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Snake envenomation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216410/coagulopathy-and-extensive-local-swelling-following-green-pit-viper-trimeresurus-trigonocephalus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka
#1
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, S A M Kularatne, P E A Nishanthi Ranathunga
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus (Sri Lankan Green pit viper) is a moderately venomous arboreal snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Even though, its bites are not uncommon, published reports of such cases are limited to three in literature. We report three cases of coagulopathy following Green pit viper bites and treatment with fresh frozen plasma.
February 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178774/a-retrospective-review-of-rattlesnake-bites-in-100-children
#2
Norberto Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto Gómez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: A retrospective review of clinical features and treatment of children hospitalized for rattlesnake bite. METHODS: One hundred clinical records were reviewed. Variables included: age, gender, season of the year, signs, symptoms, poisoning grade, complications, treatment and sequelae. RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent were males and 37% were less than 5 years of age; 87% occurred in rural areas; 63% of the snakebites occurred during the summer, of them, 39% occurred within the perimeter of the domicile and 8% within the home...
April 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167587/snake-bite-induced-acute-kidney-injury-report-of-a-successful-outcome-during-pregnancy
#3
Sanjay Vikrant, Anupam Parashar
Snake bite is an important health hazard in tropics. Snake envenomation in pregnancy may cause fetal death and maternal mortality or morbidity. However, little is known about the toxic effects and optimal management during pregnancy after snake envenomation because of the rarity of cases. Herein, we report a case of a pregnant woman who was successfully treated for snake bite-induced acute kidney injury during the third trimester. She was treated with equine-derived polyvalent anti-snake venom without development of any adverse effects, hemodialysis, and supportive therapy...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165801/use-of-polyvalent-equine-anti-viper-serum-to-treat-delayed-coagulopathy-due-to-suspected-sistrurus-miliarius-streckeri-envenomation-in-two-children
#4
Kristie L Williams, Megan Woslager, Stephanie L Garland, Roger P Barton, William Banner
BACKGROUND: Western Pygmy Rattlesnake (WPR) envenomation reportedly causes refractory and persistent coagulopathy when treated with CroFab(®) (Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab). We report two cases where polyvalent equine anti-viper serum (AntivipmynTRI(®)) was used to treat recurrent coagulopathy in children. CASE DETAILS: The first patient was a 16-month-old male who was bitten by a confirmed WPR. The patient received a total of 18 vials of CroFab(®). His labs normalized, swelling gradually improved, and the child was discharged to home...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163123/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-metalloprotease-inhibitor-from-bothrops-alternatus-snake-serum
#5
Tatiana Z Palacio, Norival A Santos-Filho, José Cesar Rosa, Rui S Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Suely V Sampaio
Resistance of snakes and some other animals to snake envenomation has been attributed to soluble factors present in their tissues. Here we report the isolation of a novel metalloprotease inhibitor from Bothrops alternatus snake serum (named BaltMPI) with high purity, using a four-step chromatographic method. BaltMPI has molecular weights of 60.5 and 42.4kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, respectively, and pI=5.27. The first 60 amino acids from the N-terminal region of BaltMPI, determined by Edman's degradation, showed high homology (97%) with the snake venom metalloprotease inhibitor (SVMPI) BJ46a and other SVMPIs (78-82%)...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159706/venomics-of-naja-sputatrix-the-javan-spitting-cobra-a-short-neurotoxin-driven-venom-needing-improved-antivenom-neutralization
#6
Nget Hong Tan, Kin Ying Wong, Choo Hock Tan
: The venom proteome of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) was elucidated through reverse-phase HPLC, nano-ESI-LCMS/MS and data mining. A total of 97 distinct protein forms belonging to 14 families were identified. The most abundant proteins are the three-finger toxins (3FTXs, 64.22%) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 31.24%), followed by nerve growth factors (1.82%), snake venom metalloproteinase (1.33%) and several proteins of lower abundance (<1%) including a variety of venom enzymes...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158193/recombinant-snakebite-antivenoms-a-cost-competitive-solution-to-a-neglected-tropical-disease
#7
Andreas H Laustsen, Kristoffer H Johansen, Mikael Engmark, Mikael R Andersen
Snakebite envenoming is a major public health burden in tropical parts of the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, neglect has led to a scarcity of antivenoms threatening the lives and limbs of snakebite victims. Technological advances within antivenom are warranted, but should be evaluated not only on their possible therapeutic impact, but also on their cost-competitiveness. Recombinant antivenoms based on oligoclonal mixtures of human IgG antibodies produced by CHO cell cultivation may be the key to obtaining better snakebite envenoming therapies...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150853/performance-of-the-20-minute-whole-blood-clotting-test-in-detecting-venom-induced-consumption-coagulopathy-from-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-bites
#8
Indira Ratnayake, Fathima Shihana, Dhammika M Dissanayake, Nicholas A Buckley, Kalana Maduwage, Geoffrey K Isbister
The 20-minute whole blood clotting test (WBCT20) is used as a bedside diagnostic test for coagulopathic snake envenoming. We aimed to assess the performance of the WBCT20 in diagnosis of venom induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) in Russell's viper envenoming. Adult patients admitted with suspected snake bites were recruited from two hospitals. WBCT20 and prothrombin time (PT) test were performed on admission. WBCT20 was done by trained clinical research assistants using 1 ml whole blood in a 5 ml borosilicate glass tube with a 10 mm internal diameter...
