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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141096/quantifying-publication-bias-in-meta-analysis
#1
Lifeng Lin, Haitao Chu
Publication bias is a serious problem in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which can affect the validity and generalization of conclusions. Currently, approaches to dealing with publication bias can be distinguished into two classes: selection models and funnel-plot-based methods. Selection models use weight functions to adjust the overall effect size estimate and are usually employed as sensitivity analyses to assess the potential impact of publication bias. Funnel-plot-based methods include visual examination of a funnel plot, regression and rank tests, and the nonparametric trim and fill method...
November 15, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108125/robust-fit-of-bayesian-mixed-effects-regression-models-with-application-to-colony-forming-unit-count-in-tuberculosis-research
#2
Divan Aristo Burger, Robert Schall
Early bactericidal activity of tuberculosis drugs is conventionally assessed using statistical regression modeling of colony forming unit (CFU) counts over time. Typically, most CFU counts deviate little from the regression curve, but gross outliers due to erroneous sputum sampling are occasionally present and can markedly influence estimates of the rate of change in CFU count, which is the parameter of interest. A recently introduced Bayesian nonlinear mixed effects regression model was adapted to offer a robust approach that accommodates both outliers and potential skewness in the data...
November 6, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090043/distribution-of-different-sized-ocular-surface-vessels-in-diabetics-and-normal-individuals
#3
Touka Banaee, Hamidreza Pourreza, Hassan Doosti, Mojtaba Abrishami, Asieh Ehsaei, Mohsen Basiry, Reza Pourreza
PURPOSE: To compare the distribution of different sized vessels using digital photographs of the ocular surface of diabetic and normal individuals. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, red-free conjunctival photographs of diabetic and normal individuals, aged 30-60 years, were taken under defined conditions and analyzed using a Radon transform-based algorithm for vascular segmentation. The image areas occupied by vessels (AOV) of different diameters were calculated...
October 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089218/-how-to-manage-vertigo-in-adult
#4
Hella Vuong Chaney, Dominique Rohmer, Anne Charpiot
The interrogation and the clinical examination are critical in the research of vertigo etiology. In the context of vertigo, the vital emergencies are of neurological and vascular origins. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify them quickly and simply. Vertigo is a symptom to relieve and the cause is to be diagnosed. Careful questioning combined with neurological examination, nystagmus study, Halmagyi test and skew deviation search are more reliable than imaging in the first 48hours to detect a stroke...
October 28, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065039/opioid-prescribing-practices-by-orthopaedic-trauma-surgeons-after-isolated-femur-fractures
#5
Basem Attum, Andres Buitrago Rodriguez, Nichelle Harrison, Adam Evans, William Obremskey, Manish Sethi, Alex Jahangir
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify opioid prescribing practices, determine the number of morphine milliequivalents (MMEs) prescribed by orthopaedic/non-orthopaedic members to narcotic naive and previously exposed patients and provide narcotic prescribing recommendations. METHODS: Patients over 18 years old with an isolated femur fracture sustained between 2013 and 2015 were identified using the CPT code 27506. Prescribing information was obtained from the State Controlled Substance Monitoring Database (CSMD)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060715/detecting-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-children-by-self-affine-visualization-of-oximetry
#6
Ainara Garde, Parastoo Dekhordi, Christian L Petersen, J Mark Ansermino, Guy A Dumont
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by cessations of breathing during sleep due to upper airway collapse, can affect the healthy growth and development of children. The gold standard for OSA diagnosis, polysomnography(PSG), is expensive and resource intensive, resulting in long waiting lists to perform a PSG. Previously, we investigated the time-frequency analysis of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) to screen for OSA. We used overnight pulse oximetry from 146 children, collected using a smartphone-based pulse oximeter (Phone Oximeter), simultaneously with standard PSG...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060517/respiratory-sounds-classification-using-statistical-biomarker
#7
Ashok Mondal, Hong Tang
In this paper, we have proposed a new feature extraction technique based on statistical morphology of lung sound signal (LS). This work attempts to (i) generate certain intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), (ii) select a set of informative IMFs and (iii) extract relevant features from the selected IMFs and residue. Feature vector is formed by using the higher order moments: mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis and employed as input to the classifier models for classification of three types of LS signals: crackle, wheeze and normal...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050274/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-histogram-analysis-can-evaluate-radiation-induced-parotid-damage-and-predict-late-xerostomia-degree-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#8
Nan Zhou, Tingting Guo, Huanhuan Zheng, Xia Pan, Chen Chu, Xin Dou, Ming Li, Song Liu, Lijing Zhu, Baorui Liu, Weibo Chen, Jian He, Jing Yan, Zhengyang Zhou, Xiaofeng Yang
We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased (P < 0.001, = 0...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044896/support-vector-machine-for-breast-cancer-classification-using-diffusion-weighted-mri-histogram-features-preliminary-study
#9
Igor Vidić, Liv Egnell, Neil P Jerome, Jose R Teruel, Torill E Sjøbakk, Agnes Østlie, Hans E Fjøsne, Tone F Bathen, Pål Erik Goa
