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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434542/the-neandertal-vertebral-column-2-the-lumbar-spine
#1
Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Mikel Arlegi, Alon Barash, Jay T Stock, Ella Been
Here we provide the most extensive metric and morphological analysis performed to date on the Neandertal lumbar spine. Neandertal lumbar vertebrae show differences from modern humans in both the vertebral body and in the neural arch, although not all Neandertal lumbar vertebrae differ from modern humans in the same way. Differences in the vertebral foramen are restricted to the lowermost lumbar vertebrae (L4 and L5), differences in the orientation of the upper articular facets appear in the uppermost lumbar vertebrae (probably in L1 and L2-L3), and differences in the horizontal angle of the transverse process appear in L2-L4...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434540/an-updated-age-for-the-xujiayao-hominin-from-the-nihewan-basin-north-china-implications-for-middle-pleistocene-human-evolution-in-east-asia
#2
Hong Ao, Chun-Ru Liu, Andrew P Roberts, Peng Zhang, Xinwen Xu
The Xujiayao site in the Nihewan Basin (North China) is one of the most important Paleolithic sites in East Asia. Twenty Homo fossils, which were previously assigned to an archaic Homo sapiens group, have been excavated along with more than 30,000 lithic artifacts and ∼5000 mammalian fossil specimens. Dating of the Xujiayao hominin has been pursued since its excavation in the 1970s, but its age has remained controversial because of limitations of the dating techniques that have been applied to available materials...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434539/evolutionary-anatomy-of-the-neandertal-ulna-and-radius-in-the-light-of-the-new-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-sample
#3
Laura Pérez-Criado, Antonio Rosas
This paper aims to improve our understanding of the phylogenetic trait polarity related to hominin forearm evolution, in particular those traits traditionally defined as "Neandertal features." To this aim, twelve adult and adolescent fragmented forelimb elements (including ulnae and radii) of Homo neanderthalensis recovered from the site of El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) were examined comparatively using three-dimensional geometric and traditional morphometrics. Mean centroid size and shape comparisons, principal components analysis, and phylogenetic signal analysis were undertaken...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434535/fruits-of-the-forest-human-stable-isotope-ecology-and-rainforest-adaptations-in-late-pleistocene-and-holocene-%C3%A2-36-to-3-ka-sri-lanka
#4
Patrick Roberts, Nimal Perera, Oshan Wedage, Siran Deraniyagala, Jude Perera, Saman Eregama, Michael D Petraglia, Julia A Lee-Thorp
Sri Lanka has yielded some of the earliest dated fossil evidence for Homo sapiens (∼38-35,000 cal. years BP [calibrated years before present]) in South Asia, within a region that is today covered by tropical rainforest. Archaeozoological and archaeobotanical evidence indicates that these hunter-gatherers exploited tropical forest resources, yet the contribution of these resources to their overall subsistence strategies has, as in other Late Pleistocene rainforest settings, remained relatively unexplored...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433356/aortic-sinus-flow-stasis-likely-in-valve-in-valve-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#5
Hoda Hatoum, Brandon L Moore, Pablo Maureira, Jennifer Dollery, Juan A Crestanello, Lakshmi Prasad Dasi
OBJECTIVE: Valve-in-valve procedures using transcatheter aortic valves are increasingly performed to treat degenerated bioprosthetic surgical aortic valves because they are less invasive than redo aortic valve replacement. The objective of this study is to quantify the changes in aortic sinus blood flow dynamics before and after a valve-in-valve procedure to gain insight into mechanisms for clinical and subclinical thrombosis of leaflets. METHODS: A detailed description of the sinus hemodynamics for valve-in-valve implantation was performed in vitro...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427598/computed-tomography-based-oversizing-degrees-and-incidence-of-paravalvular-regurgitation-of-a-new-generation-transcatheter-heart-valve
#6
Philipp Blanke, Philippe Pibarot, Rebecca Hahn, Neil Weissman, Susheel Kodali, Vinod Thourani, Rupa Parvataneni, Danny Dvir, Christopher Naoum, Bjarne L Nørgaard, Pamela Douglas, Wael Jaber, Omar K Khalique, Hasan Jilaihawi, Michael Mack, Craig Smith, Martin Leon, John Webb, Jonathon Leipsic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the extent of computed tomography (CT)-based area and perimeter oversizing on the incidence and severity of paravalvular aortic regurgitation (PAR) for the Edwards SAPIEN 3 (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) device, using CT data and echocardiographic outcome data of the PARTNER II (Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves Trial II) SAPIEN 3 intermediate-risk cohort. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter heart valve (THV) sizing algorithms are device specific, requiring refinements for new valve designs...
