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Snake envenomation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337219/citrus-bioflavonoid-hesperetin-as-inhibitor-of-two-thrombin-like-snake-venom-serine-proteases-isolated-from-crotalus-simus
#1
Roney Vander Dos Santos, Fabian Villalta-Romero, Danijela Stanisic, Luiz Borro, Goran Neshich, Ljubica Tasic
Around 5.5 million people suffer from snakebites per year, with about 400,000 cases with some type of sequelae, such as amputation, and 20,000 to 125,000 cases with the fatal end. Usually, the victim outcome depends on correct, agile and many times in situ intervention based on the proper identification of the snake venom type and its potential effects, among other factors. Therefore, knowledge on the snake venom composition and a research on inhibitors of snake venom target components might ameliorate envenoming dangerous outcome...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311537/secreted-phospholipases-a%C3%A2-from-animal-venoms-in-pain-and-analgesia
#2
REVIEW
Vanessa O Zambelli, Gisele Picolo, Carlos A H Fernandes, Marcos R M Fontes, Yara Cury
Animal venoms comprise a complex mixture of components that affect several biological systems. Based on the high selectivity for their molecular targets, these components are also a rich source of potential therapeutic agents. Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A₂ (sPLA₂s). These PLA₂ belong to distinct PLA₂s groups. For example, snake venom sPLA₂s from Elapidae and Viperidae families, the most important families when considering envenomation, belong, respectively, to the IA and IIA/IIB groups, whereas bee venom PLA₂ belongs to group III of sPLA₂s...
December 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302018/injuries-and-envenomation-by-exotic-pets-in-hong-kong
#3
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
January 5, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275044/functional-and-proteomic-comparison-of-bothrops-jararaca-venom-from-captive-specimens-and-the-brazilian-bothropic-reference-venom
#4
Iasmim Baptista de Farias, Karen de Morais-Zani, Caroline Serino-Silva, Sávio S Sant'Anna, Marisa M T da Rocha, Kathleen F Grego, Débora Andrade-Silva, Solange M T Serrano, Anita M Tanaka-Azevedo
Snake venom is a variable phenotypic trait, whose plasticity and evolution are critical for effective antivenom production. A significant reduction of the number of snake donations to Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil) occurred in recent years, and this fact may impair the production of the Brazilian Bothropic Reference Venom (BBRV). Nevertheless, in the last decades a high number of Bothrops jararaca specimens have been raised in captivity in the Laboratory of Herpetology of Butantan Institute. Considering these facts, we compared the biochemical and biological profiles of B...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274419/an-overview-of-the-immune-modulating-effects-of-enzymatic-toxins-from-snake-venoms
#5
REVIEW
Sandra M Burin, Danilo L Menaldo, Suely V Sampaio, Fabiani G Frantz, Fabíola A Castro
Snake venoms are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds, including proteins belonging to the protease (serine and metalloproteinases), oxidase (L-amino acid oxidases), and phospholipase (especially phospholipases A2) enzyme classes. These toxins account for the serious deleterious effects of snake envenomations, such as tissue necrosis, neurotoxicity, and hemorrhage. In addition to their toxic effects, snake venom toxins have served as important tools for investigating the mechanisms underlying envenomation and discovering new pharmacologically active compounds with immunotherapeutic potential...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248447/evaluation-of-pro-inflammatory-events-induced-by-bothrops-alternatus-snake-venom
#6
Silvina Echeverría, Elbio Leiguez, Carlos Guijas, Neide Galvão do Nascimento, Ofelia Acosta, Catarina Teixeira, Laura C Leiva, Juan Pablo Rodríguez
Inflammation is a major local feature of envenomation by bothropic snakes being characterized by a prominent local edema, pain, and extensive swelling. There are reports demonstrating that whole Bothrops snake venoms and toxins isolated from them are able to activate macrophages functions, such as phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen, cytokines and eicosanoids, however, little is known about the effects of Bothrops alternatus (B.a.) venom on macrophages. In this work, we evaluated the proinflammatory effects of B...
