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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353441/pre-and-postoperative-management-of-risk-factors-for-postoperative-delirium-who-is-in-charge-and-what-is-its-essence
#1
Bruno Neuner, Daniel Hadzidiakos, Gabriella Bettelli
Postoperative delirium (POD) is an adverse clinical outcome characterized by cognitive, affective and behavioral symptoms with typically an acute onset and a fluctuating course. POD is attributed to certain patients' predisposing factors as well as to treatment-related precipitating factors. While there are several single-component interventions for the prevention of POD, evolving evidence suggests the importance of a system approach in the prevention of POD. This involves strategies by multidisciplinary teams with additional geriatric consultation services to identify risk factors for POD and to modify their impact on the perioperative course...
January 20, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353397/patients-perceptions-of-pharmacist-managed-diabetes-services-in-the-ambulatory-care-and-community-settings-within-singapore
#2
Melanie Yee Lee Siaw, Jing Heng Toh, Joyce Yu-Chia Lee
Background Qualitative evidence on patients' perceptions of pharmacist-managed diabetes services (PMDSs) is limited. Objective To explore patients' perceptions of PMDSs Setting Patients being cared for in the outpatient settings in Singapore. Methods This focus group included patients who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, spoke either English or Mandarin, attended PMDSs for at least 6 months in the ambulatory care or community settings, and were at least 21 years of age. Patients with cognitive impairments or mobility issues were excluded...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353385/the-relative-importance-of-clinical-economic-patient-values-and-feasibility-criteria-in-cancer-drug-reimbursement-in-canada-a-revealed-preferences-analysis-of-recommendations-of-the-pan-canadian-oncology-drug-review-2011-2017
#3
Chris Skedgel, Dominika Wranik, Min Hu
BACKGROUND: Most Canadian provinces and territories rely on the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) to provide recommendations regarding public reimbursement of cancer drugs. The pCODR review process considers four dimensions of value-clinical benefit, economic evaluation, patient-based values and adoption feasibility-but they do not define weights for individual decision criteria or an acceptable threshold for any of the criteria. Given this implicit review process, it is of interest to understand which factors appear to carry the most weight in pCODR recommendations using a revealed preferences approach...
January 20, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353339/chronic-pain-discomfort-quality-of-life-and-impact-on-sex-life-after-open-inguinal-hernia-mesh-repair-an-expertise-based-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-lightweight-and-heavyweight-mesh
#4
M Rutegård, R Gümüsçü, G Stylianidis, P Nordin, E Nilsson, M M Haapamäki
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of high-quality evidence concerning mesh choice in open inguinal hernia repair. Using an expertise-based randomized clinical trial design, we aimed to evaluate the postoperative impact of two different mesh types on pain and discomfort, quality of life and sex life. METHODS: In two regional hospitals, male patients with primary inguinal hernia were randomized to one of two groups of surgeons that performed the Lichtenstein operation. One group of surgeons used a heavyweight polypropylene mesh (90 g/m2, Bard™ Flatmesh, Davol) while the second group employed a lightweight mesh (28 g/m2, ULTRAPRO™, Ethicon)...
January 20, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353295/spanish-version-validation-of-the-marihuana-motives-measure-in-a-drug-consuming-adolescent-sample
#5
Josep Matali Costa, J Simons, M Pardo, M Lleras, A Pérez, O Andión
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis is the illicit drug mostly widely consumed by adolescents in Spain. The understanding of consumption motives is an important factor for intervention. In Spain, there are no available instruments for their evaluation, hence, the goal of this paper is to study the psychometric properties of the Marihuana Motives Measure (MMM) in a sample of adolescent consumers. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Firstly, translation and back-translation was performed. A total of 228 adolescent consumers of cannabis were evaluated...
January 15, 2018: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353269/clinical-characteristics-and-allergen-sensitization-patterns-of-patients-with-local-allergic-rhinitis-in-southern-china
#6
Xiao Yao Tao, Chew Lip Ng, Dong Chen, Zhi Bin Lin, Shu Lian Wu, Mei Jun Liang, Chun Wei Li, Rui Xu
BACKGROUND: Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is characterized by the production of specific IgE (sIgE) in the nasal mucosa without evidence of systemic atopy. The characteristics of LAR in Caucasians have been well documented. LAR is understudied in China, with prevalence, patient demographics, symptomatology, and the allergen sensitization profile being poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the demographics, characteristics, and allergen sensitization profile of patients with LAR in Southern China...
January 20, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353227/the-natural-history-of-phytosterolemia-observations-on-its-homeostasis
#7
David Mymin, Gerald Salen, Barbara Triggs-Raine, Darrel J Waggoner, Thomas Dembinski, Grant M Hatch
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phytosterolemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutation of the ABCG5/8 gene. Our aim was to elucidate the natural history and homeostasis of phytosterolemia. METHODS: We analyzed a Hutterite kindred consisting of 21 homozygotes with phytosterolemia assembled over a period of two decades, all of whom carried the ABCG8 S107X mutation and were treated with ezetimibe. RESULTS: Most of these subjects were asymptomatic and devoid of clinical stigmata, and this, since they were ascertained primarily by a process of cascade testing, suggests that, relative to its true prevalence, phytosterolemia is a condition of low morbidity...
