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Kurt A Zimmerman, Cheng Jack Song, Nancy Gonzalez-Mize, Zhang Li, Bradley K Yoder
Hepatorenal fibrocystic disease (HRFCD) is characterized by cysts in the kidney and liver with associated fibrosis and is the result of defects in proteins required for cilia function or assembly. Previous reports indicate that macrophages, mainly M2-like macrophages, contribute to HRFCD, although the origin (yolk-sac derived resident macrophages vs bone-marrow derived infiltrating macrophages) and contribution of these cells to the observed phenotypes is unknown. Herein, we utilize a congenital model of cilia dysfunction (IFT88Orpk ) to study the importance of macrophages in HRFCD...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Florence Wong, Peter Jepsen, Hugh Watson, Hendrik Vilstrup
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute episodes of renal dysfunction or acute kidney injury (AKI) in cirrhotic patients with ascites are mostly precipitated by an acute event. The prevalence of un-precipitated AKI in stable ascitic cirrhotic patients is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine i) the prevalence of un-precipitated AKI in stable cirrhotics with ascites, and ii) any predictive factors for its development. METHODS: 1115 stable cirrhotic patients with mild liver and renal dysfunction but varying degrees of ascites severity from 3 previous satavaptan versus placebo randomized controlled trials (group A: ascites requiring diuretics but not paracentesis; Group B: ascites requiring frequent paracentesis; Group C: refractory ascites) were included...
March 13, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Jejo D Koola, Sharon E Davis, Omar Al-Nimri, Sharidan K Parr, Daniel Fabbri, Bradley A Malin, Samuel B Ho, Michael E Matheny
OBJECTIVE: Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) is a devastating form of acute kidney injury (AKI) in advanced liver disease patients with high morbidity and mortality, but phenotyping algorithms have not yet been developed using large electronic health record (EHR) databases. We evaluated and compared multiple phenotyping methods to achieve an accurate algorithm for HRS identification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national retrospective cohort of patients with cirrhosis and AKI admitted to 124 Veterans Affairs hospitals was assembled from electronic health record data collected from 2005 to 2013...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Kakharman Yesmembetov, Zhansaya Muratova, Sergey Borovskiy, Irina Ten, Kulpash Kaliaskarova
We report the clinical case of 23-year-old patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown genesis, significant resistant ascites, and 2 episodes of bleeding from esophageal varices. Evaluation did not find any cause of liver disease, and the patient was placed on the transplant wait list due to subcompensated liver function (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 16, Child-Pugh class B) and poorly controlled severe portal hypertension. After treatment with diuretics, largevolume paracentesis, antibiotics, and vasoconstrictors, hepatorenal syndrome and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis resolved and liver function improved significantly...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Akash Deep, Romit Saxena, Bipin Jose
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common accompaniment in patients with liver disease. The causes, risk factors, manifestations and management of AKI in these patients vary according to the liver disease in question (acute liver failure, acute-on-chronic liver failure, post-liver transplantation or metabolic liver disease). There are multiple causes of AKI in patients with liver disease-pre-renal, acute tubular necrosis, post-renal, drug-induced renal failure and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Definitions of AKI in liver failure are periodically revised and updated, but pediatric definitions have still to see the light of the day...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Jonel Trebicka
Does transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent (TIPS) improve survival in a subgroup of patients? Yes. TIPS nearly halves portal pressure and increases the effective blood volume. In cases of acute variceal hemorrhage and with a high risk of treatment failure, defined as either hepatic venous pressure gradient higher than 20 mm Hg, Child B with active bleeding at the endoscopy, or Child C with less than 14 points, early or preemptive placement of TIPS (within 72 hours) improves survival. Also, in suitable patients with intractable or refractory ascites, TIPS improves survival if placed early in the course of treatment...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Jonathan G Stine, Jennifer Wang, Scott L Cornella, Brian W Behm, Zachary Henry, Neeral L Shah, Stephen H Caldwell, Patrick G Northup
INTRODUCTION: Type-1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-1) portends a poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. Currently available medical therapies are largely ineffective, save for liver transplantation. We aimed to determine if pentoxifylline (PTX) therapy in addition to the standard of care of volume expansion with albumin and vasoconstriction with midodrine and octreotide (AMO) is safe and efficacious compared to AMO in HRS-1 treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospitalized subjects with decompensated cirrhosis and HRS-1 were enrolled...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Ako Rezaei, Amjad Farzinpour, Asaad Vaziry, Ali Jalili
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have recently emerged as a powerful agents for disinfection in the poultry industry. AgNPs are capable of epithelial barriers passing from the route of exposure to the vital organs and cells. This study evaluated the effects of AgNPs on organs weights, blood biochemical, hematological, and coagulation parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes and silver concentrations of liver and kidney tissues in laying Japanese quails after exposure to the nanoparticles...
