitis C. Factors affecting the presence and the degree of necroinflammation, fibrosis and steatosis and the risk of progression to advanced liver disease were extensively evaluated...
2015: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26201937/nonalcoholic-fatty-pancreas-disease-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-more-than-ectopic-fat
#15
C Della Corte, A Mosca, F Majo, V Lucidi, N Panera, E Giglioni, L Monti, L Stronati, A Alisi, V Nobili
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of fatty pancreas (nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease - NAFPD) in a group of obese paediatric patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We included 121 consecutive children with echographic evidence of hepatic steatosis. All patients underwent to abdominal ultrasound to evaluate pancreatic echogenic pattern. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of the presence of fatty pancreas...
November 2015: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26186300/adiposity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-children-with-and-without-antipsychotic-drug-treatment
#16
Ginger E Nicol, Lisa de Las Fuentes, Amy E Riek, Carlos Bernal-Mizrachi, Eric J Lenze, J Phillip Miller, Julia A Schweiger, Michael D Yingling, Vincent J Huang, David J Dixon, Charles H Hennekens, John W Newcomer
CONTEXT: Pediatric obesity is common, particularly in children treated with antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic exposure can increase cardiometabolic risk by increasing adiposity, and possibly via other adiposity-independent pathways. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to characterize relationships of adiposity with intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in children with and without antipsychotic drug treatment, and to explore whether vitamin D alters any effects in these relationships...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26025327/bergamot-polyphenol-fraction-prevents-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-stimulation-of-lipophagy-in-cafeteria-diet-induced-rat-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Maddalena Parafati, Antonella Lascala, Valeria Maria Morittu, Francesca Trimboli, Antonia Rizzuto, Elvira Brunelli, Francesca Coscarelli, Nicola Costa, Domenico Britti, James Ehrlich, Ciro Isidoro, Vincenzo Mollace, Elzbieta Janda
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in industrialized countries. Defective autophagy of lipid droplets (LDs) in hepatocytes, also known as lipophagy, has recently been identified as a possible pathophysiological mechanism of NAFLD. Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols may prevent NAFLD. To address this hypothesis and analyze the underlying mechanisms, we supplemented bergamot polyphenol fraction (BPF) to cafeteria (CAF) diet-fed rats, a good model for pediatric metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
September 2015: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25799683/-prevalence-of-no-alcohol-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-in-a-population-of-obese-children-in-valencia-venezuela
#18
Milagros Pontiles de Sánchez, Alba Morón de Salim, Henny Rodríguez de Perdomo, Germán Perdomo Oramas
No Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, without alcohol, where overweight and obesity are determinants. Ecosonografia evaluated the prevalence of fatty liver in obese pediatric patients and its relation to nutritional assessment. The sample consisted of 85 children (51 females, 34 males), age 3-17. The abdominal ecosonography, BMI, waist circumference were performed; Godard Test for physical activity, history of diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity and cardiovascular disease were questioned...
June 2014: Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25788542/altered-regulation-of-hepatic-efflux-transporters-disrupts-acetaminophen-disposition-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#19
Mark J Canet, Matthew D Merrell, Rhiannon N Hardwick, Amy M Bataille, Sarah N Campion, Daniel W Ferreira, Stavra A Xanthakos, Jose E Manautou, H Hesham A-Kader, Robert P Erickson, Nathan J Cherrington
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, representing a spectrum of liver pathologies that include simple hepatic steatosis and the more advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The current study was conducted to determine whether pediatric NASH also results in altered disposition of acetaminophen (APAP) and its two primary metabolites, APAP-sulfate and APAP-glucuronide. Pediatric patients with hepatic steatosis (n = 9) or NASH (n = 3) and healthy patients (n = 12) were recruited in a small pilot study design...
June 2015: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25732418/plasma-cathepsin-d-levels-a-novel-tool-to-predict-pediatric-hepatic-inflammation
#20
Sofie M A Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Tim Hendrikx, Mike L J Jeurissen, Patrick J van Gorp, Anita C E Vreugdenhil, Marlou P Adriaanse, Wim A Buurman, Marten H Hofker, Antonella Mosca, Patrick J Lindsey, Anna Alisi, Daniela Liccardo, Nadia Panera, Ger H Koek, Valerio Nobili, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most severe form of a hepatic condition known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NASH is histologically characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation, and ballooning, and eventually coupled with fibrosis that, in turn, may progress to end-stage liver disease even in young individuals. Hence, there is a critical need for specific noninvasive markers to predict hepatic inflammation at an early age. We investigated whether plasma levels of cathepsin D (CatD), a lysosomal protease, correlated with the severity of liver inflammation in pediatric NAFLD...
March 2015: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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