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Cognitive dysfunction in cancer patients

Kevin T Nead, Greg Gaskin, Cariad Chester, Samuel Swisher-McClure, Nicholas J Leeper, Nigam H Shah
Importance: A growing body of evidence supports a link between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer disease. However, it is currently unknown whether ADT may contribute to the risk of dementia more broadly. Objective: To use an informatics approach to examine the association of ADT as a treatment for prostate cancer with the subsequent development of dementia (eg, senile dementia, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Alzheimer dementia)...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Atsushi Sekiguchi, Chiho Sato, Izumi Matsudaira, Yuka Kotozaki, Rui Nouchi, Hikaru Takeuchi, Masaaki Kawai, Hiroshi Tada, Takanori Ishida, Yasuyuki Taki, Noriaki Ohuchi, Ryuta Kawashima
Cancer survivors are exposed to several risk factors for cognitive dysfunction, such as general anesthesia, surgical trauma, and adjuvant therapies. In our recent study we showed that thalamic volume reduction and attentional dysfunction occurred shortly after surgery. Here, we examined the 6-month prognosis of the 20 patients with breast cancer who underwent surgery. Seven patients did not receive any adjuvant therapy after the surgery and 13 patients received a hormonal therapy after the surgery. We assessed their attentional functions, and thalamic volumes shortly after and 6 months after surgery...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Caitlin Feiock, Masashi Yagi, Adam Maidman, Aaron Rendahl, Susanta Hui, Davis Seelig
The unintended side effects of cancer treatment are increasing recognized. Among these is a syndrome of long-term neurocognitive dysfunction called cancer/chemotherapy related cognitive impairment. To date, all studies examining the cognitive impact of cancer treatment have emphasized chemotherapy. Radiation-induced bystander effects have been described in cell culture and, to a limited extent, in rodent model systems. The purpose of this study was to examine, for the first time, the impact of non-brain directed radiation therapy on the brain in order to elucidate its potential relationship with cancer/chemotherapy related cognitive impairment...
2016: PloS One
P Jean-Pierre, B C McDonald
Cancer and treatment-related neurocognitive dysfunction (CRND) - impairments in aspects of cognition commonly including attention and memory, information-processing speed, and executive functioning - can negatively affect patients' and survivors' participation in routine activities of daily living and overall quality of life. CRND can be enduring, and varies in severity level. The epidemiology of CRND is not yet clearly established; reported incidence has ranged from 17% to 75% among patients and survivors of noncentral nervous system malignancies, including breast, prostate, cervical, and colorectal cancers...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Yu Uneno, Akira Yokoyama, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Taro Funakoshi, Yoshinao Ozaki, Ikuo Aoyama, Kiichiro Baba, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Shuko Morita, Yukiko Mori, Masashi Kanai, Hisanori Kinoshita, Takeshi Inoue, Nobukatsu Sawamoto, Riki Matsumoto, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are rare nervous system dysfunctions in cancer patients, which are primarily observed with small-cell lung cancer, gynecological cancer, and thymoma. We herein present an uncommon case of PNS in an anti-Hu antibody-positive patient with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-positive gastric cancer (GC), who developed limbic encephalitis and a worsening cognitive function. Trastuzumab-combined chemotherapy was initiated and appeared to be partially effective for controlling the neurological symptoms and tumor volume...
2016: Internal Medicine
Yan Wang, Xiaohua Liu, Haiying Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and patient-controlled epidural analgesia on the incidence of the post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in elderly patients.
 METHODS: A total of 100 elderly patients with gastric cancer, who underwent radical gastrectomy in Yan'an People's Hospital from March 2012 to March 2015, were randomly divided into 3 groups: a general anesthesia and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) (Group I, n=35), a general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and PCIA (Group II, n=30), and a general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) (Group III, n=35)...