December 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244815/analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-taiwanese-freeze-dried-neurotoxic-antivenom-against-naja-kaouthia-naja-siamensis-and-ophiophagus-hannah-through-proteomics-and-animal-model-approaches
#7
Chien-Chun Liu, Chen-Hsien You, Po-Jung Wang, Jau-Song Yu, Guo-Jen Huang, Chien-Hsin Liu, Wen-Chin Hsieh, Chih-Chuan Lin
In Southeast Asia, envenoming resulting from cobra snakebites is an important public health issue in many regions, and antivenom therapy is the standard treatment for the snakebite. Because these cobras share a close evolutionary history, the amino acid sequences of major venom components in different snakes are very similar. Therefore, either monovalent or polyvalent antivenoms may offer paraspecific protection against envenomation of humans by several different snakes. In Taiwan, a bivalent antivenom-freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom (FNAV)-against Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra is available...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234603/a-retrospective-study-of-clinico-epidemiological-profile-of-snakebite-related-deaths-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-midnapore-west-bengal-india
#8
Rituparna Ghosh, Koushik Mana, Kripasindhu Gantait, Sumana Sarkhel
Objective: Snakebite is one of the neglected tropical diseases that World Health Organization (WHO) aimed to eradicate. The objective of the study is to investigate the mortality and morbidity due to snakebite at Midnapore Medical College & Hospital in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. Methods & materials: This is a record-based, retrospective, descriptive epidemiological study conducted from January 2012 to December 2016 at Midnapore Medical College and Hospital(MMCH), Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215036/proteomics-and-antivenomics-of-echis-carinatus-carinatus-venom-correlation-with-pharmacological-properties-and-pathophysiology-of-envenomation
#9
Aparup Patra, Bhargab Kalita, Abhishek Chanda, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of Echis carinatus carinatus venom (ECV) from India was studied for the first time by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 90, 47, and 22 distinct enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins belonging to 15, 10, and 6 snake venom protein families were identified in ECV by searching the ESI-LC-MS/MS data against non-redundant protein databases of Viperidae (taxid 8689), Echis (taxid 8699) and Echis carinatus (taxid 40353), respectively. However, analysis of MS/MS data against the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly sequences (87 entries) of conger E...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203373/betulinic-oleanolic-and-ursolic-acids-inhibit-the-enzymatic-and-biological-effects-induced-by-a-p-i-snake-venom-metalloproteinase
#10
Lina María Preciado, Paola Rey-Suárez, Isabel Cristina Henao, Jaime Andrés Pereañez
Betulinic acid (BA), Oleanolic acid (OA) and Ursolic acid (UA), are pentacyclic triterpenoids with widespread occurrence throughout the plant kingdom, these compounds are widely recognized by their pharmacological and biological properties, such as, anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and hepatoprotective activity. In this work we determined the inhibitory ability of these compounds on the enzymatic, hemorrhagic, myotoxic and edema-inducing activities of Batx-I, a P-I metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops atrox venom...
December 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201102/enzymatic-analysis-of-iranian-echis-carinatus-venom-using-zymography
#11
Mostafa Kamyab, Euikyung Kim, Seyed Mehdi Hoseiny, Ramin Seyedian
Snakebite is a common problem especially in tropical areas all over the world including Iran. Echis carinatus as one of the most dangerous Iranian snakes is spreading in this country excluding central and northwest provinces. In this study gelatinase and fibrinogenolytic properties as two disintegrating matrix metalloproteinase enzymes were evaluated by a strong clear halo between 56-72 kDa in addition to another band located 76-102 kDa for gelatinase and one major band around 38 kDa for fibrinogenolytic enzyme respectively...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186818/multipurpose-hts-coagulation-analysis-assay-development-and-assessment-of-coagulopathic-snake-venoms
#12
(no author information available yet)
Coagulation assays currently employed are often low throughput, require specialized equipment and/or require large blood/plasma samples. This study describes the development, optimization and early application of a generic low-volume and high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for coagulation activity. The assay is a time-course spectrophotometric measurement which kinetically measures the clotting profile of bovine or human plasma incubated with Ca2+ and a test compound. The HTS assay can be a valuable new tool for coagulation diagnostics in hospitals, for research in coagulation disorders, for drug discovery and for venom research...
November 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183746/assessment-of-the-anti-snakebite-properties-of-extracts-of-aniba-fragrans-ducke-lauraceae-used-in-folk-medicine-as-complementary-treatment-in-cases-of-envenomation-by-bothrops-atrox
#13
Valéria Mourão de Moura, Noranathan da Costa Guimarães, Luana Travassos Batista, Luciana A Freitas-de-Sousa, Joanderson de Sousa Martins, Maria Carolina Scheffer de Souza, Patrícia D Oliveira de Almeida, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Ricardo Bezerra de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Dos-Santos, Rosa Helena Veras Mourão
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Extracts of leaves and bark of Aniba fragrans are used as tea (decoction) to treat snakebites in communities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aqueous extract of the leaves of A. fragrans has been proven to be effective against Bothrops venom, but only when pre-incubated with the venom. This study sought to assess the potential of different types of extract of this species to inhibit the biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom (BaV) when used the same way as in folk medicine...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181643/vibrational-spectroscopy-of-muscular-tissue-intoxicated-by-snake-venom-and-exposed-to-photobiomodulation-therapy
#14
Willians Fernando Vieira, Bruno Kenzo-Kagawa, Maria Helena Mesquita Britto, Helder José Ceragioli, Kumiko Koibuchi Sakane, Vitor Baranauskas, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
The pathogenesis of myonecrosis caused by myotoxins from bothropic venom is associated with local extracellular matrix (ECM) disintegration, hemorrhage, and inflammation. Search for alternative methods associated with serum therapy is mandatory to neutralize the fast development of local damage following snakebites. The experimental use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in murine models has shown promising results relative to structural and functional recovery from bothropic snakebite-induced myonecrosis...
