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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792737/assessing-the-recall-rate-for-screening-mammography-comparing-the-medicare-hospital-compare-dataset-with-the-national-mammography-database
#1
Cindy S Lee, Carol Parise, Judy Burleson, David Seidenwurm
OBJECTIVE: High-quality screening mammography has been shown to substantially reduce mortality from breast cancer. Recall rate is a principal performance metric for screening mammography because it directly relates to the rate of false-positive examinations. This study aims to compare the recall rate derived using two sources-the claims-based Hospital Compare (HC) dataset from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services versus the National Mammography Database (NMD) from the American College of Radiology-to understand the implications in pay-for-performance and quality improvement activities...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789270/surplus-fat-rapidly-increases-fat-oxidation-and-insulin-resistance-in-lipodystrophic-mice
#2
Amandine Girousse, Samuel Virtue, Dan Hart, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Peter R Murgatroyd, Etienne Mouisel, Coralie Sengenès, David B Savage
OBJECTIVE: Surplus dietary fat cannot be converted into other macronutrient forms or excreted, so has to be stored or oxidized. Healthy mammals store excess energy in the form of triacylgycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets within adipocytes rather than oxidizing it, and thus ultimately gain weight. The 'overflow hypothesis' posits that the capacity to increase the size and number of adipocytes is finite and that when this limit is exceeded, fat accumulates in ectopic sites and leads to metabolic disease...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789136/penetrating-trauma-in-children-on-the-united-states-mexico-border-hispanic-ethnicity-is-not-a-risk-factor
#3
Loc-Uyen T Vo, Clark Anderson, Samantha Thomas, Hannah Vernia, Jarett K Howe, Alan H Tyroch, Tamara N Fitzgerald
INTRODUCTION: The United States-Mexico border is perceived as dangerous by the media and current political leaders. Hispanic ethnicity, low socioeconomic status, male gender and adolescent age have previously been identified as risk factors for penetrating trauma (PT). METHODS: A retrospective review of PT was performed in a border region. Children 0-17 years old, admitted to the region's only level I trauma center between 2001 and 2016 were included. Standardized morbidity ratio was used to compare observed to expected morbidity...
May 17, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787553/logistics-of-air-medical-transport-when-and-where-does-helicopter-transport-reduce-prehospital-time-for-trauma
#4
Xilin Chen, Mark L Gestring, Matthew R Rosengart, Andrew B Peitzman, Timothy R Billiar, Jason L Sperry, Joshua B Brown
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a time sensitive disease. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) have shown benefit over ground EMS (GEMS), which may be related to reduced prehospital time. The distance at which this time benefit emerges depends on many factors that can vary across regions. Our objective was to determine the threshold distance at which HEMS has shorter prehospital time than GEMS under different conditions. METHODS: Patients in the PA trauma registry 2000-2013 were included...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781573/overexpression-of-ostf1l-a-rice-hd-zip-transcription-factor-promotes-lignin-biosynthesis-and-stomatal-closure-that-improves-drought-tolerance
#5
Seung Woon Bang, Dong-Keun Lee, Harin Jung, Pil Joong Chung, Youn Shic Kim, Yang Do Choi, Joo-Won Suh, Ju-Kon Kim
Drought stress seriously impacts on plant development and productivity. Improvement of drought tolerance without yield penalty is a great challenge in crop biotechnology. Here, we report that the rice (Oryza sativa) homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor gene, OsTF1L (Oryza sativa transcription factor 1-like), is a key regulator of drought tolerance mechanisms. Overexpression of the OsTF1L in rice significantly increased drought tolerance at the vegetative stages of growth and promoted both effective photosynthesis and a reduction in the water loss rate under drought conditions...
May 21, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771865/repeat-hiv-testing-by-transmission-risk-group-and-rurality-of-residence-in-north-carolina
#6
Rachael M Billock, Erika Samoff, Anna B Cope, Lynne A Sampson, Christopher B Hurt, Kimberly A Powers
BACKGROUND: Understanding of repeat HIV testing (RHT) is limited and the impact of rural residence as a potential barrier to RHT is unknown. Rural populations are of particular interest in the Southeastern United States because of their disproportionate HIV burden. METHODS: We used HIV surveillance data from publicly funded HIV testing sites in North Carolina (NC) to assess repeat testing by transmission risk group and residential rurality in a retrospective cohort study...
May 1, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771290/single-cell-clustering-based-on-cell-pair-differentiability-correlation-and-variance-analysis
#7
Hao Jiang, Lydia Sohn, Haiyan Huang, Luonan Chen
Motivation: The rapid advancement of single cell technologies has shed new light on the complex mechanisms of cellular heterogeneity. Identification of intercellular transcriptomic heterogeneity is one of the most critical tasks in single-cell RNA-sequencing studies. Results: We propose a new cell similarity measure based on cell-pair differentiability correlation, which is derived from gene differential pattern among all cell pairs. Through plugging into the framework of hierarchical clustering with this new measure, we further develop a variance analysis based clustering algorithm 'Corr' that can determine cluster number automatically and identify cell types accurately...
