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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923596/-review-of-the-novelties-from-the-2017-ectrims-congress-presented-at-the-10th-post-ectrims-meeting-i
#1
REVIEW
O Fernandez, M Tintore, A Saiz, M C Calles-Hernandez, M Comabella, Ll Ramio-Torrenta, A Oterino, G Izquierdo, N Tellez, J A Garcia-Merino, Ll Brieva, C Arnal-Garcia, Y Aladro, M M Mendibe-Bilbao, J E Meca-Lallana, L Romero-Pinel, R Ginestal, M L Martinez-Gines, R Arroyo, A Rodriguez-Antiguedad
The Post-ECTRIMS Meeting is an emblematic event in the field of multiple sclerosis in Spain. Its chief aim is bring together the country's leading specialist neurologists to analyse the main advances made in multiple sclerosis and to review the most important topics addressed at the ECTRIMS Congress. The tenth Post-ECTRIMS Meeting was held in November 2017. Over the years this event has firmly established itself as an important meeting point where experts from all over the country get together to foster communication, establish synergies and promote and enhance research ultimately aimed at improving the prognosis and quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis...
July 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770147/koumine-attenuates-neuroglia-activation-and-inflammatory-response-to-neuropathic-pain
#2
Gui-Lin Jin, Sai-Di He, Shao-Mei Lin, Li-Mian Hong, Wan-Qing Chen, Ying Xu, Jian Yang, Su-Ping Li, Chang-Xi Yu
Despite decades of studies, the currently available drugs largely fail to control neuropathic pain. Koumine-an alkaloidal constituent derived from the medicinal plant Gelsemium elegans Benth.-has been shown to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and the possible underlying mechanisms of koumine. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of koumine were explored by using chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) neuropathic pain model in vivo and LPS-induced injury in microglia BV2 cells in vitro ...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761014/strain-specific-differential-expression-of-astrocytes-and-microglia-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#3
Jong Whi Kim, Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, In Koo Hwang, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon
Introduction: Genetic background influences neurotransmitter expression and function of the hippocampus. Genetic background influences the phenotype of the hippocampus, but expression of neuroglia in hippocampus has not been well established dependent on various mouse strains. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effects of genetic background on cell population of astrocytes and microglia in eight widely used inbred strains (C57BL/6J, A/J, BALB/c, C3H/HeJ, FVB, 129/SvJ, DBA/1, and DBA/2) and one outbred strain (ICR)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679327/engineering-human-neural-tissue-by-3d-bioprinting
#4
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
Bioprinting provides an opportunity to produce three-dimensional (3D) tissues for biomedical research and translational drug discovery, toxicology, and tissue replacement. Here we describe a method for fabricating human neural tissue by 3D printing human neural stem cells with a bioink, and subsequent gelation of the bioink for cell encapsulation, support, and differentiation to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia. The bioink uniquely comprises the polysaccharides alginate, water-soluble carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624867/cell-autonomous-astrocytopathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
EDITORIAL
A Verkhratsky, J J Rodríguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570423/current-and-future-trends-in-adipose-stem-cell-differentiation-into-neuroglia
#6
Sajan George, Michael R Hamblin, Heidi Abrahamse
BACKGROUND: Neurological diseases and disorders pose a challenge for treatment and rehabilitation due to the limited capacity of the nervous system to repair itself. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are more pliable than any adult stem cells and are capable of differentiating into non-mesodermal tissues, including neurons. Transdifferentiating ASCs to specific neuronal lineage cells enables us to deliver the right type of cells required for a replacement therapy into the nervous system. METHODS: Several methodologies are being explored and tested to differentiate ASCs to functional neurons and glia with cellular factors and chemical compounds...
