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Andreea Zurbau, Alexandra L Jenkins, Elena Jovanovski, Fei Au-Yeung, Emma A Bateman, Christy Brissette, Thomas M S Wolever, Amir Hanna, Vladimir Vuksan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary carbohydrate quality and quantity fluctuate but it is unknown which attribute takes precedence in vascular health preservation. We investigated all four permutations of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) on acute vascular and glycemic responses. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-one healthy adults were screened for this crossover trial. Seventeen (8 M:9 F; 26.7 ± 12.3 y; BMI 22.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2 ) entered randomization and completed the study, receiving four isocaloric meals, varying in GI and GL, in random order at least 3 days apart...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Feng-Yi He, Chao-Gang Chen, Diao-Zhu Lin, Xiu-Hong Lin, Yi-Qin Qi, Li Yan
Few prospective studies evaluating the association between dietary glycemic load (GL) and diabetes have accounted for changes in GL. However, the diet of patients could be modified in response to an awareness of pre-diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal associations between changes in GL and the incidence of diabetes among pre-diabetic patients. We hypothesized that subjects with low and high baseline GL would show different correlations with diabetes. A total of 493 pre-diabetic patients (142 men and 351 women) between 40 and 79 years of age were included in this study...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition Research
Bigina N R Ginos, Sandi L Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Dongfang Wang, Timothy W Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Meredith A J Hullar, Paul D Lampe, Mario Kratz, Marian L Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W Lampe
OBJECTIVE: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18...
February 16, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Laila Hasmi, Marjan Drukker, Sinan Guloksuz, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Dina Collip, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nele Jacobs, Bart P F Rutten, Marieke Wichers, Jim van Os
Background: The network analysis of intensive time series data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) may provide vital information in gaining insight into the link between emotion regulation and vulnerability to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to apply the network approach to investigate whether genetic liability (GL) to psychopathology and childhood trauma (CT) are associated with the network structure of the emotions "cheerful," "insecure," "relaxed," "anxious," "irritated," and "down"-collected using the ESM method...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Camille Adam Kouamé, Nestor Kouakou Kouassi, Denis Yao N'dri, Kingsley Kwadwo Asare Pereko, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Abodo Jacko Rhedoor, Georges N'guessan Amani
The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods' GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage); 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage) and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage)...
September 16, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Anna Czekajło, Dorota Różańska, Anna Mandecka, Klaudia Konikowska, Malwina Madalińska, Andrzej Szuba, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Background: Glycemic load (GL) is used to evaluate how various food products affect blood sugar level. According to some studies, high dietary GL may increase the risk of cancer development and recurrence. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess dietary glycemic load and intake of carbohydrates derived from various food products by patients staying on an oncological ward. Material and methods: The study group included 100 cancer patients aged 19-83 years (59...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
S Sieri, C Agnoli, V Pala, S Grioni, F Brighenti, N Pellegrini, G Masala, D Palli, A Mattiello, S Panico, F Ricceri, F Fasanelli, G Frasca, R Tumino, V Krogh
Factors linked to glucose metabolism are involved in the etiology of several cancers. High glycemic index (GI) or high glycemic load (GL) diets, which chronically raise postprandial blood glucose, may increase cancer risk by affecting insulin-like growth factor. We prospectively investigated cancer risk and dietary GI/GL in the EPIC-Italy cohort. After a median 14.9 years, 5112 incident cancers and 2460 deaths were identified among 45,148 recruited adults. High GI was associated with increased risk of colon and bladder cancer...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nathalie V Kizirian, Janina Goletzke, Shannon Brodie, Fiona S Atkinson, Tania P Markovic, Glynis P Ross, Anette Buyken, Jennie P Brand-Miller
OBJECTIVE: Maternal glycemia plays a key role in fetal growth. We hypothesized that lower glycemic load (GL) meals (lower glycemic index, modestly lower carbohydrate) would substantially reduce day-long glucose variability in women at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A crossover study of 17 women (mean±SD age 34.8±4 years; gestational weeks 29.3±1.3; body mass index 23.8±4.7 kg/m(2)) who consumed a low GL or a high GL diet in random order, 1-day each, over 2 consecutive days...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Jimmy Chun Yu Louie, Molly Jones, Alan W Barclay, Jennie C Brand-Miller
This study aimed to determine the major food groups contributing to dietary glycaemic load (GL). Plausible food intake data collected using a multiple-pass 24 hour recall from a weighted sample of 6326 adult respondents (52% male) of the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey dataset (AHS) were analysed. The GI of foods was estimated based on a previously published step-wise method. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary glycaemic index (GI), GL and contribution to GL by major food groups, stratified by age and sex...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tuba Yalçın, Ayhan Al, Neslişah Rakıcıoğlu
AIMS: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL) on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs). METHODS: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2), n = 15) and overweight group (BMI = 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2), n = 15). Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Metab Ali AlGeffari, Ebtehal Solaiman Almogbel, Homaidan Turki Alhomaidan, Ragab El-Mergawi, Issam Alsaed Barrimah
BACKGROUND: Dates are consumed worldwide, and are an important fruit for many individuals in Saudi Arabia. Currently, limited information is available on the glycemic indices of different date varieties. OBJECTIVES: To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response for 17 common date varieties in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial on healthy subjects. SETTING: College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Dorota Różańska, Anna Kawicka, Klaudia Konikowska, Agnieszka Salomon, Katarzyna Zatońska, Andrzej Szuba, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
BACKGROUND: Glycemic Load (GL) is one of the indicators that can be used to assess the nutritional value of the diet. The results of numerous studies have shown that high glycemic index and/or high GL diets were associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate dietary GL, intake of food products which are source of carbohydrates and contribution of particular carbohydrates in students' diets...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Jianming Xu, Luyu Chang, Yuanhao Qu, Fengxia Yan, Fengyun Wang, Qingyan Fu
Since the Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control (the Action Plan) was implemented at the end of 2013, the ambient air quality in China is significantly improved. However, PM2.5 (particles with diameter≤2.5μm) levels in some cities still exhibit clear interannual oscillations. For example, the annual mean PM2.5 levels in Shanghai decreased by 16.1% in 2014, while increased by 2.2% in 2015 according to year-on-year comparisons. To better understand the corresponding causes, the obliquely rotated T-mode principal component analysis (PCA) method and WRF-Chem model are jointly employed in this study...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Susanna C Larsson, Edward L Giovannucci, Alicja Wolk
OBJECTIVES: Diets that induce a high glycemic response might increase the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC). We evaluated the hypothesis that diets with high glycemic load (GL) and high glycemic index (GI), which are measures of the glycemic effect of foods, are associated with an increased incidence of BTC. METHODS: We used data from a population-based prospective study of 76,014 Swedish adults (age 45-83 years; 57% men) who were free of cancer and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997...