April 24, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427327/analysis-of-transcriptome-data-reveals-multifactor-constraint-on-codon-usage-in-taenia-multiceps
#7
Xing Huang, Jing Xu, Lin Chen, Yu Wang, Xiaobin Gu, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
BACKGROUND: Codon usage bias (CUB) is an important evolutionary feature in genomes that has been widely observed in many organisms. However, the synonymous codon usage pattern in the genome of T. multiceps remains to be clarified. In this study, we analyzed the codon usage of T. multiceps based on the transcriptome data to reveal the constraint factors and to gain an improved understanding of the mechanisms that shape synonymous CUB. RESULTS: Analysis of a total of 8,620 annotated mRNA sequences from T...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426763/individual-based-modelling-of-population-growth-and-diffusion-in-discrete-time
#8
Natalie Tkachenko, John D Weissmann, Wesley P Petersen, George Lake, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Simone Callegari
Individual-based models (IBMs) of human populations capture spatio-temporal dynamics using rules that govern the birth, behavior, and death of individuals. We explore a stochastic IBM of logistic growth-diffusion with constant time steps and independent, simultaneous actions of birth, death, and movement that approaches the Fisher-Kolmogorov model in the continuum limit. This model is well-suited to parallelization on high-performance computers. We explore its emergent properties with analytical approximations and numerical simulations in parameter ranges relevant to human population dynamics and ecology, and reproduce continuous-time results in the limit of small transition probabilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412434/a-highly-predictive-risk-model-for-pacemaker-implantation-after-tavr
#9
Yoshio Maeno, Yigal Abramowitz, Hiroyuki Kawamori, Yoshio Kazuno, Shunsuke Kubo, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Geeteshwar Mangat, Kazuaki Okuyama, Mohammad Kashif, Tarun Chakravarty, Mamoo Nakamura, Wen Cheng, John Friedman, Daniel Berman, Raj R Makkar, Hasan Jilaihawi
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to develop a robust and definitive risk model for new permanent pacemaker implantation (PPMI) after SAPIEN 3 (third generation balloon expandable valve) (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) transcatheter aortic valve replacement (third generation balloon expandable valve TAVR), including calcification in the aortic-valvular complex (AVC). BACKGROUND: The association between calcium in the AVC and need for PPMI is poorly delineated after third generation balloon expandable valve TAVR...
April 7, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411108/causes-and-temporal-trends-in-procedural-deaths-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#10
Zaven Terzian, Marina Urena, Dominique Himbert, Constance Gardy-Verdonk, Bernard Iung, Claire Bouleti, Eric Brochet, Walid Ghodbane, Jean-Pol Depoix, Patrick Nataf, Alec Vahanian
BACKGROUND: The causes of procedural deaths after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have been scarcely detailed. AIMS: To assess these causes and their temporal trends since the beginning of the TAVI era. METHODS: From October 2006 to April 2014, 601 consecutive high-risk/inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis underwent TAVI using the Edwards SAPIEN or SAPIEN XT or the Medtronic CoreValve. The transfemoral route was the default approach; the transapical or left subclavian approaches were alternative options...
April 11, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410636/stent-and-leaflet-stresses-in-29-mm-second-generation-balloon-expandable-transcatheter-aortic-valve
#11
Yue Xuan, Kapil Krishnan, Jian Ye, Danny Dvir, Julius M Guccione, Liang Ge, Elaine E Tseng
BACKGROUND: Equipoise of transcatheter aortic valve replacement with surgical aortic valve replacement in intermediate-risk patients has been demonstrated. As transcatheter aortic valve replacement usage expands, questions regarding long-term durability become paramount. Valve design impacts durability with regions of increased leaflet stress being vulnerable to early failure. However, transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) leaflet stresses are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine stent and leaflet stresses of second-generation balloon-expandable TAV...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406567/evolution-of-spinopelvic-alignment-in-hominins
#12
Ella Been, Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Sara Shefi, Michalle Soudack, Markus Bastir, Alon Barash
Spinopelvic alignment refers to the interaction between pelvic orientation, spinal curvatures, and the line of gravity. In a healthy modern human, this alignment is characterized by reciprocal curves/orientation of the sacrum, lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and cervical lordosis. In an economic sagittal posture, these curvatures keep the line of gravity close to the center of the acetabulum. The purpose of this study is to explore the spinopelvic alignment in extinct hominins. We examined spinopelvic alignment of a single representative from each of the following hominin groups: Australopithecus, Homo erectus (H...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406565/sacral-variability-in-tailless-species-homo-sapiens-and-ochotona-princeps
#13
Robert G Tague
Homo sapiens is variable in number of sacral vertebrae, and this variability can lead to obstetrical complication. This study uses the comparative method to test the hypothesis that sacral variability in H. sapiens is associated with absence of a tail. Three species of lagomorphs are studied: Ochotona princeps (N = 271), which is tailless, and Lepus californicus (N = 212) and Sylvilagus audubonii (N = 206), which have tails. Results show that O. princeps has (1) higher diversity index for number of sacral vertebrae (0...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403240/snovault-and-encoded-a-novel-object-based-storage-system-and-applications-to-encode-metadata
