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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814236/neuroglial-cell-cryopreservation-in-appropriate-inductive-conditions
#1
Rosa M Gomez, Maria Andrea Dominguez-Sanchez, Magdy M Sanchez, George E Barreto
An ability to store cells (if they cannot be used fresh) reduces cell wastage, thereby increasing the supply of transplantable material. Cell storage is also valuable in scientific research, allowing material to be archived and experiments to be repeated from the same tissue source and facilitating research collaboration by allowing stored samples to be distributed. Cryopreservation is currently considered the most promising and successful, long-term biological conservation method. Its use has led to optimizing survival, improving protocols and stem cell and neuroglia viability, thereby assuring its future use in neuroregeneration and restoration regarding cell therapy...
August 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757154/the-central-serotonin2b-receptor-as-a-new-pharmacological-target-for-the-treatment-of-dopamine-related-neuropsychiatric-disorders-rationale-and-current-status-of-research
#2
REVIEW
Céline Devroye, Adeline Cathala, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Umberto Spampinato
The serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR), which was first cloned and characterized in the rat stomach fundus, is the most recent addition to the 5-HT2R family. While its involvement in the regulation of gastrointestinal, vascular, pulmonary and cardiac physiology has been widely investigated, its functional role within the central nervous system (CNS) has received much less attention. Nevertheless, when considering the data available in the literature with regards to the regulatory control exerted by the central 5-HT2BR on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity, a very interesting picture emerges and highlights the key role of these receptors for future therapeutic strategies of DA-related neuropsychiatric disorders...
July 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713614/condition-medium-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-retinoic-acid-induces-the-transdifferentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-neuroglia-and-neural-like-cells
#3
Sara Haratizadeh, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Shahram Darabi, Narges Karimi, Mehrdad Naghikhani, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Morteza Seifi
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains several molecules which are essential for neurogenesis. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are putatively neural crest cell-derived that can differentiate into neurons and glial cells under appropriate neurotrophic factors. The aim of this study was to induce differentiation of hDPSCs into neuroglial phenotypes using retinoic acid (RA) and CSF. The hDPSCs from an impacted third molar were isolated by mechanical and digestion and cultured. The cells have treated by 10(-7) µM RA (RA group) for 8 days, 10% CSF (CSF group) for 8 days and RA with CSF for 8 days (RA/CSF group)...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674992/neuroglia-functional-paralysis-and-reactivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-pathologies
#4
Alexei Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec, J J Rodriguez, Vladimir Parpura
The most notable finding in neurodegenerative diseases is the progressive death of neurones cells. Yet, neuroglial changes can precede and facilitate neuronal loss. This is perhaps expected because astroglial cells maintain the brain homoeostasis, and are responsible for defence and regeneration, so that their malfunction manifested as degeneration or asthenia together with reactivity contribute to pathophysiology. Neuroglia may represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention, be that prevention, slowing progression of or possibly curing neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570738/cellular-senescence-is-associated-with-human-retinal-microaneurysm-formation-during-aging
#5
Mariana López-Luppo, Joana Catita, David Ramos, Marc Navarro, Ana Carretero, Luísa Mendes-Jorge, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Alfonso Rodriguez-Baeza, Victor Nacher, Jesus Ruberte
Purpose: Microaneurysms are present in healthy old-age human retinas. However, to date, no age-related pathogenic mechanism has been implicated in their formation. Here, cellular senescence, a hallmark of aging and several age-related diseases, has been analyzed in the old-age human retina and in the retina of a progeric mouse. Methods: Retinas were obtained from 17 nondiabetic donors and from mice deficient in Bmi1. Cellular senescence was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, senescent-associated β-galactosidase activity assay, Sudan black B staining, conventional transmission electron microscopy, and immunoelectronmicroscopy...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545479/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
Neil T Sprenkle, Savannah G Sims, Cristina L Sánchez, Gordon P Meares
Persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is thought to drive the pathology of many chronic disorders due to its potential to elicit aberrant inflammatory signaling and facilitate cell death. In neurodegenerative diseases, the accumulation of misfolded proteins and concomitant induction of ER stress in neurons contributes to neuronal dysfunction. In addition, ER stress responses induced in the surrounding neuroglia may promote disease progression by coordinating damaging inflammatory responses, which help fuel a neurotoxic milieu...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544655/3d-bioprinting-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-constructs-for-in-situ-cell-proliferation-and-successive-multilineage-differentiation
#7
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation...
