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Nathalie V Kizirian, Janina Goletzke, Shannon Brodie, Fiona S Atkinson, Tania P Markovic, Glynis P Ross, Anette Buyken, Jennie P Brand-Miller
OBJECTIVE: Maternal glycemia plays a key role in fetal growth. We hypothesized that lower glycemic load (GL) meals (lower glycemic index, modestly lower carbohydrate) would substantially reduce day-long glucose variability in women at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A crossover study of 17 women (mean±SD age 34.8±4 years; gestational weeks 29.3±1.3; body mass index 23.8±4.7 kg/m(2)) who consumed a low GL or a high GL diet in random order, 1-day each, over 2 consecutive days...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Jimmy Chun Yu Louie, Molly Jones, Alan W Barclay, Jennie C Brand-Miller
This study aimed to determine the major food groups contributing to dietary glycaemic load (GL). Plausible food intake data collected using a multiple-pass 24 hour recall from a weighted sample of 6326 adult respondents (52% male) of the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey dataset (AHS) were analysed. The GI of foods was estimated based on a previously published step-wise method. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary glycaemic index (GI), GL and contribution to GL by major food groups, stratified by age and sex...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tuba Yalçın, Ayhan Al, Neslişah Rakıcıoğlu
AIMS: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL) on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs). METHODS: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2), n = 15) and overweight group (BMI = 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), n = 15). Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Metab Ali AlGeffari, Ebtehal Solaiman Almogbel, Homaidan Turki Alhomaidan, Ragab El-Mergawi, Issam Alsaed Barrimah
BACKGROUND: Dates are consumed worldwide, and are an important fruit for many individuals in Saudi Arabia. Currently, limited information is available on the glycemic indices of different date varieties. OBJECTIVES: To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response for 17 common date varieties in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial on healthy subjects. SETTING: College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Dorota Różańska, Anna Kawicka, Klaudia Konikowska, Agnieszka Salomon, Katarzyna Zatońska, Andrzej Szuba, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
BACKGROUND: Glycemic Load (GL) is one of the indicators that can be used to assess the nutritional value of the diet. The results of numerous studies have shown that high glycemic index and/or high GL diets were associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate dietary GL, intake of food products which are source of carbohydrates and contribution of particular carbohydrates in students' diets...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Jianming Xu, Luyu Chang, Yuanhao Qu, Fengxia Yan, Fengyun Wang, Qingyan Fu
Since the Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control (the Action Plan) was implemented at the end of 2013, the ambient air quality in China is significantly improved. However, PM2.5 (particles with diameter≤2.5μm) levels in some cities still exhibit clear interannual oscillations. For example, the annual mean PM2.5 levels in Shanghai decreased by 16.1% in 2014, while increased by 2.2% in 2015 according to year-on-year comparisons. To better understand the corresponding causes, the obliquely rotated T-mode principal component analysis (PCA) method and WRF-Chem model are jointly employed in this study...
August 9, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Susanna C Larsson, Edward L Giovannucci, Alicja Wolk
OBJECTIVES: Diets that induce a high glycemic response might increase the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC). We evaluated the hypothesis that diets with high glycemic load (GL) and high glycemic index (GI), which are measures of the glycemic effect of foods, are associated with an increased incidence of BTC. METHODS: We used data from a population-based prospective study of 76,014 Swedish adults (age 45-83 years; 57% men) who were free of cancer and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997...
June 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Flavia Chiuppesi, Felix Wussow, Erica Johnson, Chao Bian, Meng Zhuo, Augustine Rajakumar, Peter A Barry, William J Britt, Rana Chakraborty, Don J Diamond
UNLABELLED: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) elicits neutralizing antibodies (NAb) of various potencies and cell type specificities to prevent HCMV entry into fibroblasts (FB) and epithelial/endothelial cells (EpC/EnC). NAb targeting the major essential envelope glycoprotein complexes gB and gH/gL inhibit both FB and EpC/EnC entry. In contrast to FB infection, HCMV entry into EpC/EnC is additionally blocked by extremely potent NAb to conformational epitopes of the gH/gL/UL128/130/131A pentamer complex (PC)...
December 2015: Journal of Virology
Paula Fanny Cossi, Boburg Beverly, Luquet Carlos, Gisela Kristoff
Azinphos-methyl belongs to the class of organophosphate insecticides which are recognized for their anticholinesterase action. It is one of the most frequently used insecticides in the Upper Valley of Río Negro and Río Neuquén in Argentina, where agriculture represents the second most important economic activity. It has been detected in water from this North Patagonian region throughout the year and the maximum concentration found was 22.48 μg L(-1) during the application period. Chilina gibbosa is a freshwater gastropod widely distributed in South America, particularly in Patagonia, Argentina and in Southern Chile...
October 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Xi-Ling Li, Gao Li, Ying-Zi Jiang, Dongzhou Kang, Cheng Hua Jin, Qing Shi, Toufeng Jin, Koichi Inoue, Kenichiro Todoroki, Toshimasa Toyo'oka, Jun Zhe Min
A rapid and simple analytical method for the quantification of uric acid (UA) in human fingernails by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection is described. UA was extracted from human fingernail samples at 90°C for 20min, then separated on an Inertsil ODS-2 column (250×4.6mm I.D., 5.0μm, GL Sciences) by isocratic elution using methanol: 74mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.2) 2:98 (v/v). An UV detector was used to monitor at 284nm. The results indicated that under optimized measurement conditions results were achieved within 8...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Annette Pachnio, Jianmin Zuo, Gordon B Ryan, Jusnara Begum, Paul A H Moss
CMV infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, and the development of a vaccine is of high priority. Glycoprotein B (gB) is a leading vaccine candidate but the glycoprotein H (gH) pentameric complex is now recognized as the major target for neutralizing Abs. However, little is known about the T cell immune response against gH and glycoprotein L (gL) and this is likely to be an important attribute for vaccine immunogenicity. In this study, we examine and contrast the magnitude and phenotype of the T cell immune response against gB, gH, and gL within healthy donors...