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is currently one of the fastest developing MRI-based techniques in oncology. Histogram properties from model fitting of DWI are useful features for differentiation of lesions, and classification can potentially be improved by machine learning. PURPOSE: To evaluate classification of malignant and benign tumors and breast cancer subtypes using support vector machine (SVM). STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Fifty-one patients with benign (n = 23) and malignant (n = 28) breast tumors (26 ER+, whereof six were HER2+)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036491/transcription-associated-compositional-skews-in-drosophila-genes
#10
Juraj Bergman, Andrea J Betancourt, Claus Vogl
In many organisms, local deviations from Chargaff's second parity rule are observed around replication and transcription start sites and within intron sequences. Here, we use expression data as well as a whole-genome dataset of nearly 200 haplotypes to investigate such compositional skews in Drosophila melanogaster genes. We find a positive correlation between compositional skew and gene expression, comparable in strength to similar correlations between expression levels and genome-wide sequence features. This correlation is relatively stronger for germline, compared to somatic expression, consistent with the process of transcription-associated mutation bias...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978930/impact-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-heterogeneity-on-computed-tomography-as-a-prognostic-indicator
#11
Shigeru Kiryu, Hiroyuki Akai, Masanori Nojima, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Hiroji Shinkawa, Norihiro Kokudo, Koichiro Yasaka, Kuni Ohtomo
We assessed the relationship between the heterogeneity of HCC on preoperative non-contrast-enhanced CT and patient prognosis. The heterogeneity of CT images from 122 patients was assessed and texture feature parameters such as mean, standard deviation (SD), entropy, mean of the positive pixels (MPP), skewness, and kurtosis were obtained using filtration. The relationship between CT texture features and 5-year overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) was assessed. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate the independence of texture feature from clinical or pathological parameters...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939412/th1-signatures-are-present-in-the-lower-airways-of-children-with-severe-asthma-regardless-of-allergic-status
#12
Julia A Wisniewski, Lyndsey M Muehling, Jacob D Eccles, Brian J Capaldo, Rachana Agrawal, Debbie-Ann Shirley, James T Patrie, Lisa J Workman, Alexander J Schuyler, Monica G Lawrence, W Gerald Teague, Judith A Woodfolk
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of severe asthma in childhood remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To construct the immunological landscape in the airways of children with severe asthma. METHODS: Comprehensive analysis of multiple cell types and mediators was performed by flow cytometry and multiplex assay using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens (n=68) from 52 highly characterized allergic and non-allergic children (0.5-17 years) with severe treatment-refractory asthma...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935206/toll-like-receptor-7-8-agonists-stimulate-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-to-initiate-th17-deviated-acute-contact-dermatitis-in-human-subjects
#13
Natalie Garzorz-Stark, Felix Lauffer, Linda Krause, Jenny Thomas, Anne Atenhan, Regina Franz, Sophie Roenneberg, Alexander Boehner, Manja Jargosch, Richa Batra, Nikola S Mueller, Stefan Haak, Christina Groß, Olaf Groß, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Fabian J Theis, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber, Tilo Biedermann, Stefanie Eyerich, Kilian Eyerich
BACKGROUND: A standardized human model to study early pathogenic events in patients with psoriasis is missing. Activation of Toll-like receptor 7/8 by means of topical application of imiquimod is the most commonly used mouse model of psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the potential of a human imiquimod patch test model to resemble human psoriasis. METHODS: Imiquimod (Aldara 5% cream; 3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minn) was applied twice a week to the backs of volunteers (n = 18), and development of skin lesions was monitored over a period of 4 weeks...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858222/diurnal-changes-in-distribution-characteristics-of-salivary-cortisol-and-immunoglobulin-a-concentrations
#14
Hiromitsu Kobayashi, Chorong Song, Harumi Ikei, Bum-Jin Park, Takahide Kagawa, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
Salivary cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) are important biomarkers for environmental and public health research. The present study investigated the diurnal variations of these salivary biomarkers, with a focus on the change of distribution characteristics (i.e., skewness and kurtosis) of the concentrations. The participants in this study were 113 healthy young males. Salivary samples were collected in the morning (6:30-7:30 a.m.) and afternoon (1:00-4:00 p.m.). The skewness and kurtosis of salivary cortisol concentrations in afternoon samples (skewness = 1...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841821/influence-of-epistasis-on-response-to-genomic-selection-using-complete-sequence-data
#15
Natalia S Forneris, Zulma G Vitezica, Andres Legarra, Miguel Pérez-Enciso
BACKGROUND: The effect of epistasis on response to selection is a highly debated topic. Here, we investigated the impact of epistasis on response to sequence-based selection via genomic best linear prediction (GBLUP) in a regime of strong non-symmetrical epistasis under divergent selection, using real Drosophila sequence data. We also explored the possible advantage of including epistasis in the evaluation model and/or of knowing the causal mutations. RESULTS: Response to selection was almost exclusively due to changes in allele frequency at a few loci with a large effect...