May 16, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768427/differential-effects-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-1%C3%AE-on-the-control-of-metal-metabolism-and-cadmium-induced-cell-death-in-chronic-inflammation
#8
Paola Bonaventura, Aline Lamboux, Francis Albarède, Pierre Miossec
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are both monocyte-derived cytokines. Both cytokines have been previously described to exert a role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis synergizing with other pro-inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-17 (IL-17) on target cells, for the perpetuation of the inflammatory response (e.g. IL-6 production). In the context of experimental RA, Cd addition has an anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effect when associated to IL-17/TNF-α stimulation, due to its accumulation in synoviocytes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767219/alabama-children-s-body-mass-index-nutritional-attitudes-and-food-consumption-an-exploratory-analysis
#9
Vaughn Millner, Ryon C McDermott, Bernard H Eichold
OBJECTIVES: This study had three aims: assess the extent to which middle school children in southern Alabama were classified as overweight or obese; determine the magnitude of the relation between children's attitudes toward healthy eating and their actual dietary choices; and examine the role of race, sex, and ZIP codes on children's eating attitudes and behaviors. METHODS: Registered dietitians took height and weight measurements of middle school children in southern Alabama to establish body mass index (BMI)...
May 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747873/assessment-of-image-quality-of-a-radiotherapy-specific-hardware-solution-for-pet-mri-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#10
René M Winter, Sara Leibfarth, Holger Schmidt, Kerstin Zwirner, David Mönnich, Stefan Welz, Nina F Schwenzer, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Sergios Gatidis, Daniel Zips, Daniela Thorwarth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Functional PET/MRI has great potential to improve radiotherapy planning (RTP). However, data integration requires imaging with radiotherapy-specific patient positioning. Here, we investigated the feasibility and image quality of radiotherapy-customized PET/MRI in head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients using a dedicated hardware setup. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten HNC patients were examined with simultaneous PET/MRI before treatment, with radiotherapy and diagnostic scan setup, respectively...
May 7, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743230/proactive-strategies-to-address-health-equity-and-disparities-recommendations-from-a-bi-national-symposium
#11
Jeannie Haggerty, Marshall H Chin, Alan Katz, Kue Young, Jonathan Foley, Antoine Groulx, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable, Jeff Turnbull, Jennifer E DeVoe, Uche Uchendo
INTRODUCTION: Health inequities persist in Canada and the United States. Both countries show differential health status and health care quality by social characteristics, making zip or postal code a greater predictor of health than genetics. Many social determinants of health overlap in the same individuals or communities, exacerbating their vulnerability. Many of the contributing factors and problems are structural and evade simple solutions. METHODS: In March 2017 a binational Canada-US symposium was held in Washington DC involving 150 primary care thought leaders, including clinicians, researchers, patients, and policy makers to address transformation in integrated primary care...
May 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742550/self-tracking-of-physical-activity-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Thea J M Kooiman, Martijn de Groot, Klaas Hoogenberg, Wim P Krijnen, Cees P van der Schans, Adriaan Kooy
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an online self-tracking program on physical activity, glycated hemoglobin, and other health measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventy-two patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. All participants received usual care. The intervention group received an activity tracker (Fitbit Zip) connected to an online lifestyle program. Physical activity was analyzed in average steps per day from week 0 until 12...
May 4, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733733/characteristics-of-likely-precision-medicine-initiative-participants-drawn-from-a-large-blood-donor-population
#13
Cinnamon S Bloss, Justin Stoler, Cynthia E Schairer, Sara B Rosenthal, Cynthia Cheung, Holly M Rus, Jessica L Block, Jiue-An Jay Yang, Doug Morton, Helen Bixenman, David Wellis
A goal of the Precision Medicine Initiative All of Us Research Program (AoURP) is recruitment of participants who reflect the diversity of the US. Recruitment from among blood bank donors, which may better reflect the demographic makeup of local communities, is one proposed strategy. We evaluated this strategy by analyzing the results of a survey of San Diego Blood Bank donors conducted in November 2015. Whites were more likely than nonwhites to respond to the survey (7.1 percent versus 3.9 percent). However, race was not a significant predictor of interest in participating in precision medicine research...