May 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557371/ocular-findings-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats-emphasize-the-key-role-of-neuroglia-degeneration-in-diabetic-retinopathy-pathophysiology
#7
Ivan Fernandez-Bueno, Yolanda Diebold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511296/characterization-of-gene-regulation-and-protein-interaction-networks-for-matrin-3-encoding-mutations-linked-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-myopathy
#8
M Carolina Gallego Iradi, Judy C Triplett, James D Thomas, Rachel Davila, Anthony M Crown, Hilda Brown, Jada Lewis, Maurice S Swanson, Guilian Xu, Edgardo Rodriguez-Lebron, David R Borchelt
To understand how mutations in Matrin 3 (MATR3) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and distal myopathy, we used transcriptome and interactome analysis, coupled with microscopy. Over-expression of wild-type (WT) or F115C mutant MATR3 had little impact on gene expression in neuroglia cells. Only 23 genes, expressed at levels of >100 transcripts showed ≥1.6-fold changes in expression by transfection with WT or mutant MATR3:YFP vectors. We identified ~123 proteins that bound MATR3, with proteins associated with stress granules and RNA processing/splicing being prominent...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411894/melatonin-attenuated-retinal-neovascularization-and-neuroglial-dysfunction-by-inhibition-of-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-pathway-in-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-mice
#9
Yue Xu, Xi Lu, Yaguang Hu, Boyu Yang, Ching-Kit Tsui, Shanshan Yu, Lin Lu, Xiaoling Liang
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinopathy characterized by retinal neovascularization (RNV) occurring in preterm infants treated with high concentrations of oxygen and may lead to blindness in severe cases. Currently, anti-VEGF therapy is a major treatment for ROP, but it is costly and may cause serious complications. The previous study has demonstrated that melatonin exerted neuroprotective effect against retinal ganglion cell death induced by hypoxia in neonatal rats. However, whether melatonin is anti-angiogenic and neuroglial protective in the progression of ROP remains unknown...
May 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407440/thyroid-hormone-in-the-cns-contribution-of-neuron-glia-interaction
#10
Mami Noda
The endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS) are intimately linked. Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the regulation of development and differentiation of neurons and neuroglia and hence for development and function of the CNS. T3 (3,3',5-triiodothyronine), an active form of TH, is important not only for neuronal development but also for differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and for microglial development. In adult brain, T3 affects glial morphology with sex- and age-dependent manner and therefore may affect their function, leading to influence on neuron-glia interaction...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407366/low-but-not-high-dose-triptolide-controls-neuroinflammation-and-improves-behavioral-deficits-in-toxic-model-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-dampening-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-acceleration-of-intrinsic-myelin-repair
#11
Nima Sanadgol, Fereshteh Golab, Ali Mostafaie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Roghayeh Khalseh, Morteza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Gelareh Vakilzadeh, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
Cuprizone (Cup) is a copper chelating agent frequently used to study factors that affect oligodendrocytes (OLGs) death and acute demyelination. Triptolide (TP), a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) blocker, is a major bioactive component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (TWHf) with various therapeutic activities. In this study, we examined the effects of TP on neuroglia activation, inflammation, apoptosis, demyelination, and behavioral deficits in the Cup-induced toxic model of multiple sclerosis (MS). C57BL/6 J mice were fed with chow containing 0...
March 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334986/bridging-pro-inflammatory-signals-synaptic-transmission-and-protection-in-spinal-explants-in-vitro
#12
M Medelin, V Giacco, A Aldinucci, G Castronovo, E Bonechi, A Sibilla, M Tanturli, M Torcia, L Ballerini, F Cozzolino, C Ballerini
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by tissue atrophy involving the brain and the spinal cord, where reactive inflammation contributes to the neurodegenerative processes. Recently, the presence of synapse alterations induced by the inflammatory responses was suggested by experimental and clinical observations, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model and in patients, respectively. Further knowledge on the interplay between pro-inflammatory agents, neuroglia and synaptic dysfunction is crucial to the design of unconventional protective molecules...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273287/rat-spinal-ganglia-in-assessment-of-protective-action-of-antioxidants-a-morphological-study
#13
Liudmyla M Sokurenko, Mariya O Savchyna, Viktor I Litus, Rostyslav F Kaminsky, Yurii B Сhaikovsky
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mercury pollution is one of the most pressing environmental problems. Therefore, the impact of mercury on human body, the nervous system in particular, remains topical. The aim of the study was to identify the morphological characteristics of neurons and neuroglia in spinal ganglia of rats receiving antioxidants in the presence of small doses of mercury (II) chloride. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 white Wistar rats were divided into 5 series (10 groups), with 10 animals in each group...
December 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235729/conductive-tough-hydrogel-for-bioapplications
#14
Mohammad Javadi, Qi Gu, Sina Naficy, Syamak Farajikhah, Jeremy M Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Stephen Beirne, Simon E Moulton
Biocompatible conductive tough hydrogels represent a new class of advanced materials combining the properties of tough hydrogels and biocompatible conductors. Here, a simple method, to achieve a self-assembled tough elastomeric composite structure that is biocompatible, conductive, and with high flexibility, is reported. The hydrogel comprises polyether-based liner polyurethane (PU), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), and liquid crystal graphene oxide (LCGO)...
