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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865949/lost-in-translation-the-potential-psychobiotic-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-jb-1-fails-to-modulate-stress-or-cognitive-performance-in-healthy-male-subjects
#1
John R Kelly, Andrew P Allen, Andriy Temko, William Hutch, Paul J Kennedy, Niloufar Farid, Eileen Murphy, Geraldine Boylan, John Bienenstock, John F Cryan, Gerard Clarke, Timothy G Dinan
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have identified certain probiotics as psychobiotics - live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) has been shown to reduce stress-related behaviour, corticosterone release and alter central expression of GABA receptors in an anxious mouse strain. However, it is unclear if this single putative psychobiotic strain has psychotropic activity in humans. Consequently, we aimed to examine if these promising preclinical findings could be translated to healthy human volunteers...
November 16, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827896/transforming-life-a-broad-view-of-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-concept-from-an-ecological-justice-perspective
#2
Susan L Prescott, Alan C Logan
The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901-1982) conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions) and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that "mere survival is not enough". He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them); thus modernity could interfere with health via "missing exposures"...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801892/bifidobacterium-longum-1714-as-a-translational-psychobiotic-modulation-of-stress-electrophysiology-and-neurocognition-in-healthy-volunteers
#3
A P Allen, W Hutch, Y E Borre, P J Kennedy, A Temko, G Boylan, E Murphy, J F Cryan, T G Dinan, G Clarke
The emerging concept of psychobiotics-live microorganisms with a potential mental health benefit-represents a novel approach for the management of stress-related conditions. The majority of studies have focused on animal models. Recent preclinical studies have identified the B. longum 1714 strain as a putative psychobiotic with an impact on stress-related behaviors, physiology and cognitive performance. Whether such preclinical effects could be translated to healthy human volunteers remains unknown. We tested whether psychobiotic consumption could affect the stress response, cognition and brain activity patterns...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794467/gaba-production-and-structure-of-gadb-gadc-genes-in-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacterium-strains-from-human-microbiota
#4
R A Yunes, E U Poluektova, M S Dyachkova, K M Klimina, A S Kovtun, O V Averina, V S Orlova, V N Danilenko
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate...
October 26, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793434/psychobiotics-and-the-manipulation-of-bacteria-gut-brain-signals
#5
REVIEW
Amar Sarkar, Soili M Lehto, Siobhán Harty, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Philip W J Burnet
Psychobiotics were previously defined as live bacteria (probiotics) which, when ingested, confer mental health benefits through interactions with commensal gut bacteria. We expand this definition to encompass prebiotics, which enhance the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. We review probiotic and prebiotic effects on emotional, cognitive, systemic, and neural variables relevant to health and disease. We discuss gut-brain signalling mechanisms enabling psychobiotic effects, such as metabolite production. Overall, knowledge of how the microbiome responds to exogenous influence remains limited...
November 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787576/-gut-microbiome-and-major-depressive-disorder-the-other-side-of-ourselves
#6
A Manook, A Hiergeist, R Rupprecht, T C Baghai
Microbiological ecology and its ambition to describe the complete genome of complex living communities as a whole, have given us powerful tools to characterize the human gut microbiome on a genetic and, hence, taxonomic and abundance level; for a decade now, they have become sufficiently inexpensive, fast and feasible. Thus, opportunities arose to have a fresh and closer look at the microbiota-gut-brain-axis and its impact on human health; this axis comprises a complex multisystemic network of multidirectional interactions between brain and gut including influences beyond one generation...
October 27, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756969/psychobiotics-a-paradigm-shift-in-psychopharmacology
#7
Suravi Patra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641441/gut-instincts-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-brain-development-ageing-and-neurodegeneration
#8
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520903/gut-brain-axis-psychobiotics-and-mental-health
#9
EDITORIAL
Arpit Parmar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405349/microbiome-and-mental-health-in-the-modern-environment
#10
EDITORIAL
Emily Deans
A revolution in the understanding of the pathophysiology of mental illness combined with new knowledge about host/microbiome interactions and psychoneuroimmunology has opened an entirely new field of study, the "psychobiotics". The modern microbiome is quite changed compared to our ancestral one due to diet, antibiotic exposure, and other environmental factors, and these differences may well impact our brain health. The sheer complexity and scope of how diet, probiotics, prebiotics, and intertwined environmental variables could influence mental health are profound obstacles to an organized and useful study of the microbiome and psychiatric disease...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226112/probiotics-as-an-adjuvant-therapy-in-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Josipa Vlainić, Jelena Šuran, Toni Vlainić, Antonella Letizia Vukorep
Major depressive disorder is a common, debilitating psychiatric disorder, which originates from the interaction of susceptibility genes and noxious environmental events, in particular stressful events. It has been shown that dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, imbalance between anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, depletion of neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine and/or dopamine) in the central nervous system, altered glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission have an important role in the pathogenesis of depression...