December 28, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353224/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-may-be-related-to-igf-1-in-acromegalic-patients-and-can-be-restored-by-therapy
#8
Sara Tellatin, Pietro Maffei, Elena Osto, Francesca Dassie, Giulia Famoso, Roberta Montisci, Chiara Martini, Francesco Fallo, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Roberto Mioni, Sabino Iliceto, Roberto Vettor, Francesco Tona
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acromegaly increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Data on the cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic acromegaly are limited. In particular, data on coronary microvascular abnormalities are lacking. We assessed coronary flow reserve (CFR) as a marker of coronary microvascular function in asymptomatic acromegaly. METHODS: We studied 40 acromegalic patients (23 male, age 52 ± 11 years) without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, and 40 control subjects matched for age and sex...
December 24, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353211/examining-a-transdiagnostic-measure-of-repetitive-thinking-in-depressed-formerly-depressed-and-never-depressed-individuals
#9
Suraj Samtani, Peter M McEvoy, Alison E J Mahoney, Aliza Werner-Seidler, Susan S Y Li, Brittany C McGill, Julia Tockar, Michelle L Moulds
BACKGROUND: Evidence that repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a shared feature of a number of disorders has prompted the need for transdiagnostic self-report instruments; that is, measures of RNT that can be administered to individuals irrespective of their diagnosis. The Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ; McEvoy et al., 2010) was developed to meet this need, and its psychometric properties and capacity to predict psychopathology have been tested in undergraduate and clinically anxious samples...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353075/btla-marks-a-less-cytotoxic-t-cell-subset-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-with-high-expression-of-checkpoints
#10
Lina Quan, Xiuwen Lan, Yuanyuan Meng, Xiuchen Guo, Yiwei Guo, Lina Zhao, Xue Chen, Aichun Liu
Immunotherapy has shown encouraging results in lymphoma. Pre-clinical and clinical trials have proven checkpoint blockade, such as PD-1 antibody, as an effective treatment for lymphoma, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Combination of checkpoint blockades has emerged as a new way to treat lymphoma, however, the status of checkpoints expression and their function in DLBCL has not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we examined the expression of BTLA, PD-1, TIM-3, LIGHT and LAG-3 in tumor micro-environmental T cells of DLBCL using flow cytometry, and compared the cytotoxicity and differentiation status of BTLA+ and BTLA- T-cells...
January 15, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353057/mechanisms-of-enhanced-osteoclastogenesis-in-alkaptonuria
#11
Giacomina Brunetti, Albina Tummolo, Gabriele D'Amato, Alberto Gaeta, Federica Ortolani, Laura Piacente, Paola Giordano, Silvia Colucci, Maria Grano, Francesco Papadia, Maria Felicia Faienza
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare disorder characterized by the deficiency of the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase and consequent homogentisate accumulation, which leads to progressive and severe osteoarthopathy starting from the second decade of life. Thus, in AKU patients bone involvement represents an important clinical issue, which we investigated. Serum levels of RANKL, osteoprotegerin, sclerostin, DKK1, and bone remodeling markers were measured in nine AKU patients (two children and seven adults) and 22 controls, together with lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) and femoral-BMD...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353052/evidence-for-altered-insulin-receptor-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Chelsea M Griffith, Tore Eid, Gregory M Rose, Peter R Patrylo
Epidemiological data have shown that metabolic disease can increase the propensity for developing cognitive decline and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). While this interaction is not completely understood, clinical studies suggest that both hyper- and hypoinsulinemia are associated with an increased risk for developing AD. Indeed, insulin signaling is altered in post-mortem brain tissue from AD patients and treatments known to enhance insulin signaling, can improve cognitive function. Further, clinical evidence has shown that AD patients and mouse models of AD often display alterations in peripheral metabolism...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353032/clinical-assessment-and-brain-findings-in-a-cohort-of-mothers-fetuses-and-infants-infected-with-zika-virus
#13
Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera, Mayel Yepez, Carolina V Guimaraes, Israel Diaz Yunes, Alexander Zarutskie, Ivan Davila, Anil Shetty, Arun Mahadev, Saray Maria Serrano, Nicolas Castillo, Wesley Lee, Gregory Valentine, Michael Belfort, Guido Parra, Carrie Mohila, Kjersti Aagaard, Miguel Parra
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be detected in both the presence and absence of microcephaly, and manifests as a number of signs and symptoms detected clinically and by neuroimaging. However, to date, qualitative and quantitative measures for the purpose of diagnosis and prognosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: Main objectives of this study conducted on fetuses and infants with confirmed congenital ZIKV infection and detected brain abnormalities are: 1) To assess the prevalence of microcephaly and the frequency of the anomalies including a detailed description based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses and ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography imaging postnatally; 2) To provide quantitative measures of fetal and infant brain findings by MRI using volumetric analyses and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI); 3) To obtain additional information from placental and fetal histopathological assessments and postnatal clinical evaluations...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352708/a-systematic-review-and-discussion-of-symptom-specific-cognitive-behavioural-approaches-to-delusions-and-hallucinations
#14
Tania M Lincoln, Emmanuelle Peters
Studies on cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) have developed from evaluating generic approaches to focusing on specific symptoms. The evidence for targeted studies on delusions and hallucinations was reviewed. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of individualized CBT-based interventions focusing either on delusions or on hallucinations. Twelve suitable RCTs were identified. Four RCTs focused on delusions, of which three took a focused approach targeting mechanisms assumed causal to persecutory delusions...