#14
Benjamin C Hitz, Laurence D Rowe, Nikhil R Podduturi, David I Glick, Ulugbek K Baymuradov, Venkat S Malladi, Esther T Chan, Jean M Davidson, Idan Gabdank, Aditi K Narayana, Kathrina C Onate, Jason Hilton, Marcus C Ho, Brian T Lee, Stuart R Miyasato, Timothy R Dreszer, Cricket A Sloan, J Seth Strattan, Forrest Y Tanaka, Eurie L Hong, J Michael Cherry
The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398903/biomechanics-of-microliths-manufacture-a-preliminary-approach-to-neanderthal-s-motor-constrains-in-the-frame-of-embodied-cognition
#15
Francia Patiño, Manuel Luque, Marcos Terradillos-Bernal, Manuel Martín-Loeches
The systems of perception and action of the brain appear as important constraining factors in human evolution under current models of embodied cognition. In this view, the emergence of certain items in the archeological record is not necessarily subsequent to the emergence of a 'symbolic' mind, but instead to the appearance of the sensory-motor systems enabling that behavior. One of the products normally absent in pre- Homo sapiens species is the standardized microlith, whose production seems very demanding for the hand due to their small size and need for fine craft...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397356/links-between-critical-proteins-drive-the-controllability-of-protein-interaction-networks
#16
Stefan Wuchty, Toni Boltz, Hande Küçük-McGinty
Focusing on the interactomes of H. sapiens, S. cerevisiae, and E. coli, we investigated interactions between controlling proteins. In particular, we determined critical, intermittent, and redundant proteins based on their tendency to participate in minimum dominating sets (MDSets). Independently of the organisms considered, we found that interactions that involved critical nodes had the most prominent effects on the topology of their corresponding networks. Furthermore, we observed that phosphorylation and regulatory events were considerably enriched when the corresponding transcription factors and kinases were critical proteins, while such interactions were depleted when they were redundant proteins...
April 10, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391002/paravalvular-regurgitation-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-comparing-transthoracic-versus-transesophageal-echocardiographic-guidance
#17
Salim S Hayek, Frank E Corrigan, Jose F Condado, Shuang Lin, Sharon Howell, James P MacNamara, Shuai Zheng, Patricia Keegan, Vinod Thourani, Vasilis C Babaliaros, Stamatios Lerakis
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly being performed in cardiac catheterization laboratories using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to guide valve deployment. The risk of paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) remains a concern. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 454 consecutive patients (mean age, 82 ± 8; 58% male) who underwent transfemoral TAVR at Emory Healthcare from 2007 to 2014. Two hundred thirty-four patients underwent TAVR in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with TTE guidance (TTE-TAVR; mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, 10%), while 220 patients underwent the procedure in the hybrid operating room with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) guidance (TEE-TAVR; mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, 11%)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389467/aorto-right-ventricular-fistula-following-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-using-a-29-mm-sapien-xt-valve
#18
Kazuki Hagiwara, Naritatsu Saito, Kazuhiro Yamazaki, Takeshi Kimura
An 83-year-old man with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using a 29 mm SAPIEN XT valve. He was haemodynamically stable, but developed haemolytic anaemia. Transthoracic echocardiography conducted 7 days after TAVI revealed an abnormal continuous flow from the right sinus of Valsalva adjacent to the implanted valve to the right ventricle. The amount of shunt flow was considered small and the patient was managed with diuretics successfully. He was discharged from the hospital 35 days after TAVI...
April 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385514/nr4a2-genetic-variation-and-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Hongmei Liu, Hongbo Liu, Ting Li, Jiayi Cui, Yingmei Fu, Juanjuan Ren, Xiujia Sun, Ping Jiang, Shunying Yu, Chunbo Li
INTRODUCTION: the homo sapiens nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A (NR4A2) genetic variation has been implicated as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, the results are inconclusive. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the impact of NR4A2 variation on the risk of PD. METHODS: all eligible case-control studies published up to June 2016 by searching Pubmed, OVID, EBSCO, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and China Academic Journals Database were identified...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381702/livebearing-or-egg-laying-mammals-27-decisive-nucleotides-of-fam168
#20
Subrata Pramanik, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
In the present study, we determine comprehensive molecular phylogenetic relationships of the novel myelin-associated neurite-outgrowth inhibitor (MANI) gene across the entire eukaryotic lineage. Combined computational genomic and proteomic sequence analyses revealed MANI as one of the two members of the novel family with sequence similarity 168 member (FAM168) genes, consisting of FAM168A and FAM168B, having distinct genetic differences that illustrate diversification in its biological function and genetic taxonomy across the phylogenetic tree...
April 3, 2017: Bioscience Trends
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