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Snake envenomation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540846/role-of-thromboelastography-in-the-management-of-snake-bite-a-case-report-from-india
#1
Ipsita Nag, Suvro Sankha Datta, Dibyendu De, Partha Pal, Shantanu K Das
In the absence of a specific laboratory test of envenomation, there is a need for an alternative mechanism for the early recognition of envenomation following hematotoxic snake-bite in tropical countries. Abnormalities of clotting are commonly associated with hematotoxic snake bite either due to systemic envenomation or due to the release of an inappropriate tourniquet applied as 'first-aid' often by the rural people before presentation to the hospital. Thromboelastography (TEG) has been used to monitor the coagulation abnormalities in various clinical scenarios...
April 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540206/acute-kidney-injury-from-different-poisonous-substances
#2
Rubina Naqvi
AIM: To report our experience of acute kidney injury (AKI) developed after exposure to poisonous substance. METHODS: Retrospective study where data was collected from case records of patients coming to this institute during January 1990 to May 2016. This institution is a tertiary care center for renal care in the metropolitan city of Karachi, Pakistan. History of ingested substance, symptoms on presentation, basic laboratory tests on arrival, mode of treatment and outcome were recorded from all patients and are presented here...
May 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528176/production-and-preclinical-assessment-of-camelid-immunoglobulins-against-echis-sochureki-venom-from-desert-of-rajasthan-india
#3
P D Tanwar, S K Ghorui, S K Kochar, Raghvendar Singh, N V Patil
Snakebite is a significant cause of death and disability in subsistent farming populations of rural India. Antivenom is the most effective treatment of envenoming and is manufactured from IgG of venom-immunised horses. Because of complex fiscal reasons, the production, testing and delivery of antivenoms designed to treat envenoming by the most medically-important snakes in the region has been questioned time to time. In this study, we report successful immunisation of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) against the venom of Indian saw-scaled Viper- Echis carinatus sochureki...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527998/molecular-cloning-and-structural-modelling-of-gamma-phospholipase-a2-inhibitors-from-bothrops-atrox-and-micrurus-lemniscatus-snakes
#4
Carina G Picelli, Rafael J Borges, Carlos A H Fernandes, Fabio M Matioli, Carla F C Fernandes, Juliana C Sobrinho, Rudson J Holanda, Luiz S Ozaki, Anderson M Kayano, Leonardo A Calderon, Marcos R M Fontes, Rodrigo G Stábeli, Andreimar M Soares
Phospholipases A2 inhibitors (PLIs) produced by venomous and non-venomous snakes play essential role in this resistance. These endogenous inhibitors may be classified by their fold in PLIα, PLIβ and PLIγ. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) develop myonecrosis in snake envenomation, a consequence that is not efficiently neutralized by antivenom treatment. This work aimed to identify and characterize two PLIs from Amazonian snake species, Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus. Liver tissues RNA of specimens from each species were isolated and amplified by RT-PCR using PCR primers based on known PLIγ gene sequences, followed by cloning and sequencing of amplified fragments...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505100/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-antivenoms-for-snakebite-envenoming-state-of-the-art-and-challenges-ahead
#5
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Gabriela Solano, Davinia Pla, María Herrera, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, Libia Sanz, Bruno Lomonte, Guillermo León, Juan J Calvete
Animal-derived antivenoms constitute the mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming. The efficacy of antivenoms to neutralize toxicity of medically-relevant snake venoms has to be demonstrated through meticulous preclinical testing before their introduction into the clinical setting. The gold standard in the preclinical assessment and quality control of antivenoms is the neutralization of venom-induced lethality. In addition, depending on the pathophysiological profile of snake venoms, the neutralization of other toxic activities has to be evaluated, such as hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-forming, dermonecrotic, in vitro coagulant, and defibrinogenating effects...
May 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483391/interfang-distances-of-rattlesnakes-sexual-interspecific-and-body-size-related-variation-and-implications-for-snakebite-research-and-management
#6
William K Hayes, Aaron G Corbit, Michael D Cardwell, Shelton S Herbert
OBJECTIVES: Snakebite severity corresponds to size of snake because the amount of venom a snake injects is positively associated with snake size. Because fang marks are often present on snakebite patients, we tested whether the relationship between snake length and distance between fang puncture wounds can be generalized for rattlesnakes of genus Crotalus. METHODS: We measured 2 interfang distances from 79 rattlesnakes of both sexes, 5 species, and varying body length: 1) distance between fang bases in anesthetized snakes, and 2) distance between fang punctures in a membrane-covered beaker bitten defensively...