February 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Mohamed M Abdel-Daim, Ahmed Abdeen
Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is extensively used in agriculture and veterinary applications. However, FPN is also a potent environmental toxicant to animals and humans. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the protective role of rosuvastatin (ROSU) and vitamin E (Vit E) against FPN-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats. Seven groups with eight rats each were used for this purpose; these groups included the control vehicle group that received corn oil, the Vit E group (1000 mg/kg, orally), the ROSU group (10 mg/kg, orally), the FPN group (20 mg/kg, orally), the FPN-ROSU group, the FPN-Vit E group, and the FPN-Vit E-ROSU group...
February 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Georgios N Kalambokis, Ilias Tsiakas, Maria Christaki, Christina Koustousi, Leonidas Christou, Gerasimos Baltayiannis, Dimitrios Christodoulou
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to predict the occurrence of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) and death in patients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 2-year data of 78 patients with cirrhosis and ascites (Child-Pugh B/C: 45/43). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured in all patients just before administration of 2 mg of terlipressin and 30 min later. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was calculated as MAP/CO...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Tingxue Song, Martin Rössle, Fuliang He, Fuquan Liu, Xiaozhong Guo, Xingshun Qi
BACKGROUND: Hepatorenal syndrome is a severe complication of advanced liver diseases with a dismal prognosis. AIMS: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to explore the efficacy and safety of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome. METHOD: Publications were searched via PubMed and EMBASE databases. The pooled proportion and mean difference were calculated by using a random-effect model...
February 5, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Masashi Hirooka, Yohei Koizumi, Teruki Miyake, Takao Watanabe, Osamu Yoshida, Yoshio Tokumoto, Atsushi Yukimoto, Yoshiko Nakamura, Yusuke Imai, Masanori Abe, Yoichi Hiasa
A change in hepatic blood flow caused by the hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR) occurs as fatty liver disease progress. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study was to investigate whether fatty liver with the HABR induces metabolic disorders. In 2009 and 2010, 494 (89.5%) participants were enrolled. The median follow-up duration was 5.0 (interquartile range, 3.9-6.0) years. The hazard ratios of fatty liver with the HABR for incident metabolic disorders were assessed by Cox proportional hazard models. A non-fatty liver group (non-FL group, hepatorenal echo intensity ratio <1...
September 2017: Hepatology Communications
Salvatore Piano, Hartmut H Schmidt, Xavier Ariza, Alex Amoros, Antonietta Romano, Anna Hüsing-Kabar, Elsa Solà, Alexander Gerbes, Mauro Bernardi, Carlo Alessandria, Bernhard Scheiner, Marta Tonon, Miriam Maschmeier, Cristina Solè, Jonel Trebicka, Thierry Gustot, Frederik Nevens, Vicente Arroyo, Pere Gines, Paolo Angeli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Type-1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the most high-risk type of renal failure in patients with cirrhosis. Terlipressin and albumin are effective treatments for type-1 HRS. However, the effects of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) grade on response to treatment are not clear. We aimed to identify factors associated with response to treatment with terlipressin and albumin in patients with type 1 HRS (reduction in serum level of creatinine to below 1.5 mg/dl at the end of treatment) and factors associated with death within 90 days of HRS diagnosis (90-day mortality)...
