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Neuroprotectin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870371/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-a-fundamental-fatty-acid-for-the-brain-new-dietary-sources
#1
REVIEW
Francisca Echeverría, Rodrigo Valenzuela, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Alfonso Valenzuela
Docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6n-3, DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of marine origin fundamental for the formation and function of the nervous system, particularly the brain and the retina of humans. It has been proposed a remarkable role of DHA during human evolution, mainly on the growth and development of the brain. Currently, DHA is considered a critical nutrient during pregnancy and breastfeeding due their active participation in the development of the nervous system in early life. DHA and specifically one of its derivatives known as neuroprotectin D-1 (NPD-1), has neuroprotective properties against brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases and injury caused after brain ischemia-reperfusion episodes...
September 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615451/molecular-mechanisms-of-signaling-via-the-docosanoid-neuroprotectin-d1-for-cellular-homeostasis-and-neuroprotection
#2
REVIEW
Aram Asatryan, Nicolas G Bazan
Docosahexaenoic acid, enriched in the brain and retina, generates docosanoids in response to disruptions of cellular homeostasis. Docosanoids include neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), which is decreased in the CA1 hippocampal area of patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). We summarize here how NPD1 elicits neuroprotection by up-regulating c-REL, a nuclear factor (NF)-κB subtype that, in turn, enhances expression of BIRC3 (baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing protein 3) in the retina and in experimental stroke, leading to neuroprotection...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530530/is-fish-oil-a-potential-treatment-for-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#3
Mark Anthony Yorek
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy affects about 50% of the diabetic population. The manifestations range from pain, numbness, paresthesia and ulceration in the extremities and it is the major cause of non-traumatic amputations. Currently there is no effective treatment for peripheral neuropathy. With the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes and associated complications reaching epidemic levels there is a critical need for finding a treatment to preserve nerve function. INTRODUCTION: This article will review the potential for fish oil as a treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy...
May 22, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430183/neuroprotectin-d1-upregulates-iduna-expression-and-provides-protection-in-cellular-uncompensated-oxidative-stress-and-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#4
Ludmila Belayev, Pranab K Mukherjee, Veronica Balaszczuk, Jorgelina M Calandria, Andre Obenaus, Larissa Khoutorova, Sung-Ha Hong, Nicolas G Bazan
Ring finger protein 146 (Iduna) facilitates DNA repair and protects against cell death induced by NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate excitotoxicity or by cerebral ischemia. Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived lipid mediator, promotes cell survival under uncompensated oxidative stress (UOS). Our data demonstrate that NPD1 potently upregulates Iduna expression and provides remarkable cell protection against UOS. Iduna, which was increased by the lipid mediator, requires the presence of the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) sites...
June 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314621/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-an-essential-nutrient-and-a-nutraceutical-for-brain-health-and-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Grace Y Sun, Agnes Simonyi, Kevin L Fritsche, Dennis Y Chuang, Mark Hannink, Zezong Gu, C Michael Greenlief, Jeffrey K Yao, James C Lee, David Q Beversdorf
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enriched in phospholipids in the brain and retina, is known to play multi-functional roles in brain health and diseases. While arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), DHA is linked to action of the Ca(2+)-independent iPLA2. DHA undergoes enzymatic conversion by 15-lipoxygenase (Alox 15) to form oxylipins including resolvins and neuroprotectins, which are powerful lipid mediators. DHA can also undergo non-enzymatic conversion by reacting with oxygen free radicals (ROS), which cause the production of 4-hydoxyhexenal (4-HHE), an aldehyde derivative which can form adducts with DNA, proteins and lipids...
March 10, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109294/probing-the-intermolecular-interactions-of-ppar%C3%AE-lbd-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-anti-inflammatory-metabolites-to-infer-most-potential-binding-moieties
#6
Shalini Muralikumar, Umashankar Vetrivel, Angayarkanni Narayanasamy, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: PPARγ is an isoform of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to a super family of nuclear receptors. PPARγ receptor is found to play a crucial role in the modulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Its commotion has been reported to play a significant role in a broad spectrum of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and in some cancers. Hence, PPARγ is an important therapeutic target. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites (henceforth referred to as bioactive lipids) are known to function as agonists of PPARγ...
January 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866493/dietary-dha-and-health-cognitive-function-ageing
#7
Carlos Cardoso, Cláudia Afonso, Narcisa M Bandarra
DHA is a key nutritional n-3 PUFA and needs to be supplied by the human diet. DHA is found in significant amounts in the retinal and neuronal cell membranes due to its high fluidity. Indeed, DHA is selectively concentrated in the synaptic and retinal membranes. DHA is deemed to display anti-inflammatory properties and to reduce the risk of CVD. Consumption of larger amounts of DHA appears to reduce the risk of depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. Conversely, it has been shown that loss of DHA from the nerve cell membrane leads to dysfunction of the central nervous system in the form of anxiety, irritability, susceptibility to stress, dyslexia, impaired memory and cognitive functions, and extended reaction times...