February 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078046/dendritic-polyglycerol-sulfates-in-the-prevention-of-synaptic-loss-and-mechanism-of-action-on-glia
#15
Dusica Maysinger, Jeff Ji, Alexandre Moquin, Shireen Hossain, Mark A Hancock, Issan Zhang, Philip K Y Chang, Matthew Rigby, Madeleine Anthonisen, Peter Grütter, John Breitner, R Anne McKinney, Sabine Reimann, Rainer Haag, Gerhard Multhaup
Dendritic polyglycerols (dPG), particularly dendritic polyglycerol sulfates (dPGS), have been intensively studied due to their intrinsic anti-inflammatory activity. As related to brain pathologies involving neuroinflammation, the current study examined if dPG and dPGS can (i) regulate neuroglial activation, and (ii) normalize the morphology and function of excitatory postsynaptic dendritic spines adversely affected by the neurotoxic 42 amino acid amyloid-β (Aβ42 ) peptide of Alzheimer disease (AD). The exact role of neuroglia, such as microglia and astrocytes, remains controversial especially their positive and negative impact on inflammatory processes in AD...
February 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046627/mecp2-deficiency-in-neuroglia-new-progress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rett-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Xu-Rui Jin, Xing-Shu Chen, Lan Xiao
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disease predominantly caused by mutations of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. Generally, RTT has been attributed to neuron-centric dysfunction. However, increasing evidence has shown that glial abnormalities are also involved in the pathogenesis of RTT. Mice that are MeCP2-null specifically in glial cells showed similar behavioral and/or neuronal abnormalities as those found in MeCP2-null mice, a mouse model of RTT. MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes impacts the expression of glial intermediate filament proteins such as fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 and induces neuron toxicity by disturbing glutamate metabolism or enhancing microtubule instability...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992428/inflammatory-mediators-in-mood-disorders-therapeutic-opportunities
#17
Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Ménard, Scott J Russo
Mood disorders such as depression are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States, but they are inadequately treated in a substantial proportion of patients. Accordingly, neuropsychiatric research has pivoted from investigation of monoaminergic mechanisms to exploration of novel mediators, including the role of inflammatory processes. Subsets of mood disorder patients exhibit immune-related abnormalities, including elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, monocytes, and neutrophils in the peripheral circulation; dysregulation of neuroglia and blood-brain barrier function; and disruption of gut microbiota...
January 6, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986877/analysis-of-functional-nmda-receptors-in-astrocytes
#18
Frank Kirchhoff
Neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are well known for their pivotal role in memory formation. Originally, they were thought to be exclusive to neurons. However, numerous studies revealed their functional expression also on various types of glial cells in the nervous system. Here, the methodology how to study the physiology of NMDA receptors selectively on astrocytes will be described in detail. Astrocytes are the main class of neuroglia that control transmitter and ion homeostasis, which link cerebral blood flow and neuronal energy demands, but also affect synaptic transmission directly...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973338/histologic-characterization-of-retina-neuroglia-modifications-in-diabetic-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#19
Ivan Fernandez-Bueno, Robert Jones, Laura Soriano-Romaní, Antonio López-García, Orla Galvin, Sharon Cheetham, Yolanda Diebold
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize retinal degenerative morphologic modifications in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes, by histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Methods: Male lean (?/+; n = 10) and ZDF (fa/fa; n = 20) rats were used. At 24 weeks of age, body weights and blood glucose levels were determined. Eyes were removed and processed for paraffin wax embedding. Sections through the optic disc were stained for hematoxylin and eosin or immunostained for TUNEL, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), isolectin B4, recoverin, retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein, rhodopsin, vimentin, and zonula occludens protein 1...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895591/development-of-drug-loaded-polymer-microcapsules-for-treatment-of-epilepsy
#20
Yu Chen, Qi Gu, Zhilian Yue, Jeremy M Crook, Simon E Moulton, Mark J Cook, Gordon G Wallace
Despite significant progress in developing new drugs for seizure control, epilepsy still affects 1% of the global population and is drug-resistant in more than 30% of cases. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of epilepsy medication, a promising approach is to deliver anti-epilepsy drugs directly to affected brain areas using local drug delivery systems. The drug delivery systems must meet a number of criteria, including high drug loading efficiency, biodegradability, neuro-cytocompatibility and predictable drug release profiles...
September 26, 2017: Biomaterials Science
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