January 29, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Cemile Dayangan Sayan
Hyperemesis gravidarum is defined as a condition emerging during pregnancy, is prominent with severe nausea and vomiting, a water-electrolyte imbalance and liver-kidney function disorder and causes more than 5% loss of body weight. In cases of severe hyperemesis gravidarum, maternal morbidities such as water-electrolyte imbalance, hepatorenal failure, Wernicke's encephalopathy, splenic avulsion, oesophageal rupture, pneumothorax have been reported. We present a case of hyperemesis gravidarum, which continued until the third trimester and developed secondary hepatorenal failure, a water-electrolyte imbalance, intrauterine growth restriction, anhydramnios, foetal distress and neonatal mortality...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Mansour Alsharidah, Metab Algeffari, Abdel-Moneim Hafez Abdel-Moneim, Mohamed Faisal Lutfi, Haila Alshelowi
Background: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that requires pharmacotherapy interventions. Metformin and gliclazide are widely used drugs in monotherapy. However, their complementary action made utilization of the combination of these drugs an appealing approach. Aims: The study compared major therapeutic potentials of combined metformin/gliclazide treatment over metformin monotherapy based on the following parameters: oxidative stress, lipid profile, and hepatorenal functions...
January 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
David A Jaques, Laurent Spahr, Gregory Berra, Vincent Poffet, Pierre Lescuyer, Eric Gerstel, Nicolas Garin, Pierre-Yves Martin, Belen Ponte
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in cirrhotic patients. As serum creatinine is a poor marker of renal function in this population, we aimed to study the utility of several biomarkers in this context. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in hospitalized patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Serum creatinine (SCr), Cystatin C (CystC), NGAL and urinary NGAL, KIM-1, protein, albumin and sodium were measured on three separate occasions...
January 25, 2018: Nephrology
Ahmed Atwa, Rehab Hegazy, Rania Mohsen, Neamat Yassin, Sanaa Kenawy
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction is very common in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The development of renal failure in the absence of clinical, anatomical or pathological causes renal of failure is termed hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). AIM: The present study was constructed to investigate the possible protective effects of nebivolol (Nebi) against D-galactosamine (Gal)-induced HRS in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were treated with Nebi for ten successive days...
December 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Michael M Yeboah, Md Abdul Hye Khan, Marla A Chesnik, Melissa Skibba, Lauren L Kolb, John D Imig
Background: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a life-threatening complication of advanced liver cirrhosis that is characterized by hemodynamic alterations in the kidney and other vascular beds. Cytochrome P(CYP)-450 enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. These eicosanoids regulate blood pressure, vascular tone and renal tubular sodium transport under both physiological and pathophysiological states. Methods: Experiments were performed to investigate the role of the CYP system in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction during cirrhosis...
January 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Omer Shahab, Pegah Golabi, Zobair M Younossi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects many organs in the body, including the liver, kidneys, skin, joints and others. Although the hepatic manifestation of HCV has been widely studied, the extrahepatic manifestaions of HCV have not been fully appreciated. Studies have shown that patients with HCV have a higher risk of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, as well as poorer outcomes after kidney transplantation. Given these findings, it is important to screen HCV patients for presence of renal impairement in a timely manner...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Hao Yang, Francis Rossignol, Denis Cyr, Rachel Laframboise, Shu Pei Wang, Jean-François Soucy, Marie-Thérèse Berthier, Yves Giguère, Paula J Waters, Grant A Mitchell
Background: A high level of succinylacetone (SA) in blood is a sensitive, specific marker for the screening and diagnosis of hepatorenal tyrosinemia (HT1, MIM 276700). HT1 is caused by mutations in the FAH gene, resulting in deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. HT1 newborns are usually clinically asymptomatic, but have coagulation abnormalities revealing liver dysfunction. Treatment with nitisinone (NTBC) plus dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine prevents the complications of HT1...
March 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
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