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Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
Monika Albert, Alonso Barrantes-Freer, Melanie Lohrberg, Jack P Antel, John W Prineas, Miklós Palkovits, Joachim R Wolff, Wolfgang Brück, Christine Stadelmann
In multiple sclerosis, cerebellar symptoms are associated with clinical impairment and an increased likelihood of progressive course. Cortical atrophy and synaptic dysfunction play a prominent role in cerebellar pathology and although the dentate nucleus is a predilection site for lesion development, structural synaptic changes in this region remain largely unexplored. Moreover, the mechanisms leading to synaptic dysfunction have not yet been investigated at an ultrastructural level in multiple sclerosis. Here we report on synaptic changes of dentate nuclei in post-mortem cerebella of 16 multiple sclerosis patients and eight controls at the histological level as well as an electron microscopy evaluation of afferent synapses of the cerebellar dentate and pontine nuclei of one multiple sclerosis patient and one control...
October 5, 2016: Brain Pathology
Saeed Haghiri, Arash Ahmadi, Mehrdad Saif
Glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia, are non-neuronal cells providing support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). They also act as supportive cells in the brain. Among a variety of glial cells, the star-shaped glial cells, i.e., astrocytes, are the largest cell population in the brain. The important role of astrocyte such as neuronal synchronization, synaptic information regulation, feedback to neural activity and extracellular regulation make the astrocytes play a vital role in brain disease...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Pallavi Madhusudanan, Samuel Reade, Sahadev A Shankarappa
Targeted drug delivery within the nervous system is an emerging topic of research that involves designing and developing vehicular delivery systems that have the ability to target specific neuronal and non-neuronal cell types in the central and peripheral nervous system. Drugs, genetic material, or any other payloads can be loaded onto such delivery systems and could be used to treat, prevent or manage various neurological disorders. Currently, majority of studies in this field have been concentrated around targeted delivery to neurons...
August 20, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Reginald C Adiele, Chiedukam A Adiele
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated neurodegenerative brain disorder with progressive cognitive decline that leads to terminal dementia and death. For decades, amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) aggregation hypotheses have dominated studies on the pathogenesis and identification of potential therapeutic targets in AD. Little attention has been paid to the mitochondrial molecular/biochemical pathways leading to AD. Mitochondria play a critical role in cell viability and death including neurons and neuroglia, not only because they regulate energy and oxygen metabolism but also because they regulate cell death pathways...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Chia-I Ko, Yunxia Fan, Matthew de Gannes, Qin Wang, Ying Xia, Alvaro Puga
Lack of cell cycle checkpoints and uninterrupted passage through S-phase continuously renew the embryonic stem (ES) cell population and maintain pluripotency. Here we show that to regulate mitotic progression and pluripotency ES cells must keep the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an environmental sensor and transcriptional regulator, in a persistent state of repression. This repression, however, is not always absolute, causing the AHR to fluctuate between reversible states of expression and repression, with a fraction of the cells escaping repression at any one time...
July 4, 2016: Stem Cells
Reza Arezoomandan, Marzieh Moradi, Ghassem Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Carlos Tomaz, Abbas Haghparast
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug with significant abuse potential and neurotoxic effects. A high percentage of users relapse to use after detoxification and no effective medication has been developed for treatment of METH addiction. Developing evidences indicated the role of glial cells in drugs abused related phenomena. However, little is known about the role of these cells in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-seeking behaviors. Therefore, the current study was conducted to clarify the role of glial cells in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats...
July 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Rodrigo Lozano, Yu Chen, Robert M Kapsa, Qi Zhou, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
On page 1429 G. G. Wallace, J. M. Crook, and co-workers report the first example of fabricating neural tissue by 3D bioprinting human neural stem cells. A novel polysaccharide based bioink preserves stem cell viability and function within the printed construct, enabling self-renewal and differentiation to neurons and supporting neuroglia. Neurons are predominantly GABAergic, establish networks, are spontaneously active, and show a bicuculline induced increased calcium response.
June 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Rocío Ruiz, Eva María Pérez-Villegas, Sara Bachiller, José Luis Rosa, José Angel Armengol
The spontaneous mutation tambaleante is caused by the Gly483Glu substitution in the highly conserved N terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein, which leads to the increase of mutated protein levels responsible for cerebellar Purkinje cell death by autophagy. Until now, Purkinje cells have been the only central nervous neurons reported as being targeted by the mutation, and their degeneration elicits an ataxic syndrome in adult mutant mice. However, the ultrastructural analysis performed here demonstrates that signs of autophagy, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and altered mitochondria, are present in neocortical pyramidal, CA3 hippocampal pyramidal, and spinal cord motor neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Vladimir Parpura, Israel Sekler, Robert Fern
In the absence of the electrical signaling for which neurons are so highly specialized, GLIA rely on the slow propagation of ionic signals to mediate network events such as Ca(2+) and Na(+) waves. Glia differ from neurons in another important way, they are replete with a high density of ionic-transport proteins that are essential for them to fulfil their basic functions as guardians of the intra and extra-cellular milieux. Both the signaling and the homeostatic properties of glial cells are therefore particularly dependent upon the regulation of the two principle physiological metal cations, Ca(2+) and Na(+) ...