June 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Flavia Chiuppesi, Felix Wussow, Erica Johnson, Chao Bian, Meng Zhuo, Augustine Rajakumar, Peter A Barry, William J Britt, Rana Chakraborty, Don J Diamond
UNLABELLED: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) elicits neutralizing antibodies (NAb) of various potencies and cell type specificities to prevent HCMV entry into fibroblasts (FB) and epithelial/endothelial cells (EpC/EnC). NAb targeting the major essential envelope glycoprotein complexes gB and gH/gL inhibit both FB and EpC/EnC entry. In contrast to FB infection, HCMV entry into EpC/EnC is additionally blocked by extremely potent NAb to conformational epitopes of the gH/gL/UL128/130/131A pentamer complex (PC)...
December 2015: Journal of Virology
Paula Fanny Cossi, Boburg Beverly, Luquet Carlos, Gisela Kristoff
Azinphos-methyl belongs to the class of organophosphate insecticides which are recognized for their anticholinesterase action. It is one of the most frequently used insecticides in the Upper Valley of Río Negro and Río Neuquén in Argentina, where agriculture represents the second most important economic activity. It has been detected in water from this North Patagonian region throughout the year and the maximum concentration found was 22.48 μg L(-1) during the application period. Chilina gibbosa is a freshwater gastropod widely distributed in South America, particularly in Patagonia, Argentina and in Southern Chile...
October 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Xi-Ling Li, Gao Li, Ying-Zi Jiang, Dongzhou Kang, Cheng Hua Jin, Qing Shi, Toufeng Jin, Koichi Inoue, Kenichiro Todoroki, Toshimasa Toyo'oka, Jun Zhe Min
A rapid and simple analytical method for the quantification of uric acid (UA) in human fingernails by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection is described. UA was extracted from human fingernail samples at 90°C for 20min, then separated on an Inertsil ODS-2 column (250×4.6mm I.D., 5.0μm, GL Sciences) by isocratic elution using methanol: 74mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.2) 2:98 (v/v). An UV detector was used to monitor at 284nm. The results indicated that under optimized measurement conditions results were achieved within 8...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Annette Pachnio, Jianmin Zuo, Gordon B Ryan, Jusnara Begum, Paul A H Moss
CMV infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, and the development of a vaccine is of high priority. Glycoprotein B (gB) is a leading vaccine candidate but the glycoprotein H (gH) pentameric complex is now recognized as the major target for neutralizing Abs. However, little is known about the T cell immune response against gH and glycoprotein L (gL) and this is likely to be an important attribute for vaccine immunogenicity. In this study, we examine and contrast the magnitude and phenotype of the T cell immune response against gB, gH, and gL within healthy donors...
October 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Cleoni dos Santos Carvalho, Vanessa Aline Bernusso, Marisa Narciso Fernandes
We analyzed the effect of exposure to 25% 96 h-LC50 of copper at low (24.5 μg L(-1) Cu, pH 4.5), neutral (7.25 μg L(-1) Cu, pH 7.0) and high pH (4.0 μg L(-1) Cu, pH 8.0) at 20 °C on antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress in the liver, gills and white muscle of the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Water at pH 4.5 and 8.0 affected the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of the liver and gills, but not of the white muscles of P. lineatus, when compared to water at pH 7.0. After Cu exposure, SOD (superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase) and GST (glutathione S-transferase) activities increased and CAT (catalase) activity decreased in the liver at water at pH 4...
October 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Jan-Helge Richard, Cornelia Bischoff, Christian G M Ahrens, Harald Biester
Mercury (Hg) speciation and sorption analyses in contaminated aquifers are useful for understanding transformation, retention, and mobility of Hg in groundwater. In most aquifers hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs) are among the most important sorbents for trace metals; however, their role in sorption or mobilization of Hg in aquifers has been rarely analyzed. In this study, we investigated Hg chemistry and Hg sorption to HFO under changing redox conditions in a highly HgCl2-contaminated aquifer (up to 870μgL(-1) Hg)...
January 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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