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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881406/enrichment-of-selective-mirnas-in-exosomes-and-delivery-of-exosomal-mirnas-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Duo Zhang, Heedoo Lee, Ziwen Zhu, Jasleen K Minhas, Yang Jin
Exosomes are nano vesicles secreted by cells, and contain various molecules including protein, lipid and DNA/RNA. They are crucial mediators of the intercellular communication and serve as promising vehicles for drug delivery and gene therapy. Recently, accumulating evidence suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as new and potentially powerful targets for therapeutic interventions against various human diseases. However, steadily and effectively delivering miRNA mimics or inhibitors to target cells remains a major obstacle...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842933/biokinetics-of-food-additive-silica-nanoparticles-and-their-interactions-with-food-components
#2
Jeong-A Lee, Mi-Kyung Kim, Jae Ho Song, Mi-Rae Jo, Jin Yu, Kyoung-Min Kim, Young-Rok Kim, Jae-Min Oh, Soo-Jin Choi
Nanomaterials have been widely utilized in the food industry in production, packaging, sensors, nutrient delivery systems, and food additives. However, research on the interactions between food-grade nanoparticles and biomolecules as well as their potential toxicity is limited. In the present study, the in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of one of the most extensively used food additives, silica (SiO2) were evaluated with respect to particle size (nano vs bulk) following single-dose oral administration to rats...
November 2, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832955/lipid-vesicular-nanocarrier-quick-encapsulation-efficiency-determination-and-transcutaneous-application
#3
Yibang Zhang, Weibeng Ng, Xue Feng, Fangying Cao, Huaxi Xu
Nanoscale delivery systems have been widely investigated to overcome the penetration barrier of stratum corneum for effective transcutaneous application. The aim of this study is the development of effective vesicular formulations of ovalbumin and saponin which are able to promote penetration through the skin layers. Three kinds of vesicular formulations have been investigated as carriers, including liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes, in which cholesterol and/or cationic lipid stearylamine are incorporated...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823851/characterization-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-intravenous-delivery-focus-on-stability
#4
Claudia L Oliveira, Francisco Veiga, Carla Varela, Fernanda Roleira, Elisiário Tavares, Isabel Silveira, Antonio J Ribeiro
The nano-bio interaction has been of increased focus in the past years but very limited results have been obtained for polymeric nanoparticles (NP). Not only is needed to broaden the results obtained with model NP towards other nano-materials used for clinical application but the colloidal stability of NP as a variable consequence of the formation of the protein corona has been significantly understated. The lack and heterogeneity of assays to study NP stability and represent the biological environment call for the standardization of assays to improve the representativeness and comparability of results...
October 29, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819009/chitin-and-chitosan-production-and-application-of-versatile-biomedical-nanomaterials
#5
Daniel Elieh-Ali-Komi, Michael R Hamblin
Chitin is the most abundant aminopolysaccharide polymer occurring in nature, and is the building material that gives strength to the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects, and the cell walls of fungi. Through enzymatic or chemical deacetylation, chitin can be converted to its most well-known derivative, chitosan. The main natural sources of chitin are shrimp and crab shells, which are an abundant byproduct of the food-processing industry, that provides large quantities of this biopolymer to be used in biomedical applications...
March 2016: International Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803485/development-of-a-multi-functional-nano-device-for-safe-and-effective-gene-delivery-to-target-organs
#6
Yukinobu Kodama
 Nucleic acids are expected as novel effective medicines, although they require a drug delivery system (DDS). Complexes of nucleic acids with cationic liposomes and cationic polymers have been mainly used as DDS for clinical use. However, most cationic complexes have disadvantages such as strong cytotoxicity and low biocompatibility. We previously found that a plasmid DNA (pDNA) complex coated with biodegradable γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) provided adequate gene expression without cytotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a new DDS (multi-functional Nano-device) of pDNA using biodegradable polyamino acids...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799039/polymer-based-novel-lung-targeted-delivery-systems
#7
Enas Elmowafy, Rihab Osman, Rania A H Ishak
BACKGROUND: Due to its unique features, the respiratory tract had received great attention as a promising non-invasive route for drug administration to achieve both local and systemic effects. Efforts spent to tailor systems able to overcome the lung defence mechanisms and biological barriers are followed in this review. Aerodynamic diameter, morphology, lung deposition and drug release profiles are the main criteria describing the selected new smart lung targeted delivery systems. METHODS: Novel systems such as nanoparticles, nano-embedded-in microparticles (NEM), small microparticles (MP), large porous particles (LPP), PulmospheresTM and polymeric micelles are used to passively target different areas in the respiratory tract...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799038/polymer-nanoparticles-as-smart-carriers-for-the-enhanced-release-of-therapeutic-agents-to-the-cns
#8
Mariacristina Gagliardi, Claudia Borri
BACKGROUND: The brain is the most protected organ in the human body; its protective shield, relying on a complex system of cells, proteins and transporters, prevents potentially harmful substances from entering the brain from the bloodstream but, on the other hand, it also stops drugs administered via the systemic route. To improve the efficacy of pharmacological treatments, targeted drug delivery by means of polymer nanoparticles is a challenging but, at the same time, efficient strategy...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785602/induction-of-specific-humoral-immune-response-in-mice-immunized-with-rop18-nanospheres-from-toxoplasma-gondii
#9
Habibun Nabi, Imran Rashid, Nisar Ahmad, Aneela Durrani, Haroon Akbar, Saher Islam, Amna Arshad Bajwa, Wasim Shehzad, Kamran Ashraf, Nyla Imran
Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common zoonotic protozoal diseases. Recent advances in biotechnology have produced recombinant protein, which are immunogenic, and progress in nano-pharmaceutics has generated encapsulated protein in nanospheres, which are suitable for vaccine delivery. DNA was extracted from Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and was confirmed through nested PCR and sequencing. The 1665 bp of ROP18 was cloned into the easy vector system: pGEM-T by the T-A cloning method. DH5α bacteria were transfected with pGEM-ROP18...