August 25, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832148/benchmarks-and-dielectric-constants-for-reparametrized-opls-and-polarizable-force-field-models-of-chlorinated-hydrocarbons
#16
Zhu Liu, Jakob Timmermann, Karsten Reuter, Christoph Scheurer
The knowledge of dielectric response properties of the environment is of paramount importance in many theoretical embedding methods and studies of solutes and of catalytic sites and processes in condensed phases. In particular, the realistic embedding of active sites into solid/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces is a crucial point in the context of modeling energy conversion (e.g., electrochemical, photochemical, power-to-X) processes. Recently, the finding that the dielectric permeability of liquids near solid/liquid interfaces is far from being constant but deviates strongly from the bulk value within several nanometers from the interface has raised the interest in a more fundamental understanding of the response properties near interfaces...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807589/differences-in-texture-analysis-parameters-between-active-alveolitis-and-lung-fibrosis-in-chest-ct-of-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis-a-feasibility-study
#17
Christopher Kloth, Anya C Blum, Wolfgang M Thaiss, Heike Preibsch, Hendrik Ditt, Rainer Grimmer, Jan Fritz, Konstantin Nikolaou, Hans Bösmüller, Marius Horger
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the diagnostic aid of computed tomography (CT) features for the differentiation of active alveolitis and fibrosis using a CT texture analysis (CTTA) prototype and CT densitometry in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) using ancillary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features and their longitudinal course as standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed thin-slice noncontrast chest CT image data of 43 patients with SSc (18 men, mean age 51...
August 11, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797063/ct-texture-analysis-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-a-potential-imaging-biomarker-for-treatment-response-and-prognosis
#18
Choong Guen Chee, Young Hoon Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee, Yoon Jin Lee, Ji Hoon Park, Hye Seung Lee, Soyeon Ahn, Bohyoung Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of computed tomography (CT) texture features of locally advanced rectal cancer with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) response and disease-free survival (DFS). METHODS AND FINDINGS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 95 patients who received neoadjuvant CRT, followed by surgery, for locally advanced rectal cancer were included. Texture features (entropy, uniformity, kurtosis, skewness, and standard deviation) were assessed in pretreatment CT images and obtained without filtration and with Laplacian of Gaussian spatial filter of various filter values (1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767521/disabling-central-paroxysmal-positioning-upbeat-nystagmus-and-vertigo-associated-with-the-presence-of-anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies
#19
Ana I Martins, João N Carvalho, Ana M Amorim, Argemiro Geraldo, Eric Eggenberger, João Lemos
An immune attack by anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies is believed to cause a deficiency in gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated neurotransmission in the cerebellum. This, in turn, leads to several eye movement disorders, including spontaneous downbeat (DBN) and periodic alternating nystagmus. We describe a 68-year-old diabetic woman with disabling paroxysmal positioning upbeat nystagmus (UBN) exclusively in the supine position, associated with asymptomatic spontaneous DBN, alternating skew deviation and hyperactive vestibulo-ocular reflex responses on head impulse testing, in whom high titers of anti-GAD antibodies were detected...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764472/spectral-moments-vs-discrete-cosine-transformation-coefficients-evaluation-of-acoustic-measures-distinguishing-two-merging-german-fricatives
#20
Stefanie Jannedy, Melanie Weirich
The results of the quantification of the acoustic differences between German /ç/ and /ʃ/ in three speaker groups with varying contrast realizations are presented. Data for two speaker groups were collected in Berlin and Kiel, where the contrast is still realized. Data for a third group were collected in Berlin from speakers of Hood German-a youth-style multiethnolect spoken by adolescents in multilingual and multicultural neighborhoods of Berlin-where the contrast has weakened or is even lost. A forced choice perception test showed that listeners reliably differentiate these two fricatives in minimal pairs produced by the speakers from Berlin and Kiel, but fail to do so for the productions of the Hood German speakers...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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