November 28, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179990/snakebite-by-micrurus-averyi-schmidt-1939-in-the-brazilian-amazon-basin-case-report-coral-snakebite-by-micrurus-averyi
#15
REVIEW
Iran Mendonça da Silva, Jorge Contreras Bernal, Pedro Ferreira Gonçalves Bisneto, Antônio Magela Tavares, Valéria Mourão de Moura, Claudio S Monteiro-Junior, Rima Raad, Paulo Sergio Bernarde, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Micrurus snakes, commonly known as coral snakes, are responsible for 0.4% of the snakebites envenomings in Brazil. In this report, we describe a case of envenoming by Micrurus averyi, the black-headed coral snake, recorded in the western Brazilian Amazon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case perpetrated by this species. The major complaint of the patient was an intense local pain and paresthesia. Examination of the bite site revealed edema extending from the left foot up the left leg that was accompanied by erythema involving the foot and distal third of the leg...
November 24, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170850/carbon-monoxide-inhibits-hemotoxic-activity-of-elapidae-venoms-potential-role-of-heme
#16
Vance G Nielsen, Nathaniel Frank, Ryan W Matika
Envenomation by hemotoxic enzymes continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. With regard to treatment, the gold standard to abrogate coagulopathy caused by these venoms is still the administration of antivenom; however, despite antivenom therapy, coagulopathy still occurs and recurs. Of interest, this laboratory has demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that coagulopathy inducing venom derived from snakes of the family Viperidae exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) is inhibited, potentially by an attached heme...
November 23, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169382/confirmed-ceylon-krait-bungarus-ceylonicus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka-resulting-in-neuromuscular-paralysis-a-case-report
#17
Chamara Dalugama, Indika Bandara Gawarammana
BACKGROUND: Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) is a venomous elapid snake endemic to Sri Lanka. It inhabits shaded home gardens and forests in the wet zone of Sri Lanka and might creep into houses in the night. Despite frequent encounters with humans, reports of envenoming are very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 26-year-old Sri Lankan Sinhalese man with confirmed Ceylon krait envenoming presenting with bilateral partial ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, facial muscle weakness, and dysphagia...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161255/neurogenic-mediators-contribute-to-local-edema-induced-by-micrurus-lemniscatus-venom
#18
Luciana Lyra Casais-E-Silva, Catarina Teixeira
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Micrurus is one of the four snake genera of medical importance in Brazil. Coral snakes have a broad geographic distribution from the southern United States to Argentina. Micrurine envenomation is characterized by neurotoxic symptoms leading to dyspnea and death. Moreover, various local manifestations, including edema formation, have been described in patients bitten by different species of Micrurus. Thus, we investigated the ability of Micrurus lemniscatus venom (MLV) to induce local edema...
November 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142382/capillary-leak-syndrome-following-snakebite-envenomation
#19
REVIEW
V Udayabhaskaran, E T Arun Thomas, Bhagya Shaji
Capillary leak syndrome is a unique complication that follows Russell's viper envenomation. This syndrome has a very high fatality rate and is characterized by parotid swelling, chemosis, periorbital edema, hypotension, albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. This syndrome is frequently recognized from the southern parts of India, especially from the state of Kerala. It has been postulated that a vascular apoptosis inducing component of Russell's viper venom that is not neutralized by the commercially available anti-snake venom (ASV) is responsible for this complication as it occurs even after adequate doses of ASV administration in most cases...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111117/identification-of-b-cell-recognized-linear-epitopes-in-a-snake-venom-serine-proteinase-from-the-central-american-bushmaster-lachesis-stenophrys
#20
M Madrigal, A Alape-Girón, E Barboza-Arguedas, W Aguilar-Ulloa, M Flores-Díaz
Snake venom serine proteinases are toxins that perturb hemostasis acting on proteins from the blood coagulation cascade, the fibrinolytic or the kallikrein-kinin system. Despite the relevance of these enzymes in envenomations by viper bites, the characterization of the antibody response to these toxins at the molecular level has not been previously addressed. In this work surface-located B cell recognized linear epitopes from a Lachesis stenophrys venom serine proteinase (UniProt accession number Q072L7) were predicted using an artificial neuronal network at the ABCpred server, the corresponding peptides were synthesized and their immunoreactivity was analyzed against a panel of experimental and therapeutic antivenoms...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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