December 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167127/enriched-endogenous-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-mice-ameliorate-parenchymal-cell-death-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Huixia Ren, Zhen Yang, Chuanming Luo, Haitao Zeng, Peng Li, Jing X Kang, Jian-Bo Wan, Chengwei He, Huanxing Su
Currently no effective therapies are available for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early intervention that specifically provides neuroprotection is of most importance which profoundly influences the outcome of TBI. In the present study, we adopted a closed-skull mild TBI model to investigate potential roles of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in protecting against TBI. Using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), parenchymal cell death and reactive oxidative species (ROS) expression were directly observed and recorded after TBI through a thinned skull bone window...
July 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26677076/the-lipoxygenases-their-regulation-and-implication-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Grzegorz A Czapski, Kinga Czubowicz, Joanna B Strosznajder, Robert P Strosznajder
Inflammatory processes and alterations of lipid metabolism play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) metabolism impaired by cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2), which are responsible for formation of several eicosanoids, and by lipoxygenases (LOXs) that catalyze the addition of oxygen to linolenic, arachidonic (AA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and other PUFA leading to formation of bioactive lipids, significantly affects the course of neurodegenerative diseases...
February 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26427436/molecular-principles-for-decoding-homeostasis-disruptions-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-significance-of-lipid-mediators-to-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#10
Nicolas G Bazan
Dysregulated neuroinflammatory signaling during impending disruption of homeostasis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor cells (PRC) takes place in early stages of retinal degeneration. PRCs avidly retain and display the highest content in the human body of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; an omega-3 essential fatty acid). Docosanoids are DHA-derived mediators, such as neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), made on-demand that promote repair, phagocytic clearance, cell survival, and are active participants of effective, well-concerted homeostasis restoration...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26374175/advances-in-our-understanding-of-oxylipins-derived-from-dietary-pufas
#11
REVIEW
Melissa Gabbs, Shan Leng, Jessay G Devassy, Md Monirujjaman, Harold M Aukema
Oxylipins formed from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the main mediators of PUFA effects in the body. They are formed via cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 pathways, resulting in the formation of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids (FAs), epoxy FAs, lipoxins, eoxins, hepoxilins, resolvins, protectins (also called neuroprotectins in the brain), and maresins. In addition to the well-known eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid, recent developments in lipidomic methodologies have raised awareness of and interest in the large number of oxylipins formed from other PUFAs, including those from the essential FAs and the longer-chain n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs...
September 2015: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26339646/biological-roles-of-resolvins-and-related-substances-in-the-resolution-of-pain
#12
REVIEW
Ji Yeon Lim, Chul-Kyu Park, Sun Wook Hwang
Endogenous pain-inhibitory substances have rarely been found. A group of powerful pain suppressor molecules that are endogenously generated are now emerging: resolvins and related compounds including neuroprotectins and maresins. These molecules began to be unveiled in a series of inflammation studies more than a decade ago, rapidly shifting the paradigm that explains the mechanism for the inflammatory phase switch. The resolution phase was considered a passive process as proinflammatory mediators disappeared; it is now understood to be actively drawn by the actions of resolvins...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26047923/the-docosanoid-neuroprotectin-d1-induces-th-positive-neuronal-survival-in-a-cellular-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Jorgelina M Calandria, Michelle W Sharp, Nicolas G Bazan
Parkinson's disease (PD) does not manifest clinically until 80 % of striatal dopamine is reduced, thus most neuronal damage takes place before the patient presents clinical symptoms. Therefore, it is important to develop preventive strategies for this disease. In the experimental models of PD, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) and rotenone induce toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) displays neuroprotection in cells undergoing proteotoxic and oxidative stress. In the present report, we established an in vitro model using a primary neuronal culture from mesencephalic embryonic mouse tissue in which 17-20 % of neurons were TH-positive when differentiated in vitro...
