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Non alcoholic fatty liver

Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Milla-Maria Tauriainen, Ville Männistö, Dorota Kaminska, Maija Vaittinen, Vesa Kärjä, Pirjo Käkelä, Sari Venesmaa, Helena Gylling, Jussi Pihlajamäki
Background & aims : Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with low levels of serum plant sterols in cross-sectional studies. However, parenterally given plant sterols may lead to liver injury. In addition, it has been suggested that the hepatic sterol transport mechanisms are altered in NAFLD. Therefore, we investigated the association between serum, liver and bile plant sterols and sitostanol with NAFLD. Methods : Out of the 138 individuals (age: 46.3±8.9, BMI: 43.3±6.9 kg/m², 28% men and 72% women), 44 could be histologically categorized to have normal liver, and 94 to have NAFLD...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Patricia Aspichueta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Gut
Maggie A Stanislawski, Catherine A Lozupone, Brandie D Wagner, Merete Eggesbø, Marci K Sontag, Nichole Nusbacher, Mercedes Martinez, Dana Dabelea
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence supports that the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and may also offer avenues for treatment or prevention. METHODS: We investigated the associations among gut microbiota, diet and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) in 107 adolescents. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to assess HFF, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on collected fecal samples. Dietary intake was assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
P Cordero, J Li, J A Oben
Obesity is the pandemic of the 21st century. Obesity comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance define metabolic syndrome, which increases mortality risk and decreases the quality of life. Compared with lifestyles (diet and physical activity) and pharmacological interventions, bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for obesity and its comorbidities. This minimally invasive surgical treatment is based on an increase of satiety (by hormonal regulation and decreasing stomach volume) or a decrease in nutrient retention (gastric and/or intestinal resection)...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Yi-Yuan Zheng, Miao Wang, Xiang-Bing Shu, Pei-Yong Zheng, Guang Ji
AIM: To elucidate the potential role of autophagy and the protective effects of Jiang Zhi Granule (JZG) in metabolic stress-induced hepatocyte injury. METHODS: An in vitro and in vivo approach was used in this study. HepG2 cells were incubated in culture medium containing palmitate (PA; 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 mmol/L) and treated with or without JZG (100 μg/mL) for 24 h or 48 h, and the progression of autophagy was visualized by stable fluorescence-expressing cell lines LC3 and p62...
March 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Rina Komazaki, Sayaka Katagiri, Hirokazu Takahashi, Shogo Maekawa, Takahiko Shiba, Yasuo Takeuchi, Yoichiro Kitajima, Anri Ohtsu, Sayuri Udagawa, Naoki Sasaki, Kazuki Watanabe, Noriko Sato, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Yuichiro Eguchi, Keizo Anzai, Yuichi Izumi
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kristine S Alexander, Neil A Zakai, Steven D Lidofsky, Peter W Callas, Suzanne E Judd, Russell P Tracy, Mary Cushman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Liver disease, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but little is known about its relationship with ischemic stroke. METHODS: In the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort of 30,239 American black and white adults, we assessed baseline NAFLD as fatty liver index (FLI) >60, and assessed liver biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and the AST/ALT ratio and risk of incident ischemic stroke over 5...
2018: PloS One
Jagannath M Sherigar, Joline De Castro, Yong Mei Yin, Debra Guss, Smruti R Mohanty
Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is a rare complication of the poorly controlled diabetes mellitus characterized by the transient liver dysfunction with elevated liver enzymes and associated hepatomegaly caused by the reversible accumulation of excess glycogen in the hepatocytes. It is predominantly seen in patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes mellitus and rarely reported in association with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although it was first observed in the pediatric population, since then, it has been reported in adolescents and adults with or without ketoacidosis...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Prahlad K Rao, Kate Merath, Eugene Drigalenko, Avinash Y L Jadhav, Richard A Komorowski, Matthew I Goldblatt, Anand Rohatgi, Mark A Sarzynski, Samer Gawrieh, Michael Olivier
Background: Metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are associated with changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, including changes in particle size and protein composition, often resulting in abnormal function. Recent studies suggested that patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including individuals with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), have smaller HDL particles when compared to individuals without liver pathologies. However, no studies have investigated potential changes in HDL particle protein composition in patients with NAFLD, in addition to changes related to obesity, to explore putative functional changes of HDL which may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
Dandan Huang, Baoqing Liu, Kai Huang, Kun Huang
Metabolic disorders, including obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), metabolic syndrome and diabetes, are complex and progressive diseases. Enoyl coenzyme A hydratase 1 (Ech1) is an enzyme that participates in mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation; however, little is known regarding the significance of Ech1 in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. Here, we report that high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced and genetic obesity could increase Ech1 expression in mouse liver. The overexpression of Ech1 using adeno-associated virus (AAV2/8) ameliorated HFD-induced liver lipid accumulation and accompanying liver injury...