January 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352663/early-versus-delayed-closure-of-bladder-exstrophy-a-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-pediatric-analysis
#15
J J Ahn, M Shnorhavorian, C Katz, A B Goldin, P A Merguerian
INTRODUCTION: Delayed closure of bladder exstrophy has become more popular; however, there is limited the evidence of its success. Existing literature focuses on intermediate and long-term outcomes, and short-term postoperative outcomes are limited by the small number of cases and varying follow-up methods. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the current study were to: 1) compare 30-day complications after early and delayed closure of bladder exstrophy, and 2) evaluate practice patterns of bladder exstrophy closure...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352594/systematic-review-of-uterine-artery-embolisation-practice-guidelines-are-all-the-guidelines-on-the-same-page
#16
H T Chen, S Athreya
AIM: To evaluate the degree of concordance amongst the currently available guidelines informing the use of uterine artery embolisation (UAE), and identify any inconsistencies present. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standards of practice and quality improvement guidelines were retrieved through a search of PubMed and EMBASE. Additional sets of guidelines were retrieved directly from the websites of known obstetrics and gynaecology and radiological associations. RESULTS: Eleven guidelines were retrieved from organisations located in Europe, North America, and Australia...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352548/prediction-of-psychosis-across-protocols-and-risk-cohorts-using-automated-language-analysis
#17
Cheryl M Corcoran, Facundo Carrillo, Diego Fernández-Slezak, Gillinder Bedi, Casimir Klim, Daniel C Javitt, Carrie E Bearden, Guillermo A Cecchi
Language and speech are the primary source of data for psychiatrists to diagnose and treat mental disorders. In psychosis, the very structure of language can be disturbed, including semantic coherence (e.g., derailment and tangentiality) and syntactic complexity (e.g., concreteness). Subtle disturbances in language are evident in schizophrenia even prior to first psychosis onset, during prodromal stages. Using computer-based natural language processing analyses, we previously showed that, among English-speaking clinical (e...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352526/ectrims-ean-guideline-on-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#18
X Montalban, R Gold, A J Thompson, S Otero-Romero, M P Amato, D Chandraratna, M Clanet, G Comi, T Derfuss, F Fazekas, H P Hartung, E Havrdova, B Hemmer, L Kappos, R Liblau, C Lubetzki, E Marcus, D H Miller, T Olsson, S Pilling, K Selmaj, A Siva, P S Sorensen, M P Sormani, C Thalheim, H Wiendl, F Zipp
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of the central nervous system. As new drugs are becoming available, knowledge on diagnosis and treatment must continuously evolve. There is therefore a need for a reference tool compiling current data on benefit and safety, to aid professionals in treatment decisions and use of resources across Europe. The European Committee of Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) have joined forces to meet this need...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352477/benzodiazepines-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#19
REVIEW
Hanna Bergman, Paranthaman S Bhoopathi, Karla Soares-Weiser
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring movement disorder, often of the orofacial region, frequently caused by using antipsychotic drugs. A wide range of strategies have been used to help manage TD, and for those who are unable to have their antipsychotic medication stopped or substantially changed, the benzodiazepine group of drugs have been suggested as a useful adjunctive treatment. However, benzodiazepines are very addictive. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of benzodiazepines for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or other chronic mental illnesses...
January 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352465/efficacy-of-local-phytotherapy-in-the-nonsurgical-treatment-of-periodontal-disease-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
M G Moro, M L Silveira Souto, G C N Franco, M Holzhausen, C M Pannuti
Herbal drugs are commonly used in the treatment of several diseases, including periodontitis. So far, no systematic review had evaluated the evidence regarding the efficacy of these agents in the treatment of periodontal disease. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effect of local application of phytotherapic agents as adjuncts to scaling and root planing (SRP), compared to SRP alone, on clinical parameters of chronic periodontal patients. Only randomized controlled trials of at least 3 months follow-up, of SRP alone in association with local phytotherapic agents were included...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
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