May 5, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476572/venomics-of-bungarus-caeruleus-indian-krait-comparable-venom-profiles-variable-immunoreactivities-among-specimens-from-sri-lanka-india-and-pakistan
#7
Angeline Mei Feng Oh, Choo Hock Tan, Gnanathasan Christeine Ariaranee, Naeem Quraishi, Nget Hong Tan
The Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus) is one of the "Big Four" venomous snakes widely distributed in South Asia. The present venomic study reveals that its venom (Sri Lankan origin) is predominated by phospholipases A2 (68.2% of total proteins), in which at least 8.3% are presynaptically-acting β-bungarotoxins. Three-finger toxins (19.0%) are the second most abundant, comprising 15.6% κ-neurotoxins, the potent postsynaptically-acting long neurotoxins. Comparative chromatography showed that venom samples from Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan did not exhibit significant variation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462021/differential-transcript-profile-of-inhibitors-with-potential-anti-venom-role-in-the-liver-of-juvenile-and-adult-bothrops-jararaca-snake
#8
Cícera Maria Gomes, Karen de Morais-Zani, Stephen Lu, Diego de Souza Buarque, Glória Regina Cardoso Braz, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Anita Mitico Tanaka-Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Snakes belonging to the Bothrops genus are vastly distributed in Central and South America and are responsible for most cases of reported snake bites in Latin America. The clinical manifestations of the envenomation caused by this genus are due to three major activities-proteolytic, hemorrhagic and coagulant-mediated by metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, phospholipases A2 and other toxic compounds present in snake venom. Interestingly, it was observed that snakes are resistant to the toxic effects of its own and other snake's venoms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457945/correlation-between-ontogenetic-dietary-shifts-and-venom-variation-in-australian-brown-snakes-pseudonaja
#9
Vittoria Cipriani, Jordan Debono, Jonathan Goldenberg, Timothy N W Jackson, Kevin Arbuckle, James Dobson, Ivan Koludarov, Bin Li, Chris Hay, Nathan Dunstan, Luke Allen, Iwan Hendrikx, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Venom is a key evolutionary trait, as evidenced by its widespread convergent evolution across the animal kingdom. In an escalating prey-predator arms race, venoms evolve rapidly to guarantee predatory or defensive success. Variation in venom composition is ubiquitous among snakes. Here, we tested variation in venom activity on substrates relevant to blood coagulation among Pseudonaja (brown snake) species, Australian elapids responsible for the majority of medically important human envenomations in Australia...
April 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456535/-dry-bite-in-venomous-snakes-a-review
#10
REVIEW
B Sadananda Naik
It is quite interesting that when a venomous snake bites a person and the victim does not suffer from any signs or symptoms of envenomation. A good percentage of venomous snake bites in humans do occur without venom injection. This phenomenon is termed as "Dry" bite in clinical medicine. Though this was not very uncommon in toxicological practice but, our awareness of this problem has increased. In this article an effort has been made to provide an insight into the incidence, pathophysiology and patho-mechanics of this unique medical enigma...
April 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450682/clinical-serum-therapy-benefits-cautions-and-potential-applications
#11
Toru Hifumi, Akihiko Yamamoto, Manabu Ato, Kyoko Sawabe, Kazunori Morokuma, Nobuya Morine, Yutaka Kondo, Eiichiro Noda, Atsushi Sakai, Jin Takahashi, Kazuo Umezawa
Blood serum from immunized humans or animals (e.g., horses) contains relevant antibodies and has been used as serum therapy to treat many diseases or envenomation events. The effectiveness of blood serum was initially discovered in 1890 when Kitasato and von Behring observed the effectiveness of this type of therapy against diphtheria and tetanus. Serum therapies played an important role in the advancement of modern medicine prior to the development of penicillin and steroids. At present, several types of serum therapy remain in clinical use...