May 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522527/lineage-dependent-spatial-and-functional-organization-of-the-mammalian-enteric-nervous-system
#8
Reena Lasrado, Werend Boesmans, Jens Kleinjung, Carmen Pin, Donald Bell, Leena Bhaw, Sarah McCallum, Hui Zong, Liqun Luo, Hans Clevers, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors. The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RET as a regulator of neurogenic commitment...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466999/sarsasapogenin-aa13-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-induced-cognitive-deficits-via-improving-neuroglial-capacity-on-a%C3%AE-clearance-and-antiinflammation
#9
Cui Huang, Dong Dong, Qian Jiao, Hui Pan, Lei Ma, Rui Wang
AIMS: Sarsasapogenin has been reported to improve dementia symptoms somehow, probably through modulating the function of cholinergic system, suppressing neurofibrillary tangles, and inhibiting inflammation. However, the role of sarsasapogenin in response to beta-amyloid (Aβ) remains to be delineated. This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of sarsasapogenin-13 (AA13, a sarsasapogenin derivative) on learning and memory impairments in Aβ-injected mice, as well as the role of AA13 in neuroglia-mediated antiinflammation and Aβ clearance...
June 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432486/cholesterol-as-a-modifying-agent-of-the-neurovascular-unit-structure-and-function-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#10
REVIEW
Ewelina Czuba, Aleksandra Steliga, Grażyna Lietzau, Przemysław Kowiański
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules...
August 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368982/spinal-cord-stimulation-in-chronic-pain-mode-of-action
#11
Ricardo Vallejo, Kerry Bradley, Leonardo Kapural
STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. OBJECTIVE: A review of the literature that presents a perspective on mechanisms of actions behind spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy for chronic pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SCS is an effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of intractable chronic pain. Its application has been mostly based on the gate control theory of pain. Computational models have been fundamental on the understanding of clinical observations and the design of therapies that provide optimal neuromodulation...
July 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353272/culturing-and-cryobanking-human-neural-stem-cells
#12
Jeremy M Crook, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook
The discovery and study of human neural stem cells has advanced our understanding of human neurogenesis, and the development of novel therapeutics based on neural cell replacement. Here, we describe methods to culture and cryopreserve human neural stem cells (hNSCs) for expansion and banking. Importantly, the protocols ensure that the multipotency of hNSCs is preserved to enable differentiation to neurons and supporting neuroglia.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320280/molecular-mechanisms-mediating-involvement-of-glial-cells-in-brain-plastic-remodeling-in-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
L G Khaspekov, L E Frumkina
In this review we summarize published data on the involvement of glial cells in molecular mechanisms underlying brain plastic reorganization in epilepsy. The role of astrocytes as glial elements in pathological plasticity in epilepsy is discussed. Data on the involvement of aquaporin-4 in epileptogenic plastic changes and on participation of microglia and extracellular matrix in dysregulation of synaptic transmission and plastic remodeling in epileptic brain tissue are reviewed.