November 2015: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25947917/complestatin-exerts-antibacterial-activity-by-the-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-synthesis
#14
Yun-Ju Kwon, Hyun-Ju Kim, Won-Gon Kim
Bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase has been confirmed as a novel target for antibacterial drug development. In the screening of inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI), complestatin was isolated as a potent inhibitor of S. aureus FabI together with neuroprotectin A and chloropeptin I from Streptomyces chartreusis AN1542. Complestatin and related compounds inhibited S. aureus FabI with IC₅₀ of 0.3-0.6 µM. They also prevented the growth of S. aureus as well as methicillin-resistance S...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25633199/npd1-mediated-stereoselective-regulation-of-birc3-expression-through-crel-is-decisive-for-neural-cell-survival
#15
J M Calandria, A Asatryan, V Balaszczuk, E J Knott, B K Jun, P K Mukherjee, L Belayev, N G Bazan
Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived mediator, induces cell survival in uncompensated oxidative stress (OS), neurodegenerations or ischemic stroke. The molecular principles underlying this protection remain unresolved. We report here that, in retinal pigment epithelial cells, NPD1 induces nuclear translocation and cREL synthesis that, in turn, mediates BIRC3 transcription. NPD1 activates NF-κB by an alternate route to canonical signaling, so the opposing effects of TNFR1 and NPD1 on BIRC3 expression are not due to interaction/s between NF-κB pathways...
August 2015: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25617763/hippocampal-neuro-networks-and-dendritic-spine-perturbations-in-epileptogenesis-are-attenuated-by-neuroprotectin-d1
#16
Alberto E Musto, Chelsey P Walker, Nicos A Petasis, Nicolas G Bazan
PURPOSE: Limbic epileptogenesis triggers molecular and cellular events that foster the establishment of aberrant neuronal networks that, in turn, contribute to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here we have examined hippocampal neuronal network activities in the pilocarpine post-status epilepticus model of limbic epileptogenesis and asked whether or not the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived lipid mediator, neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), modulates epileptogenesis. METHODS: Status epilepticus (SE) was induced by intraperitoneal administration of pilocarpine in adult male C57BL/6 mice...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25482049/regulation-of-calcium-independent-phospholipase-a2-expression-by-adrenoceptors-and-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-potential-crosstalk-between-sterol-and-glycerophospholipid-mediators
#17
Wee-Siong Chew, Wei-Yi Ong
Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) is an 85-kDa enzyme that releases docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from glycerophospholipids. DHA can be metabolized to resolvins and neuroprotectins that have anti-inflammatory properties and effects on neural plasticity. Recent studies show an important role of prefrontal cortical iPLA2 in hippocampo-prefrontal cortical LTP and antidepressant-like effect of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) antidepressant, maprotiline. In this study, we elucidated the cellular mechanisms through which stimulation of adrenergic receptors could lead to increased iPLA2 expression...
January 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25273880/neuroprotectin-protectin-d1-endogenous-biosynthesis-and-actions-on-diabetic-macrophages-in-promoting-wound-healing-and-innervation-impaired-by-diabetes
#18
Song Hong, Haibin Tian, Yan Lu, James Monroe Laborde, Filipe A Muhale, Quansheng Wang, Bhagwat V Alapure, Charles N Serhan, Nicolas G Bazan
Dysfunction of macrophages (MΦs) in diabetic wounds impairs the healing. MΦs produce anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving neuroprotectin/protectin D1 (NPD1/PD1, 10R,17S-dihydroxy-docosa-4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid); however, little is known about endogenous NPD1 biosynthesis by MΦs and the actions of NPD1 on diabetic MΦ functions in diabetic wound healing. We used an excisional skin wound model of diabetic mice, MΦ depletion, MΦs isolated from diabetic mice, and mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics to study the time course progression of NPD1 levels in wounds, the roles of MΦs in NPD1 biosynthesis, and NPD1 action on diabetic MΦ inflammatory activities...
December 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25212825/neuroprotectin-d1-is-synthesized-in-the-cone-photoreceptor-cell-line-661w-and-elicits-protection-against-light-induced-stress
#19
Y Kanan, W C Gordon, P K Mukherjee, N G Bazan, M R Al-Ubaidi
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid family member, is obtained by diet or synthesized from dietary essential omega-3 linolenic acid and delivered systemically to the choriocapillaris, from where it is taken up by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). DHA is then transported to the inner segments of photoreceptors, where it is incorporated in phospholipids during the biogenesis of outer segment disk and plasma membranes. As apical photoreceptor disks are gradually shed and phagocytized by the RPE, DHA is retrieved and recycled back to photoreceptor inner segments for reassembly into new disks...
March 2015: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25139562/protectins-and-maresins-new-pro-resolving-families-of-mediators-in-acute-inflammation-and-resolution-bioactive-metabolome
#20
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan, Jesmond Dalli, Romain A Colas, Jeremy W Winkler, Nan Chiang
Acute inflammatory responses are protective, yet without timely resolution can lead to chronic inflammation and organ fibrosis. A systems approach to investigate self-limited (self-resolving) inflammatory exudates in mice and structural elucidation uncovered novel resolution phase mediators in vivo that stimulate endogenous resolution mechanisms in inflammation. Resolving inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes utilize DHA and other n-3 EFA to produce three structurally distinct families of potent di- and trihydroxy-containing products, with several stereospecific potent mediators in each family...
April 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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