April 28, 2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443568/the-compartment-syndrome-associated-with-deep-vein-thrombosis-due-to-rattlesnake-bite-a-case-report
#12
Radu Ciprian Tincu, Zoie Ghiorghiu, Dana Tomescu, Radu Alexandru Macovei
BACKGROUND: Snakebite is a health issue specific to some parts of the world, especially in the tropical area, where it produces many victims. The main clinical damage caused by snake bite involves hemotoxic, neurotoxic and myotoxic reactions. It is also established that the importance of systemic impairment varies according to individual factors and are related to organ dysfunction, shock or hypotension. We report the case of a young woman suffering from snakebite who developed deep vein thrombosis and compartment syndrome...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439287/rattlesnake-crotalus-molossus-nigrescens-venom-induces-oxidative-stress-on-human-erythrocytes
#13
David Meléndez-Martínez, Juan Manuel Muñoz, Guillermo Barraza-Garza, Martha Sandra Cruz-Peréz, Ana Gatica-Colima, Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla, Luis Fernando Plenge-Tellechea
BACKGROUND: Globally, snake envenomation is a well-known cause of death and morbidity. In many cases of snakebite, myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, hemorrhage and neurotoxicity are present. Some of these symptoms may be provoked by the envenomation itself, but others are secondary effects of the produced oxidative stress that enhances the damage produced by the venom toxins. The only oxidative stress effect known in blood is the change in oxidation number of Fe (from ferrous to ferric) in hemoglobin, generating methemoglobin but not in other macromolecules...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427959/beneficial-effects-of-heparin-and-l-arginine-on-dermonecrosis-effect-induced-by-vipera-lebetina-venom-involvement-of-no-in-skin-regeneration
#14
Nouara Bennacef-Heffar, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
It is well known that snake venoms such as Viperidae caused severe local effects such as hemorrhage, myonecrosis and dermonecrosis which can lead to permanent tissue loss or the disability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the skin regeneration using heparin and l-arginine as well as the dermonecrotic effects induced by Vipera lebetina venom (VLV). To better understand the toxic effects induced by VLV and to prevent or treat these effects, we evaluate the local effects and the skin regeneration with or without drugs...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422078/antivenom-for-neuromuscular-paralysis-resulting-from-snake-envenoming
#15
REVIEW
Anjana Silva, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
Antivenom therapy is currently the standard practice for treating neuromuscular dysfunction in snake envenoming. We reviewed the clinical and experimental evidence-base for the efficacy and effectiveness of antivenom in snakebite neurotoxicity. The main site of snake neurotoxins is the neuromuscular junction, and the majority are either: (1) pre-synaptic neurotoxins irreversibly damaging the presynaptic terminal; or (2) post-synaptic neurotoxins that bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pre-clinical tests of antivenom efficacy for neurotoxicity include rodent lethality tests, which are problematic, and in vitro pharmacological tests such as nerve-muscle preparation studies, that appear to provide more clinically meaningful information...
April 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419970/effect-of-premedication-with-subcutaneous-adrenaline-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-equine-whole-igg-antivenom-in-a-rabbit-model
#16
María Herrera, Melvin Sánchez, Anderson Machado, Nils Ramírez, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Aarón Gómez, Gabriela Solano, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
Subcutaneous administration of a low dose of adrenaline is used to prevent the early adverse reactions (EARs) induced by snake antivenoms. We used a rabbit model to study the effect of premedication with adrenaline on the potential of antivenoms to exert therapeutic effects and to induce late adverse reactions. We found that premedication with adrenaline did not change the heart rate or blood pressure of normal rabbits, but reduced the rise in temperature in rabbits previously sensitized with antivenom. Pharmacokinetic studies suggest that premedication with adrenaline does not affect the ability of the antivenom to exert the initial control of envenomation nor the susceptibility of rabbits to develop recurrence of antigenemia and envenomation...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411932/arthropod-envenomation-in-north-america
#17
REVIEW
Timothy B Erickson, Navneet Cheema
Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411931/north-american-snake-envenomation
#18
REVIEW
Bryan Corbett, Richard F Clark
Native US snakes that produce clinically significant envenomation can be divided into 2 groups, crotalids and elapids. The crotalids include rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, and copperheads. Crotalid envenomation can result in significant local tissue damage as well as thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Rarely are bites fatal. Native US elapids are all coral snakes that possess neurotoxic venom that can cause weakness, respiratory paralysis, and rarely death. Treatment of both types of envenomation revolves around general supportive care and antivenom administration when indicated...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411930/marine-envenomation
#19
REVIEW
Kirsten B Hornbeak, Paul S Auerbach
Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400263/peptidomimetic-hydroxamate-metalloproteinase-inhibitors-abrogate-local-and-systemic-toxicity-induced-by-echis-ocellatus-saw-scaled-snake-venom
#20
Ana Silvia Arias, Alexandra Rucavado, José María Gutiérrez
The ability of two peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors, Batimastat and Marimastat, to abrogate toxic and proteinase activities of the venom of Echis ocellatus from Cameroon and Ghana was assessed. Since this venom largely relies for its toxicity on the action of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the hypothesis was raised that toxicity could be largely eliminated by using SVMP inhibitors. Both hydroxamate molecules inhibited local and pulmonary hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, defibrinogenating, and proteinase activities of the venoms in conditions in which venom and inhibitors were incubated prior to the test...
June 15, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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