August 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
L Vasiľková
BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer is one of the most common and most treatable cancers in men aged 15-49 years. The high survival rates mean that it is essential to maintain quality of life and minimize adverse effects associated with treatment. Both malignant tumors and the modalities used to treatment them can have adverse effects from both a psychosocial and a neurocognitive function perspective. Recently, attention has focused on the negative impact of the disease and its treatment on the brain and on cognitive function, which can result in a form of neurocognitive dysfunction known as "chemo brain" or "chemo fog"...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Marie Lange, Natacha Heutte, Olivier Rigal, Sabine Noal, Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz, Christelle Lévy, Djelila Allouache, Chantal Rieux, Johan Lefel, Bénédicte Clarisse, Corinne Veyret, Philippe Barthélémy, Nadine Longato, Hélène Castel, Francis Eustache, Bénédicte Giffard, Florence Joly
BACKGROUND: The impact of chemotherapy on cognition among elderly patients has received little attention, although such patients are more prone to presenting with age-related cognitive deficits and/or cognitive decline during chemotherapy. The present study assessed the cognitive function in older adults treated for early-stage breast cancer (EBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The participants were newly diagnosed EBC patients aged ≥65 years without previous systemic treatment or neurological or psychiatric disease and matched healthy controls...
July 29, 2016: Oncologist
Sophie Taillibert, Emilie Le Rhun, Marc C Chamberlain
Chemotherapy may have detrimental effects on either the central or peripheral nervous system. Central nervous system neurotoxicity resulting from chemotherapy manifests as a wide range of clinical syndromes including acute, subacute, and chronic encephalopathies, posterior reversible encephalopathy, acute cerebellar dysfunction, chronic cognitive impairment, myelopathy, meningitis, and neurovascular syndromes. These clinical entities vary by causative agent, degree of severity, evolution, and timing of occurrence...
September 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Gordon Winocur, J Martin Wojtowicz, Christina M Merkley, Ian F Tannock
Clinical studies indicate that up to 70% of cancer patients who receive chemotherapy experience cognitive impairment. The present study investigated environmental enrichment as a protective factor against the adverse effects of anticancer drugs on cognitive and biological processes in an animal model. Adult rats were housed in group cages with environmental stimulation or in standard cages for 3 months, before receiving 3 weekly injections of methotrexate + 5-fluorouracil, or equal volumes of saline. Rats were then administered tests of learning and memory that are sensitive to hippocampal or frontal lobe dysfunction...
August 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Amelia Maria Gaman, Adriana Uzoni, Aurel Popa-Wagner, Anghel Andrei, Eugen-Bogdan Petcu
Chemobrain or chemotherapy induced cognitive impairment (CICI) represents a new clinical syndrome characterised by memory, learning and motor function impairment. As numerous patients with cancer are long-term survivors, CICI represent a significant factor which may interfere with their quality of life. However, this entity CICI must be distinguished from other cognitive syndromes and addressed accordingly. At the present time, experimental and clinical research suggests that CICI could be induced by numerous factors including oxidative stress...
May 2016: Aging and Disease
Meghan Karuturi, Melisa L Wong, Tina Hsu, Gretchen G Kimmick, Stuart M Lichtman, Holly M Holmes, Sharon K Inouye, William Dale, Kah P Loh, Mary I Whitehead, Allison Magnuson, Arti Hurria, Michelle C Janelsins, Supriya Mohile
Cancer and neurocognitive disorders, such as dementia and delirium, are common and serious diseases in the elderly that are accompanied by high degree of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, evidence supports the under-diagnosis of both dementia and delirium in older adults. Complex questions exist regarding the interaction of dementia and delirium with cancer, beginning with guidelines on how best measure disease severity, the optimal screening test for either disorder, the appropriate level of intervention in the setting of abnormal findings, and strategies aimed at preventing the development or progression of either process...