October 27, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770912/biocompatible-cationic-pullulan-g-desoxycholic-acid-g-pei-micelles-used-to-co-deliver-drug-and-gene-for-cancer-therapy
#10
Lili Chen, Fangling Ji, Yongming Bao, Jing Xia, Lianying Guo, Jingyun Wang, Yachen Li
The greatest crux in the combination of chemotherapy and gene therapy is the construction of a feasible and biocompatible carrier for loading the therapeutic drug and gene simultaneously. Here, a new amphiphilic bifunctional pullulan derivative (named as PDP) synthesized by grafting lipophilic desoxycholic acid and low-molecular weight (1kDa) branched polyethylenimine onto the backbone of pullulan was evaluated as a nano-carrier for the co-delivery of drug and gene for potential cancer therapy. PDP exhibited good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity in the hemolysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712979/novel-polyacrylate-based-cationic-nanoparticles-for-survivin-sirna-delivery-combined-with-mitoxantrone-for-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#11
Sanam Arami, Majid Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza Rashidi, Marziyeh Fathi, Mohammad-Saeid Hejazi, Nasser Samadi
As a gene delivery method in breast cancer therapy, knocking down the undesired genes in the cancerous cells would be promising. Inhibitors of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family genes are some of the genes whose responsibility is inhibition of apoptosis in cells. Silencing these genes seems to be helpful directing the tumor cells to death. siRNA sequence designed against survivin anti-apoptotic gene can play this role if carried to the cytoplasm. Here we prepared a positive charged biocompatible nano-sized particle made up of a Fe3O4 core covered respectively by polyacrylate (PA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) layer, which could successfully deliver the siRNA into the MCF-7 cells...
October 3, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709897/comparing-gene-silencing-and-physiochemical-properties-in-sirna-bound-cationic-star-polymer-complexes
#12
Megan Dearnley, Nicholas P Reynolds, Peter Cass, Xiaohu Wei, Shuning Shi, A Aalam Mohammed, Tam Le, Pathiraja Gunatillake, Mark L Tizard, San H Thang, Tracey M Hinton
The translation of siRNA into clinical therapies has been significantly delayed by issues surrounding the delivery of naked siRNA to target cells. Here we investigate siRNA delivery by cationic acrylic polymers developed by Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) mediated free radical polymerization. We investigated cell uptake and gene silencing of a series of siRNA-star polymer complexes both in the presence and absence of a protein "corona". Using a multidisciplinary approach including quantitative nanoscale mechanical-atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis we have characterized the nanoscale morphology, stiffness and surface charge of the complexes with and without the protein corona...
October 6, 2016: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702686/inhibition-of-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#13
Abdolali Amiri, Phuong Uyen Le, Alexandre Moquin, Gayane Machkalyan, Kevin Petrecca, John W Gillard, Nathan Yoganathan, Dusica Maysinger
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a transmembrane enzyme upregulated in several types of tumors including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is among the most aggressive tumors among gliomas. Temozolomide (TMZ) therapy combined with surgical or radiation approaches is the standard treatment but not effective in long term. In this study we tested the treatment with acetazolamide (ATZ), an inhibitor of CAIX, alone or combined with TMZ. The experiments were performed in 2D and 3D cultures (spheroids) using glioblastoma U251N and human brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs)...
December 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692896/molecular-beacon-nano-sensors-for-probing-living-cancer-cells
#14
Tairong Kuang, Lingqian Chang, Xiangfang Peng, Xianglong Hu, Daniel Gallego-Perez
Heterogeneities and oncogenesis essentially result from proteomic disorders orchestrated by changes in DNA and/or cytoplasmic mRNA. These genetic fluctuations, however, cannot be decoded through conventional label-free methods (e.g., patch clamps, electrochemical cellular biosensors, etc.) or morphological characterization. Molecular beacons (MBs) have recently emerged as efficient probes for interrogating biomarkers in live cancer cells. MBs hybridize with their intracellular targets (e.g., mRNAs, DNAs, or proteins), emitting a fluorescent signal that can be quantified and correlated with the expression levels of their targets...
