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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046627/mecp2-deficiency-in-neuroglia-new-progress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rett-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Xu-Rui Jin, Xing-Shu Chen, Lan Xiao
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disease predominantly caused by mutations of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. Generally, RTT has been attributed to neuron-centric dysfunction. However, increasing evidence has shown that glial abnormalities are also involved in the pathogenesis of RTT. Mice that are MeCP2-null specifically in glial cells showed similar behavioral and/or neuronal abnormalities as those found in MeCP2-null mice, a mouse model of RTT. MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes impacts the expression of glial intermediate filament proteins such as fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 and induces neuron toxicity by disturbing glutamate metabolism or enhancing microtubule instability...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992428/inflammatory-mediators-in-mood-disorders-therapeutic-opportunities
#2
Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Ménard, Scott J Russo
Mood disorders such as depression are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States, but they are inadequately treated in a substantial proportion of patients. Accordingly, neuropsychiatric research has pivoted from investigation of monoaminergic mechanisms to exploration of novel mediators, including the role of inflammatory processes. Subsets of mood disorder patients exhibit immune-related abnormalities, including elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, monocytes, and neutrophils in the peripheral circulation; dysregulation of neuroglia and blood-brain barrier function; and disruption of gut microbiota...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986877/analysis-of-functional-nmda-receptors-in-astrocytes
#3
Frank Kirchhoff
Neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are well known for their pivotal role in memory formation. Originally, they were thought to be exclusive to neurons. However, numerous studies revealed their functional expression also on various types of glial cells in the nervous system. Here, the methodology how to study the physiology of NMDA receptors selectively on astrocytes will be described in detail. Astrocytes are the main class of neuroglia that control transmitter and ion homeostasis, which link cerebral blood flow and neuronal energy demands, but also affect synaptic transmission directly...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973338/histologic-characterization-of-retina-neuroglia-modifications-in-diabetic-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#4
Ivan Fernandez-Bueno, Robert Jones, Laura Soriano-Romaní, Antonio López-García, Orla Galvin, Sharon Cheetham, Yolanda Diebold
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize retinal degenerative morphologic modifications in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes, by histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Methods: Male lean (?/+; n = 10) and ZDF (fa/fa; n = 20) rats were used. At 24 weeks of age, body weights and blood glucose levels were determined. Eyes were removed and processed for paraffin wax embedding. Sections through the optic disc were stained for hematoxylin and eosin or immunostained for TUNEL, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), isolectin B4, recoverin, retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65-kDa protein, rhodopsin, vimentin, and zonula occludens protein 1...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895591/development-of-drug-loaded-polymer-microcapsules-for-treatment-of-epilepsy
#5
Yu Chen, Qi Gu, Zhilian Yue, Jeremy M Crook, Simon E Moulton, Mark J Cook, Gordon G Wallace
Despite significant progress in developing new drugs for seizure control, epilepsy still affects 1% of the global population and is drug-resistant in more than 30% of cases. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of epilepsy medication, a promising approach is to deliver anti-epilepsy drugs directly to affected brain areas using local drug delivery systems. The drug delivery systems must meet a number of criteria, including high drug loading efficiency, biodegradability, neuro-cytocompatibility and predictable drug release profiles...
September 26, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883484/astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-in-grey-and-white-matter-regions-of-the-brain-metabolize-fatty-acids
#6
Kristina Hofmann, Rosalia Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Anne Gaebler, Núria Casals, Anja Scheller, Lars Kuerschner
The grey and white matter regions of the mammalian brain consist of both neurons and neuroglial cells. Among the neuroglia, the two macroglia oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are the most abundant cell types. While the major function of oligodendrocytes is the formation of the lipid-rich myelin structure, the heterogeneous group of astrocytes fulfils a multitude of important roles in cerebral development and homeostasis. Brain lipid homeostasis involves the synthesis of a specific cerebral lipidome by local lipid metabolism...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861932/ion-mobility-enhanced-data-independent-acquisitions-enable-a-deep-proteomic-landscape-of-oligodendrocytes
#7
Juliana S Cassoli, Caroline Brandão-Teles, Aline G Santana, Gustavo H M F Souza, Daniel Martins de-Souza
Oligodendrocytes are a type of neuroglia that provide trophic support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system. The genesis and maturation of oligodendrocytes are essential processes for myelination and the course of CNS development. Using ion mobility-enhanced, data-independent acquisitions and 2D-nanoUPLC fractionation operating at nanoscale flow rates, we established a comprehensive data set of proteins expressed by the human oligodendroglia cell line MO3.13. The final dataset incorporating all fractions comprised 223,531 identified peptides assigned to 10,390 protein hits, an improvement of 4,5 times on identified proteins described previously by our group using the same cell line...