May 26, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760398/a-gut-microbiome-feeling-about-the-brain
#12
Eoin Sherwin, Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an increasing realization that the microorganisms which reside within our gut form part of a complex multidirectional communication network with the brain known as the microbiome-gut-brain axis. In this review, we focus on recent findings which support a role for this axis in modulating neurodevelopment and behavior. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of research is uncovering that under homeostatic conditions and in response to internal and external stressors, the bacterial commensals of our gut can signal to the brain through a variety of mechanisms to influence processes such neurotransmission, neurogenesis, microglia activation, and modulate behavior...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26620542/psychotropic-effects-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-ps128-in-early-life-stressed-and-na%C3%A3-ve-adult-mice
#13
Yen-Wenn Liu, Wei-Hsien Liu, Chien-Chen Wu, Yi-Chen Juan, Yu-Chen Wu, Huei-Ping Tsai, Sabrina Wang, Ying-Chieh Tsai
Ingestion of specific probiotics, namely "psychobiotics", produces psychotropic effects on behavior and affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurochemicals in the brain. We examined the psychotropic effects of a potential psychobiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus plantarum strain PS128 (PS128), on mice subjected to early life stress (ELS) and on naïve adult mice. Behavioral tests revealed that chronic ingestion of PS128 increased the locomotor activities in both ELS and naïve adult mice in the open field test...
January 15, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26372511/the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-brain-and-behaviour-implications-for-psychiatry
#14
REVIEW
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gut microbiota has become a focus of research for those interested in the brain and behaviour. Here, we profile the gut microbiota in a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple routes of communication between the gut and brain have been established and these include the vagus nerve, immune system, short chain fatty acids and tryptophan. Developmentally, those born by caesarean section have a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26370263/systematic-review-of-evidence-to-support-the-theory-of-psychobiotics
#15
REVIEW
Amy R Romijn, Julia J Rucklidge
CONTEXT: The theory that supplemented probiotic bacteria could affect psychological outcomes has recently been outlined in narrative reviews; to date, however, this area of research has not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to compare the effects of probiotics with those of placebo on psychological outcomes and symptoms of psychiatric disorders. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES databases were searched electronically for studies published up to July 17, 2014...
October 2015: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26046241/gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-its-effect-on-neuropsychiatric-disorders-with-suspected-immune-dysregulation
#16
REVIEW
Anastasia I Petra, Smaro Panagiotidou, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Julia M Stewart, Pio Conti, Theoharis C Theoharides
PURPOSE: Gut microbiota regulate intestinal function and health. However, mounting evidence indicates that they can also influence the immune and nervous systems and vice versa. This article reviews the bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain, termed the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, and discusses how it contributes to the pathogenesis of certain disorders that may involve brain inflammation. METHODS: Articles were identified with a search of Medline (starting in 1980) by using the key words anxiety, attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD), autism, cytokines, depression, gut, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammation, immune system, microbiota, nervous system, neurologic, neurotransmitters, neuroimmune conditions, psychiatric, and stress...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25947328/dysbiotic-drift-mental-health-environmental-grey-space-and-microbiota
#17
REVIEW
Alan C Logan
Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors...
2015: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25911232/microbiota-regulation-of-the-mammalian-gut-brain-axis
#18
REVIEW
Aurelijus Burokas, Rachel D Moloney, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease has emerged over the past decade. The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. Regulation of the microbiota-brain-gut axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. The routes of this communication are not fully elucidated but include neural, humoral, immune, and metabolic pathways. A number of approaches have been used to interrogate this axis including the use of germ-free animals, probiotic agents, antibiotics, or animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections...
2015: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25834446/psychobiotics-and-the-gut-brain-axis-in-the-pursuit-of-happiness
#19
REVIEW
Linghong Zhou, Jane A Foster
The human intestine houses an astounding number and species of microorganisms, estimated at more than 10(14) gut microbiota and composed of over a thousand species. An individual's profile of microbiota is continually influenced by a variety of factors including but not limited to genetics, age, sex, diet, and lifestyle. Although each person's microbial profile is distinct, the relative abundance and distribution of bacterial species is similar among healthy individuals, aiding in the maintenance of one's overall health...
2015: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25822014/beneficial-effects-of-probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-psychobiotics-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
REVIEW
Andrzej Wasilewski, Marta Zielińska, Martin Storr, Jakub Fichna
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the small and large intestine and primarily includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Although the etiology of IBD is not fully understood, it is believed to result from the interaction of genetic, immunological, and environmental factors, including gut microbiota. Recent studies have shown a correlation between changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and IBD. Moreover, it has been suggested that probiotics and prebiotics influence the balance of beneficial and detrimental bacterial species, and thereby determine homeostasis versus inflammatory conditions...
July 2015: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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