September 28, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690258/protein-cage-nanostructure-as-drug-delivery-system-magnifying-glass-on-apoferritin
#15
Daniela Belletti, Francesca Pederzoli, Flavio Forni, Maria Angela Vandelli, Giovanni Tosi, Barbara Ruozi
New frontiers in nanomedicine are moving towards the research of new biomaterials. Apoferritin (APO), is a uniform regular self-assemblies nano-sized protein with excellent biocompatibility and a unique structure that affords it the ability to stabilize small active molecules in its inner core. Areas covered: APO can be loaded by applying a passive process (mainly used for ions and metals) or by a unique formulative approach based on disassemby/reassembly process. In this article, we aim to organize the experimental evidence provided by a number of studies on the loading, release and targeting...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677262/self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-system-of-coenzyme-q10-with-improved-dissolution-bioavailability-and-protective-efficiency-on-liver-fibrosis
#16
Abeer Khattab, Lobna Hassanin, Nashwah Zaki
The aim of our investigation is to develop and characterize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of CoQ10 to improve its water solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability, and then evaluate its biochemical and physiological effect on liver cirrhosis in rats compared with CoQ10 powder. SNEDDS are isotropic and thermodynamically stable mixture of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, and drug that form an oil/water nanoemulsion when added to aqueous phases with soft agitation. Upon administration, self-nanoemulsifying system becomes in contact with gastrointestinal fluid and forms o/w nanoemulsion by the aid of gastrointestinal motility...
September 27, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646594/halobacterial-nano-vesicles-displaying-murine-bactericidal-permeability-increasing-protein-rescue-mice-from-lethal-endotoxic-shock
#17
Arjun Balakrishnan, Priya DasSarma, Oindrilla Bhattacharjee, Jong Myoung Kim, Shiladitya DasSarma, Dipshikha Chakravortty
Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) had been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and endotoxin neutralizing activity by interacting with LPS of Gram-negative bacteria. The current study examines the feasibility of using murine BPI (mBPI) expressed on halophilic Archaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles (GVNPs) for the treatment of endotoxemia in high-risk patients, using a murine model of D-galactosamine-induced endotoxic shock. Halobacterium sp. NRC-1was used to express the N-terminal 199 amino acid residues of mBPI fused to the GVNP GvpC protein, and bound to the surface of the haloarchaeal GVNPs...
September 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633281/targeting-prostate-cancer-cells-with-genetically-engineered-polypeptide-based-micelles-displaying-gastrin-releasing-peptide
#18
Wei Zhang, Sanjay Garg, Preethi Eldi, Fiona Huan-Huan Zhou, Ian R D Johnson, Doug A Brooks, Frankie Lam, Grigori Rychkov, John Hayball, Hugo Albrecht
In recent years G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as crucial tumorigenic factors that drive aberrant cancer growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Consequently, a number of GPCRs are strongly expressed in cancer derived cell lines and tissue samples. Therefore a rational anti-cancer strategy is the design of nano-medicines that specifically target GPCRs to bind and internalise cytotoxic drugs into cancer cells. Herein, we report the genetic engineering of a self-assembling nanoparticle based on elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), which has been fused with gastrin releasing peptide (GRP)...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619636/nano-particle-delivery-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reduces-tissue-injury-and-enhances-behavioral-recovery
#19
Nia M Harris, Rodney Ritzel, Nikolas Mancini, Yuhang Jiang, Xiang Yi, Devika S Manickam, William A Banks, Alexander V Kabanov, Louise D McCullough, Rajkumar Verma
BACKGROUND: Low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are linked to delayed neurological recovery, depression, and cognitive impairment following stroke. Supplementation with BDNF reverses these effects. Unfortunately, systemically administered BDNF in its native form has minimal therapeutic value due to its poor blood brain barrier permeability and short serum half-life. In this study, a novel nano-particle polyion complex formulation of BDNF (nano-BDNF) was administered to mice after experimental ischemic stroke...
September 13, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615709/design-fabrication-and-biomedical-applications-of-zein-based-nano-micro-carrier-systems
#20
Yong Zhang, Lili Cui, Feng Li, Nianqiu Shi, Chunlei Li, Xianghui Yu, Yan Chen, Wei Kong
Nano/micro-carrier systems have shown promising application in the biomedical field as various delivery carriers. The composite material and fabrication method determine their microstructures, properties and thus their potential applications. Since approved as tablet coating material by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA), zein has been widely investigated as one of protein-based materials in the past few decades. Zein is renewable, biodegradable and relatively inexpensive in comparison with animal proteins (e...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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