May 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732682/structure-dissection-of-zebrafish-progranulins-identifies-a-well-folded-granulin-epithelin-module-protein-with-pro-cell-survival-activities
#14
Ping Wang, Babykumari Chitramuthu, Andrew Bateman, Hugh P J Bennett, Ping Xu, Feng Ni
The ancient and pluripotent progranulins contain multiple repeats of a cysteine-rich sequence motif of ∼60 amino acids, called the granulin/epithelin module (GEM) with a prototypic structure of four β-hairpins zipped together by six inter-hairpin disulfide bonds. Prevalence of this disulfide-enforced structure is assessed here by an expression screening of 19 unique GEM sequences of the four progranulins in the zebrafish genome, progranulins 1, 2, A and B. While a majority of the expressed GEM peptides did not exhibit uniquely-folded conformations, module AaE from progranulin A and AbB from progranulin B were found to fold into the protopypic 4-hairpin structure along with disulfide formation...
May 7, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727465/biphasic-zinc-compartmentalisation-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#15
Aaron C Crawford, Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley, Omran Alamir, Maria J Niemiec, Bader Alawfi, Mohammad Alsarraf, Volha Skrahina, Anna C B P Costa, Andrew Anderson, Sujan Yellagunda, Elizabeth R Ballou, Bernhard Hube, Constantin F Urban, Duncan Wilson
Nutritional immunity describes the host-driven manipulation of essential micronutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese. To withstand nutritional immunity and proliferate within their hosts, pathogenic microbes must express efficient micronutrient uptake and homeostatic systems. Here we have elucidated the pathway of cellular zinc assimilation in the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Bioinformatics analysis identified nine putative zinc transporters: four cytoplasmic-import Zip proteins (Zrt1, Zrt2, Zrt3 and orf19...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726965/pbrpredict-suite-a-suite-of-models-to-predict-peptide-recognition-domain-residues-from-protein-sequence
#16
Sumaiya Iqbal, Tamjidul Hoque
Motivation: Machine learning plays a substantial role in bioscience owing to the explosive growth in sequence data and the challenging application of computational methods. Peptide-recognition domains (PRDs) are critical as they promote coupled-binding with short peptide motifs of functional importance through transient interactions. It is challenging to build a reliable predictor of peptide-binding residue in proteins with diverse types of PRDs from protein sequence alone. On the other hand, it is vital to cope up with the sequencing speed and to broaden the scope of study...
May 2, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723221/impact-of-silencing-hepatic-srebp-1-on-insulin-signaling
#17
Victoria Jideonwo, Yongyong Hou, Miwon Ahn, Sneha Surendran, Núria Morral
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-1 (SREBP-1) is a conserved transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family (bHLH-Zip) that plays a central role in regulating expression of genes of carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism in the liver. SREBP-1 activity is essential for the control of insulin-induced anabolic processes during the fed state. In addition, SREBP-1 regulates expression of key molecules in the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and a subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex, PIK3R3, suggesting that feedback mechanisms exist between SREBP-1 and this pathway...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718452/accuracy-of-activity-trackers-in-parkinson-disease-should-we-prescribe-them
#18
Nicholas Wendel, Chelsea E Macpherson, Karoline Webber, Kathryn Hendron, DeAngelis Tamara, Colon-Semenza Cristina, Terry Ellis
Background: Wearable, consumer-grade activity trackers have become widely available as a means of monitoring physical activity in the form of step counts. However, step counts may not be accurate in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) due to atypical gait characteristics. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of 4 consumer-grade activity trackers in individuals with PD while ambulating during continuous and discontinuous walking tasks. Design: This study used a cross-sectional design...
April 30, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715485/measuring-the-cost-and-effect-of-current-community-consultation-and-public-disclosure-techniques-in-emergency-care-research
#19
Gerald Matchett, Timothy J Ryan, Mary C Sunna, Simon C Lee, Paul E Pepe
AIM: U.S. federal regulations for research involving exception from informed consent (EFIC) include stipulations for community consultation (CC) and public disclosure (PD) (FDA 21 CFR 50.24). Published descriptions of PD campaigns include letters to community leaders, media outreach, paid advertising, and community meetings. Whether or not these activities provide measurable impact is unknown, as few prior works have evaluated PD activities with probabilistic polling. The aim of this study is to use polling to assess how much public awareness PD efforts generate...
April 28, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715183/c-fos-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-after-a-single-treatment-with-a-typical-haloperidol-and-nine-atypical-antipsychotics-a-pilot-study
#20
Alexander Kiss
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to find out whether acute effect of different doses of selected antipsychotics including aripiprazole (ARI), amisulpride (AMI), asenapine (ASE), haloperidol (HAL), clozapine (CLO), risperidone (RIS), quetiapine (QUE), olanzapine (OLA), ziprasidone (ZIP), and paliperidone (PAL) may have a stimulatory impact on the c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats weighing 280-300 g were used...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
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