September 1, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833751/a-proteomic-analysis-of-contextual-fear-conditioned-rats-reveals-dynamic-modifications-in-neuron-and-oligodendrocyte-protein-expression-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#8
Nicolas Houyoux, Ruddy Wattiez, Laurence Ris
Contextual memory is an intricate process involving synaptic plasticity and network rearrangement. Both are governed by many molecular processes including phosphorylation and modulation of protein expression. However, little is known about the molecules involved in it. Here, we exploited the advantages of a quantitative proteomic approach to identify a great number of molecules in the rat dentate gyrus after a contextual fear conditioning session. Our results allowed us to highlight protein expression patterns, not only related to neuroplasticity, but also to myelin structure, such as myelin basic protein and myelin proteolipid protein showing a decrease in expression...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814236/neuroglial-cell-cryopreservation-in-appropriate-inductive-conditions
#9
Rosa M Gomez, Maria Andrea Dominguez-Sanchez, Magdy M Sanchez, George E Barreto
An ability to store cells (if they cannot be used fresh) reduces cell wastage, thereby increasing the supply of transplantable material. Cell storage is also valuable in scientific research, allowing material to be archived and experiments to be repeated from the same tissue source and facilitating research collaboration by allowing stored samples to be distributed. Cryopreservation is currently considered the most promising and successful, long-term biological conservation method. Its use has led to optimizing survival, improving protocols and stem cell and neuroglia viability, thereby assuring its future use in neuroregeneration and restoration regarding cell therapy...
August 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757154/the-central-serotonin2b-receptor-as-a-new-pharmacological-target-for-the-treatment-of-dopamine-related-neuropsychiatric-disorders-rationale-and-current-status-of-research
#10
REVIEW
Céline Devroye, Adeline Cathala, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Umberto Spampinato
The serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR), which was first cloned and characterized in the rat stomach fundus, is the most recent addition to the 5-HT2R family. While its involvement in the regulation of gastrointestinal, vascular, pulmonary and cardiac physiology has been widely investigated, its functional role within the central nervous system (CNS) has received much less attention. Nevertheless, when considering the data available in the literature with regards to the regulatory control exerted by the central 5-HT2BR on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity, a very interesting picture emerges and highlights the key role of these receptors for future therapeutic strategies of DA-related neuropsychiatric disorders...