October 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Cleoni dos Santos Carvalho, Vanessa Aline Bernusso, Marisa Narciso Fernandes
We analyzed the effect of exposure to 25% 96 h-LC50 of copper at low (24.5 μg L(-1) Cu, pH 4.5), neutral (7.25 μg L(-1) Cu, pH 7.0) and high pH (4.0 μg L(-1) Cu, pH 8.0) at 20 °C on antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress in the liver, gills and white muscle of the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Water at pH 4.5 and 8.0 affected the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of the liver and gills, but not of the white muscles of P. lineatus, when compared to water at pH 7.0. After Cu exposure, SOD (superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase) and GST (glutathione S-transferase) activities increased and CAT (catalase) activity decreased in the liver at water at pH 4...
October 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Jan-Helge Richard, Cornelia Bischoff, Christian G M Ahrens, Harald Biester
Mercury (Hg) speciation and sorption analyses in contaminated aquifers are useful for understanding transformation, retention, and mobility of Hg in groundwater. In most aquifers hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs) are among the most important sorbents for trace metals; however, their role in sorption or mobilization of Hg in aquifers has been rarely analyzed. In this study, we investigated Hg chemistry and Hg sorption to HFO under changing redox conditions in a highly HgCl2-contaminated aquifer (up to 870μgL(-1) Hg)...
January 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Amina Amadou, Julie Degoul, Pierre Hainaut, Veronique Chajes, Carine Biessy, Gabriela Torres Mejia, Inge Huybrechts, Hortensia Moreno Macia, Caro Ortega, Anjélica Angeles-Llerenas, Isabelle Romieu
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have focused on the relationship among dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and breast cancer risk in Latin American women. Our objective was to assess the associations among dietary carbohydrate, GI, GL, and risk of breast cancer, and to further investigate these associations by levels of overweight/obesity and physical activity. METHODS: We used data from a Mexican population-based case-control study. We recruited a 1,000 women with incident breast cancer and 1,074 matched control women ages 35 to 69 years between 2004 and 2007...
November 2015: Epidemiology
Saskia C Sanderson, Sabrina A Suckiel, Micol Zweig, Erwin P Bottinger, Ethylin Wang Jabs, Lynne D Richardson
BACKGROUND: As whole-genome sequencing (WGS) increases in availability, WGS educational aids are needed for research participants, patients, and the general public. Our aim was therefore to develop an accessible and scalable WGS educational aid. METHODS: We engaged multiple stakeholders in an iterative process over a 1-year period culminating in the production of a novel 10-minute WGS educational animated video, "Whole Genome Sequencing and You" (
May 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
R Arletti, L Leardini, G Vezzalini, S Quartieri, L Gigli, M Santoro, J Haines, J Rouquette, L Konczewicz
A synthetic high-silica mordenite (HS-MOR) has been compressed in both non-penetrating (silicone oil, s.o.) and penetrating [methanol : ethanol : water (16 : 3 : 1) (m.e.w.), water : ethanol (3 : 1) (w.e.), and ethylene glycol (] pressure transmitting media (PTM). In situ high-pressure (HP) synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) experiments allowed the unit cell parameters to be followed up to 1.6, 1.8, 8.4, and 6.7 GPa in s.o., w.e., m.e.w., and, respectively. Moreover, e...
October 7, 2015: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
A Prasad, J R Lead, M Baalousha
Improved detection and characterization of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex environmental media requires the development of novel sampling approaches to improve the detection limit to be close to environmentally realistic concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an indispensable metrological tool in nanotechnology and environmental nanoscience due to its high spatial resolution and analytical capabilities when coupled to spectroscopic techniques. However, these capabilities are hampered by the conventional sample preparation methods, which suffer from low NM recovery...
December 15, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
Mari K Hopper, Carynn E Koch, Jenny L Koch
Insulin resistance (IR) affects the ability to maintain normal glycemia and places one at greater risk of the development of disease. The aim of this study was to assess IR via the administration of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and then determine the relationship between IR and postprandial blood glucose levels in young adults 19-24 years of age. Following a 10 hour fast, 10 men and 10 women completed an OGTT and in three subsequent weeks consumed high, medium, and low glycemic load (GL) meals in random order...
July 2013: Nutrition and Health
Ali Boojaria, Mahboubeh Masrournia, Hamideh Ghorbani, Abdolhossein Ebrahimitalab, Mina Miandarhoie
In this paper we report a novel, sensitive, and rapid method of magnetic solid phase extraction based on surface modified magnetic nanoparticles as a novel nano sorbent for HPLC determination of morphine with diode array detection in human hair samples. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, including the sample pH, quantity of magnetic nanoparticles, sample volume, desorption solvent type and its volume, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a good linearity was observed in the range of 1-800 µgL(-1) for the morphine, with a correlation coefficient (R (2)) of 0...
December 2015: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Qinghua Xia, Ziwen Liu, Chenhong Wang, Zixin Zhang, Shanshan Xu, Charles C Han
Placing a physical barrier between the injured site and the adjacent tissues is a very common and highly effective approach to prevent abdominal adhesions in these days. A biodegradable trilayered barrier was fabricated to prevent formation of abdominal adhesions, in which a poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA/PLA-b-PEG) electrospun layer was sandwiched between layers of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) sponge. The hydrophilic CMCS sponge layers with glycerin (GL) could adhere to the surface of wound easily, and present great hemostatic capability...
September 14, 2015: Biomacromolecules
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