March 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shanshan Shao, Zhenyu Yao, Jiayu Lu, Yongfeng Song, Zhao He, Chunxiao Yu, Xiaoming Zhou, Lifang Zhao, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao
Increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of it and expanded the scope of research in this field. Women are more resistant to NAFLD than men despite equal exposure to major risk factors, such as obesity or hyperlipidemia. Female resistance is hormone-dependent, as evidenced by the sharp increase in NAFLD incidence in post-menopausal women who do not take hormone replacement therapy. Here, we found that the estrogen-responsive pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), through specific PRL receptor (PRLR), down-regulates hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Karen Louise Thomsen, Francesco De Chiara, Krista Rombouts, Hendrik Vilstrup, Fausto Andreola, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Rajiv Jalan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from steatosis, through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis. The development of fibrosis is the most important factor contributing to NASH-associated morbidity and mortality. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are responsible for extracellular matrix deposition in conditions of frank hepatocellular injury and are key cells involved in the development of fibrosis. In experimental models and patients with NASH, urea cycle enzyme gene and protein expression is reduced resulting in functional reduction in the in vivo capacity for ureagenesis and subsequent hyperammonemia at a pre-cirrhotic stage...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Claus Uhrenholt Christensen, Emilie Glavind, Karen Louise Thomsen, Yong Ook Kim, Sara Heebøll, Detlef Schuppan, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Christian Würtz Heegaard, Henning Grønbæk
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic cholesterol deposition drives inflammation and fibrosis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein plays an important role in regulating intracellular cholesterol trafficking and homeostasis. We hypothesized that intravenous NPC2 supplementation reduces cholesterol accumulation, hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis in a nutritional NASH rat model. METHODS: Rats were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet for four weeks resulting in moderately severe NASH...
2018: PloS One
Rajesh Dabur, Amey Shirolkar, Vijender Mishra, Baljeet Singh Yadav
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption damages the intestine and liver cells directly as well as through unbalancing the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to correlate the alcohol consumption and change in urinary metabolites profile linked with gut microbiota. METHOD: Non-alcoholic (control) healthy (n=22) and moderate alcoholic (n=26) males with an average age of 39.3±1.83 years subjected to alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) were considered for study...
March 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Yunes Panahi, Parisa Kianpour, Reza Mohtashami, Stephen L Atkin, Alexandra E Butler, Ramezan Jafari, Roghayeh Badeli, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is potentially treatable, though there are few therapeutic agents available. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown potential as a hepatoprotective agent. This study sought to determine if ALE had therapeutic utility in patients with established NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group trial, 100 subjects with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD were randomized to either ALE 600 mg daily or placebo for a 2-month period...
March 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Stephen A Harrison, Mary E Rinella, Manal F Abdelmalek, James F Trotter, Angelo H Paredes, Hays L Arnold, Marcelo Kugelmas, Mustafa R Bashir, Mark J Jaros, Lei Ling, Stephen J Rossi, Alex M DePaoli, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a chronic liver disease characterised by the presence of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular injury, for which no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment exists. FGF19 is a hormone that regulates bile acid synthesis and glucose homoeostasis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of NGM282, an engineered FGF19 analogue, for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years with biopsy-confirmed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis as defined by the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis clinical research network histological scoring system, from hospitals and gastroenterology and liver clinics in Australia and the USA...
March 5, 2018: Lancet
Myong-Min Lee, Hyeong-Geug Kim, Sung-Bae Lee, Jin-Seok Lee, Won-Yong Kim, Seung-Hoon Choi, Sam-Keun Lee, Chang-Kyu Byun, Pung-Mi Hyun, Chang-Gue Son
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has increased by 15-39% worldwide, but no pharmaceutical therapeutics exists. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: This study investigated anti-hepatosteatotic effect of CGplus (a standardized herbal composition of Artemisia iwayomogi, Amomum xanthioides, and Salvia miltiorrhiza) and its underlying mechanisms in a tunicamycin-induced NASH model. METHODS: C57/BL6J male mice were orally administrated CGplus (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg), dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, 50 mg/kg) or distilled water daily for 5 days...
March 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Jeong Yoon Yim, Jinju Kim, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Testosterone plays a role in predisposing individuals to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but its effects differ between men and women. We investigated the association between serum total testosterone and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults in the US. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of data from participants in the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was performed. Subjects with significant alcohol consumption and those with viral hepatitis were excluded...
March 8, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Kyosuke Yamanishi, Keiichiro Mukai, Takuya Hashimoto, Kaoru Ikubo, Keiji Nakasho, Yosif El-Darawish, Wen Li, Daisuke Okuzaki, Yuko Watanabe, Tetsu Hayakawa, Hiroshi Nojima, Hiromichi Yamanishi, Haruki Okamura, Hisato Matsunaga
BACKGROUND: The cytokine interleukin-18 was originally identified as an interferon-γ-inducing proinflammatory factor; however, there is increasing evidence to suggest that it has non-immunological effects on physiological functions. We previously investigated the potential pathophysiological relationship between interleukin-18 and dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and suggested interleukin-18 as a possible novel treatment for not only these diseases but also for cancer immunotherapy...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
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