July 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713614/condition-medium-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-retinoic-acid-induces-the-transdifferentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-neuroglia-and-neural-like-cells
#11
Sara Haratizadeh, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Shahram Darabi, Narges Karimi, Mehrdad Naghikhani, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Morteza Seifi
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains several molecules which are essential for neurogenesis. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are putatively neural crest cell-derived that can differentiate into neurons and glial cells under appropriate neurotrophic factors. The aim of this study was to induce differentiation of hDPSCs into neuroglial phenotypes using retinoic acid (RA) and CSF. The hDPSCs from an impacted third molar were isolated by mechanical and digestion and cultured. The cells have treated by 10(-7) µM RA (RA group) for 8 days, 10% CSF (CSF group) for 8 days and RA with CSF for 8 days (RA/CSF group)...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674992/neuroglia-functional-paralysis-and-reactivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-pathologies
#12
Alexei Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec, J J Rodriguez, Vladimir Parpura
The most notable finding in neurodegenerative diseases is the progressive death of neurones cells. Yet, neuroglial changes can precede and facilitate neuronal loss. This is perhaps expected because astroglial cells maintain the brain homoeostasis, and are responsible for defence and regeneration, so that their malfunction manifested as degeneration or asthenia together with reactivity contribute to pathophysiology. Neuroglia may represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention, be that prevention, slowing progression of or possibly curing neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570738/cellular-senescence-is-associated-with-human-retinal-microaneurysm-formation-during-aging
#13
Mariana López-Luppo, Joana Catita, David Ramos, Marc Navarro, Ana Carretero, Luísa Mendes-Jorge, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Alfonso Rodriguez-Baeza, Victor Nacher, Jesus Ruberte
Purpose: Microaneurysms are present in healthy old-age human retinas. However, to date, no age-related pathogenic mechanism has been implicated in their formation. Here, cellular senescence, a hallmark of aging and several age-related diseases, has been analyzed in the old-age human retina and in the retina of a progeric mouse. Methods: Retinas were obtained from 17 nondiabetic donors and from mice deficient in Bmi1. Cellular senescence was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, senescent-associated β-galactosidase activity assay, Sudan black B staining, conventional transmission electron microscopy, and immunoelectronmicroscopy...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545479/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Neil T Sprenkle, Savannah G Sims, Cristina L Sánchez, Gordon P Meares
Persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is thought to drive the pathology of many chronic disorders due to its potential to elicit aberrant inflammatory signaling and facilitate cell death. In neurodegenerative diseases, the accumulation of misfolded proteins and concomitant induction of ER stress in neurons contributes to neuronal dysfunction. In addition, ER stress responses induced in the surrounding neuroglia may promote disease progression by coordinating damaging inflammatory responses, which help fuel a neurotoxic milieu...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544655/3d-bioprinting-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-constructs-for-in-situ-cell-proliferation-and-successive-multilineage-differentiation
#15
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation...
September 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522527/lineage-dependent-spatial-and-functional-organization-of-the-mammalian-enteric-nervous-system
#16
Reena Lasrado, Werend Boesmans, Jens Kleinjung, Carmen Pin, Donald Bell, Leena Bhaw, Sarah McCallum, Hui Zong, Liqun Luo, Hans Clevers, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors. The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RET as a regulator of neurogenic commitment...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466999/sarsasapogenin-aa13-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-induced-cognitive-deficits-via-improving-neuroglial-capacity-on-a%C3%AE-clearance-and-antiinflammation
#17
Cui Huang, Dong Dong, Qian Jiao, Hui Pan, Lei Ma, Rui Wang
AIMS: Sarsasapogenin has been reported to improve dementia symptoms somehow, probably through modulating the function of cholinergic system, suppressing neurofibrillary tangles, and inhibiting inflammation. However, the role of sarsasapogenin in response to beta-amyloid (Aβ) remains to be delineated. This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of sarsasapogenin-13 (AA13, a sarsasapogenin derivative) on learning and memory impairments in Aβ-injected mice, as well as the role of AA13 in neuroglia-mediated antiinflammation and Aβ clearance...
June 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432486/cholesterol-as-a-modifying-agent-of-the-neurovascular-unit-structure-and-function-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Ewelina Czuba, Aleksandra Steliga, Grażyna Lietzau, Przemysław Kowiański
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules...
August 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368982/spinal-cord-stimulation-in-chronic-pain-mode-of-action
#19
Ricardo Vallejo, Kerry Bradley, Leonardo Kapural
STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. OBJECTIVE: A review of the literature that presents a perspective on mechanisms of actions behind spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy for chronic pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SCS is an effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of intractable chronic pain. Its application has been mostly based on the gate control theory of pain. Computational models have been fundamental on the understanding of clinical observations and the design of therapies that provide optimal neuromodulation...
July 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353272/culturing-and-cryobanking-human-neural-stem-cells
#20
Jeremy M Crook, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook
The discovery and study of human neural stem cells has advanced our understanding of human neurogenesis, and the development of novel therapeutics based on neural cell replacement. Here, we describe methods to culture and cryopreserve human neural stem cells (hNSCs) for expansion and banking. Importantly, the protocols ensure that the multipotency of hNSCs is preserved to enable differentiation to neurons and supporting neuroglia.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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