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319259/label-free-identification-of-the-microstructure-of-rat-spinal-cords-based-on-nonlinear-optical-microscopy
#14
C X Liao, Z Y Wang, Y Zhou, L Q Zhou, X Q Zhu, W G Liu, J X Chen
The spinal cord is a vital link between the brain and the body and mainly comprises neurons, glial cells and nerve fibres. In this work, nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy based on intrinsic tissue properties was employed to label-freely analyze the cells and matrix in spinal cords at a molecular level. The high-resolution and high-contrast NLO images of unstained spinal cords demonstrate that NLO microscopy has the ability to show the microstructure of white and grey matter including ventral horn, intermediate area, dorsal horns, ventral column, lateral column and dorsal column...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255782/neuroanatomical-distribution-of-galectin-3-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#15
Hong-Il Yoo, Eu-Gene Kim, Eun-Jin Lee, Sung-Young Hong, Chi-Sun Yoon, Min-Ju Hong, Sang-Jin Park, Ran-Sook Woo, Tai-Kyoung Baik, Dae-Yong Song
Galectin-3 is a member of the lectin subfamily that enables the specific binding of β-galactosides. It is expressed in a broad spectrum of species and organs, and is known to have various functions related to cell adhesion, signal transduction, and proinflammatory responses. Although, expression of galectin-3 in some activated neuroglia under neuroinflammation has been well documented in the central nervous system, little is known about the neuronal expression and distribution of galectin-3 in normal brain...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229088/glutathione-induces-gaba-release-through-p2x7r-activation-on-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#16
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Ricardo A de Melo Reis
The retinal tissue of warm-blooded vertebrates performs surprisingly complex and accurate transduction of visual information. To achieve precision, a multilayered neuroglia structure is established throughout the embryonic development, and the presence of radial Müller (glial) cells ensure differentiation, growth and survival for the neuronal elements within retinal environment. It is assumed that Müller cells serve as a dynamic reservoir of progenitors, capable of expressing transcription factors, differentiating and proliferating as either neuronal or glial cells depending on extrinsic cues...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070036/-hypoxic-condition-promotes-olfactory-mucosa-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-differentiate-into-neurons-and-%C3%A2-underlying-mechanisms
#17
Yi Zhuo, Ting Yuan, Da Duan, Lei Wang, Lite Ge, Pei Wu, Hao Wang, Ming Lu
To explore whether hypoxic condition could promote the olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) to differentiate into neurons with the olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) supernatant and the potential mechanisms.
 Methods: The OM-MSCs and OECs were isolated and cultured, and they were identified by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The OM-MSCs were divided into three groups: a 3%O2+ HIF-1α inhibitors (lificiguat: YC-1) + OECs supernatant group (Group A) , a 3%O2 + OECs supernatant group (Group B) and a 21%O2 + OECs supernatant group (Control group)...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924726/neurodegenerative-disease-a-perspective-on-cell-based-therapy-in-the-new-era-of-cell-free-nano-therapy
#18
Su M Metcalfe, Sean Bickerton, Tarek Fahmy
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) result in irreversible loss of neurons. Dementia develops when disease-induced neuronal loss becomes sufficient to impair both memory and cognitive functioning and, globally, dementia is increasing to epidemic proportions as populations age. In the current era of regenerative medicine intense activity is asking, can loss of endogenous neurons be compensated by replacement with exogenously derived cells that have either direct, or indirect, neurogenic capacity? But, more recently, excitement is growing around an emerging alternative to the cell-based approach - here nanotechnology for targeted delivery of growth factor aims to support and expand resident central nervous system (CNS) stem cells for endogenous repair...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883356/a-human-brain-microphysiological-system-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-study-neurological-diseases-and-toxicity
#19
David Pamies, Paula Barreras, Katharina Block, Georgia Makri, Anupama Kumar, Daphne Wiersma, Lenna Smirnova, Ce Zang, Joseph Bressler, Kimberly M Christian, Georgina Harris, Guo-Li Ming, Cindy J Berlinicke, Kelly Kyro, Hongjun Song, Carlos A Pardo, Thomas Hartung, Helena T Hogberg
Human in vitro models of brain neurophysiology are needed to investigate molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with neurological disorders and neurotoxicity. We have developed a reproducible iPSC-derived human 3D brain microphysiological system (BMPS), comprised of differentiated mature neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) that reproduce neuronal-glial interactions and connectivity. BMPS mature over eight weeks and show the critical elements of neuronal function: synaptogenesis and neuron-to-neuron (e...
2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761954/novel-insights-into-role-of-mir-320a-vdac1-axis-in-astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-damage-in-neuroaids
#20
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
February 2017: Glia
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