February 2, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149694/exploration-of-immunoglobulin-transcriptomes-from-mice-immunized-with-three-finger-toxins-and-phospholipases-a2-from-the-central-american-coral-snake-micrurus-nigrocinctus
#9
Andreas H Laustsen, Mikael Engmark, Christopher Clouser, Sonia Timberlake, Francois Vigneault, José María Gutiérrez, Bruno Lomonte
Snakebite envenomings represent a neglected public health issue in many parts of the rural tropical world. Animal-derived antivenoms have existed for more than a hundred years and are effective in neutralizing snake venom toxins when timely administered. However, the low immunogenicity of many small but potent snake venom toxins represents a challenge for obtaining a balanced immune response against the medically relevant components of the venom. Here, we employ high-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) transcriptome of mice immunized with a three-finger toxin and a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138054/bites-by-the-monocled-cobra-naja-kaouthia-in-chittagong-division-bangladesh-epidemiology-clinical-features-of-envenoming-and-management-of-70-identified-cases
#10
M A Faiz, M F Ahsan, A Ghose, M R Rahman, R Amin, M Hossain, M N Tareq, M A Jalil, U Kuch, R D G Theakston, D A Warrell, J B Harris
We describe 70 cases of monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) bite admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. The biting snakes were identified by examining the dead snake and/or detecting N. kaouthia venom antigens in patients' serum. Bites were most common in the early morning and evening during the monsoon (May-July). Ligatures were routinely applied to the bitten limb before admission. Thirty-seven patients consulted traditional healers, most of whom made incisions around the bite site. Fifty-eight patients experienced severe neurotoxicity and most suffered swelling and pain of the bitten limb...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130154/what-killed-karl-patterson-schmidt-combined-venom-gland-transcriptomic-venomic-and-antivenomic-analysis-of-the-south-african-green-tree-snake-the-boomslang-dispholidus-typus
#11
Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Gareth Whiteley, Simon C Wagstaff, Robert A Harrison, Nicholas R Casewell, Juan J Calvete
BACKGROUND: Non-front-fanged colubroid snakes comprise about two-thirds of extant ophidian species. The medical significance of the majority of these snakes is unknown, but at least five species have caused life-threatening or fatal human envenomings. However, the venoms of only a small number of species have been explored. METHODS: A combined venomic and venom gland transcriptomic approach was employed to characterise of venom of Dispholidus typus (boomslang), the snake that caused the tragic death of Professor Karl Patterson Schmidt...
January 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103732/evaluation-of-antivenom-therapy-for-vipera-palaestinae-bites-in-children-experience-of-two-large-tertiary-care-pediatric-hospitals
#12
Dikla Pivko-Levy, Itamar Munchnak, Ayelet Rimon, Uri Balla, Dennis Scolnik, Christopher Hoyte, Yair Voliovitch, Miguel Glatstein
BACKGROUND: Antivenom has been successfully used to treat systemic and progressive, local manifestations of envenomation inflicted by Vipera (V.) palaestinae, the most common venomous snake in Israel. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fixed dose V. palaestinae monovalent (equine) immunoglobulin G antivenom used in two pediatric emergency departments. In particular, we wanted to assess the need for repeated antivenom administration and the rate of adverse antivenom effects in children...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062377/proteomic-analysis-to-unravel-the-complex-venom-proteome-of-eastern-india-naja-naja-correlation-of-venom-composition-with-its-biochemical-and-pharmacological-properties
#13
Sumita Dutta, Abhishek Chanda, Bhargab Kalita, Taufikul Islam, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
: The complex venom proteome of the eastern India (EI) spectacled cobra (Naja naja) was analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry of cation-exchange venom fractions. About 75% of EI N. naja venom proteins were <18kDa and cationic at physiological pH of blood. SDS-PAGE (non-reduced) analysis indicated that in the native state venom proteins either interacted with each-other or self-aggregated resulting in the formation of higher molecular mass complexes. Proteomic analysis revealed that 43 enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins in EI N...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062164/two-rare-case-reports-of-confirmed-ceylon-krait-bungarus-ceylonicus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka
#14
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, S A M Kularatne, K D M Kumarasinghe, K Jeganadan, P E A N Ranathunga
The Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) is a deadly venomous elapid snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Its habitat is mainly in the wet zone of the island. Despite its frequent encounters in and near human dwellings, reports of envenoming are rare and limited to four in the literature. The first and last fatal reports envenoming by B. ceylonicus was in 1993. After over two decades, we report two confirmed cases of B. ceylonicus bites-one a dry bite and the other with signs and symptoms of moderate envenoming. The envenoming occurred at night while the victim was asleep, causing tightness in the chest and dyspnoea on waking up, followed by neuromuscular paralysis that did not cause respiratory failure and complete recovery was observed three days following the bite...