July 2016: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Sarah B Goldberg, Scott N Gettinger, Amit Mahajan, Anne C Chiang, Roy S Herbst, Mario Sznol, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Justine Cohen, Alexander Vortmeyer, Lucia Jilaveanu, James Yu, Upendra Hegde, Stephanie Speaker, Matthew Madura, Amanda Ralabate, Angel Rivera, Elin Rowen, Heather Gerrish, Xiaopan Yao, Veronica Chiang, Harriet M Kluger
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy targeting the PD-1 axis has activity in several tumour types. We aimed to establish the activity and safety of the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab in patients with untreated brain metastases from melanoma or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In this non-randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with melanoma or NSCLC with untreated brain metastases from the Yale Cancer Center. Patients had at least one untreated or progressive brain metastasis between 5 and 20 mm in diameter without associated neurological symptoms or the need for corticosteroids...
July 2016: Lancet Oncology
Geana Paula Kurita, Ola Ekholm, Stein Kaasa, Pål Klepstad, Frank Skorpen, Per Sjøgren
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the cognitive function of opioid-treated patients with cancer until now have not been explored, but they could potentially be related to poor functioning. This study aimed at identifying associations between SNPs of candidate genes, high opioid dose, and cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: Cross-sectional multicenter study (European Pharmacogenetic Opioid Study, 2005-2008); 1586 patients; 113 SNPs from 41 genes...
July 2016: Brain and Behavior
Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Pawan G Nayak, Rekha R Shenoy, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Krishnadas Nandakumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Yuelin Li, James C Root, Thomas M Atkinson, Tim A Ahles
OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported cognition generally exhibits poor concordance with objectively assessed cognitive performance. In this article, we introduce latent regression Rasch modeling and provide a step-by-step tutorial for applying Rasch methods as an alternative to traditional correlation to better clarify the relationship of self-report and objective cognitive performance. An example analysis using these methods is also included. METHOD: Introduction to latent regression Rasch modeling is provided together with a tutorial on implementing it using the JAGS programming language for the Bayesian posterior parameter estimates...
June 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Raushan T Kurmasheva, Peter J Houghton
In the USA, the overall cure rate for all childhood cancers is seventy percent, and in many patients that ultimately fail curative therapy, initial responses to current multimodality treatments (surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy) is good, with overall 5-year event-free survival approaching 80 %. However, current approaches to curative therapy result in significant morbidity and long-term sequelae, including cardiac dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, dose-intensive chemotherapy with conventional agents has not significantly improved outcomes for patients that present with advanced or metastatic disease...
August 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Mayank Gupta, Malvinder Singh Sahi, A K Bhargava, Vineet Talwar
BACKGROUND: Gross physiological perturbations necessitating the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission might exacerbate the already existing or initiate bothersome symptoms among cancer patients. There is a lack of conclusive evidence concerning the symptomatic experience among this subgroup of cancer patients particularly so in the Indian population. The aim of this prospective observational study was to elucidate the symptom prevalence and overall symptomatic distress among critically ill cancer patients at the time of admission to a medical ICU...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Hui Miao, Jingjing Li, Sheng Hu, Xiaoxuan He, Savannah C Partridge, Jian Ren, Yunpeng Bian, Yongqiang Yu, Bensheng Qiu
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy, a prominent treatment for breast cancer (BC), can have detrimental side effects on the patient's cognitive functions including the executive function. However, the neurophysiological mechanism of the cognitive impairment remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore long-term chemotherapy-related functional connectivity changes using fMRI and the relationship between the connectivity changes and the executive function impairment in breast cancer patients...
June 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Azusa Tanimoto, Shinji Takeuchi, Hiroshi Yaegashi, Hiroshi Kotani, Hidenori Kitai, Shigeki Nanjo, Hiromichi Ebi, Kaname Yamashita, Hisatsugu Mouri, Koushiro Ohtsubo, Hiroko Ikeda, Seiji Yano
A 76-year-old female in whom a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lesion was resected 19 years previously presented to our hospital with cognitive dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed nodules in the brain, lung, adrenal gland and a pelvic osteolytic lesion. To identify the primary cancer site, the present study performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the left adrenal lesion. Consequently, the pathological findings of the tissue obtained by EUS-FNA were similar to those of the previous nephrectomy specimen, revealing that the adrenal lesion was the recurrence of RCC...
April 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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