October 2016: Glia
Hercules R Freitas, Gabriel Ferraz, Gustavo C Ferreira, Victor T Ribeiro-Resende, Luciana B Chiarini, José Luiz M do Nascimento, Karen Renata H Matos Oliveira, Tiago de Lima Pereira, Leonardo G B Ferreira, Regina C Kubrusly, Robson X Faria, Anderson Manoel Herculano, Ricardo A de Melo Reis
Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH) is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH...
2016: PloS One
Dean M Talia, Devy Deliyanti, Alex Agrotis, Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka
OBJECTIVE: Although inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) provide benefit for the management of neovascular retinopathies, their use is limited to end-stage disease and some eyes are resistant. We hypothesized that retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor γ (RORγ) and its downstream effector, interleukin (IL)-17A, upregulate VEGF and hence are important treatment targets for neovascular retinopathies. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Utilizing a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, we identified that retinal immunocompetent cells, microglia, express IL-17A...
June 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yueling Jin, Weizhong Xiao, Tingting Song, Guangjia Feng, Zhensheng Dai
Glioma is a brain tumor deriving from the neoplastic glial cells or neuroglia. Due to its resistance to anticancer drugs and different disease progress of individuals, patients with high-grade glioma are difficult to completely cure, leading to a poor prognosis and low overall survival. Therefore, there is an urgent need to look for prognostic and diagnostic indicators that can predict glioma grades. P53 is one of the widely studied biomarkers in human glioma. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the significance of p53 expression in glioma grades and overall survival...
July 2016: Neurochemical Research
Qi Gu, Eva Tomaskovic-Crook, Rodrigo Lozano, Yu Chen, Robert M Kapsa, Qi Zhou, Gordon G Wallace, Jeremy M Crook
Direct-write printing of stem cells within biomaterials presents an opportunity to engineer tissue for in vitro modeling and regenerative medicine. Here, a first example of constructing neural tissue by printing human neural stem cells that are differentiated in situ to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia is reported. The supporting biomaterial incorporates a novel clinically relevant polysaccharide-based bioink comprising alginate, carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose. The printed bioink rapidly gels by stable cross-linking to form a porous 3D scaffold encapsulating stem cells for in situ expansion and differentiation...
June 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
A Toledano, J J Merino, J J Rodríguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Na Zhao, Le Shen, Hao-wu Jiang, Chao Ma, Yu-guang Huang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of MiR-146a regulator function on the inflammatory response in neuroglia cell (microglia). METHODS: BV2 cells were transfected by MiR-146a mimics,and then stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MiR-146a expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). Interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) were detected by PCR and Western blotting...
February 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Sridevi Yadavilli, Eugene I Hwang, Roger J Packer, Javad Nazarian
Neuron glia antigen-2 ((NG2), also known as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4, or melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan) is a type-1 membrane protein expressed by many central nervous system (CNS) cells during development and differentiation and plays a critical role in proliferation and angiogenesis. 'NG2' often references either the protein itself or the highly proliferative and undifferentiated glial cells expressing high levels of NG2 protein. NG2 glia represent the fourth major type of neuroglia in the mammalian nervous system and are classified as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells by virtue of their committed oligodendrocyte generation in developing and adult brain...
February 2016: Translational Oncology
Sang-Gyun Kang, Chiye Kim, Leonardo M Cortez, María Carmen Garza, Jing Yang, Holger Wille, Valerie L Sim, David Westaway, Debbie McKenzie, Judd Aiken
Prion diseases are progressive neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and various mammals. The prominent neuropathological change in prion diseases is neuroinflammation characterized by activation of neuroglia surrounding prion deposition. The cause and effect of this cellular response, however, is unclear. We investigated innate immune defenses against prion infection using primary mixed neuronal and glial cultures. Conditional prion propagation occurred in glial cultures depending on their immune status...
June 2016: Glia
James Cairns, Doug Swanson, Joanna Yeung, Anna Sinova, Ronny Chan, Praneetha Potluri, Price Dickson, Guy Mittleman, Dan Goldowitz
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired and disordered language, decreased social interactions, stereotyped and repetitive behaviors, and impaired fine and gross motor skills. It has been well established that cerebellar abnormalities are one of the most common structural changes seen in the brains of people diagnosed with autism. Common cerebellar pathology observed in autistic individuals includes variable loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) and increased numbers of reactive neuroglia in the cerebellum and cortical brain regions...
February 2, 2016: Cerebellum
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Ola A Hussein, Amel M M Abdel-Hafez, Huda S A Thabet
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic cigarette smoking causes detrimental effects on brain morphology. AIM OF WORK: To study the structural changes in auditory cortex region (Layer V), under the influence of nicotine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three animal groups (10 each) were used; group I (control) and groups IIa and IIb received 3 and 6mg/kg nicotine respectively. The specimens from the auditory cortex were examined using light and electron microscopy and morphometry...
February 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
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