January 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042812/snake-venom-metalloproteinases-and-their-peptide-inhibitors-from-myanmar-russell-s-viper-venom
#15
Khin Than Yee, Morgan Pitts, Pumipat Tongyoo, Ponlapat Rojnuckarin, Mark C Wilkinson
Russell's viper bites are potentially fatal from severe bleeding, renal failure and capillary leakage. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are attributed to these effects. In addition to specific antivenom therapy, endogenous inhibitors from snakes are of interest in studies of new treatment modalities for neutralization of the effect of toxins. Two major snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs): RVV-X and Daborhagin were purified from Myanmar Russell's viper venom using a new purification strategy. Using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach to explore the Myanmar RV venom gland transcriptome, mRNAs of novel tripeptide SVMP inhibitors (SVMPIs) were discovered...
December 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017694/pitfalls-to-avoid-when-using-phage-display-for-snake-toxins
#16
Andreas Hougaard Laustsen, Line Præst Lauridsen, Bruno Lomonte, Mikael Rørdam Andersen, Brian Lohse
Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies are thus warranted, and phage display technology may be a promising avenue for bringing antivenoms into the modern era of biologics. Although phage display technology represents a robust and high-throughput approach for the discovery of antibody-based antitoxins, several pitfalls may present themselves when animal toxins are used as targets for phage display selection...
December 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001231/arachnidism-scorpionism-and-ophidism-in-ouro-preto-municipality-minas-gerais-state-brazil
#17
Gabriela Fernanda Evangelista, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo
INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study shows the profile of arachnidism, ophidism, and scorpionism in the Ouro Preto Municipality, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013. METHODS: The data were gathered from forms of the Epidemiological Surveillance Sector of the town's Health's Municipal Secretary. RESULTS: Of the 412 envenomations, 308 were caused by spiders, 78 by scorpions, and 26 by snakes. The highest number of incidents involved people aged 20-34 years...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001213/an-overview-of-bothrops-erythromelas-venom
#18
Neriane Monteiro Nery, Karla Patrícia Luna, Carla Freire Celedônio Fernandes, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
This review discusses studies on the venom of Bothrops erythromelas published over the past 36 years. During this period, many contributions have been made to understand the venomous snake, its venom, and its experimental and clinical effects better. The following chronological overview is based on 29 articles that were published between 1979 and 2015, with emphasis on diverse areas. The complexity of this task demands an integration of multidisciplinary research tools to study toxinology. This science is in need of renewed conceptual and experimental platforms aimed at obtaining a profound understanding of the highly complex pathophysiology of snakebite envenoming and toxins isolated from snakes...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989783/the-binding-effectiveness-of-anti-rdisintegrin-polyclonal-antibodies-against-disintegrins-and-pii-and-piii-metalloproteases-an-immunological-survey-of-type-a-b-and-a-b-venoms-from-mohave-rattlesnakes
#19
Esteban Cantú, Sahiti Mallela, Matthew Nyguen, Raúl Báez, Victoria Parra, Rachel Johnson, Kyle Wilson, Montamas Suntravat, Sara Lucena, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta, Elda E Sánchez
Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Initially, three types of venoms were described; type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMP)...
October 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984062/rbaltmip-a-recombinant-alpha-type-myotoxin-inhibitor-from-bothrops-alternatus-rhinocerophis-alternatus-snake-as-a-potential-candidate-to-complement-the-antivenom-therapy
#20
Norival A Santos-Filho, Tiago S Sousa, Johara Boldrini-França, Ludier K Santos-Silva, Danilo L Menaldo, Flávio Henrique-Silva, Adélia C O Cintra, Helen J Laure, Carla C N Mamede, Fábio de Oliveira, Thalita B Riul, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, José C Rosa, Suely V Sampaio
Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (PLIs) are important targets in the search and development of new drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of an alpha-type phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Bothrops alternatus (Rhinocerophis alternatus) snake in its recombinant form (rBaltMIP) to complement the conventional antivenom therapy. Biochemical experiments showed that rBaltMIP presented pI 5.8 and molecular masses of ∼21 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 19.57 kDa by MALDI/TOF MS. After tryptic peptides sequencing, the results were compared with other PLIs available in databases, showing 100% identity between rBaltMIP and its native inhibitor BaltMIP and from 92% to 96% identity with other inhibitors...
October 28, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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