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Snake envenomation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062377/proteomic-analysis-to-unravel-the-complex-venom-proteome-of-eastern-india-naja-naja-correlation-of-venom-composition-with-its-biochemical-and-pharmacological-properties
#1
Sumita Dutta, Abhishek Chanda, Bhargab Kalita, Taufikul Islam, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
: The complex venom proteome of the eastern India (EI) spectacled cobra (Naja naja) was analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry of cation-exchange venom fractions. About 75% of EI N. naja venom proteins were <18kDa and cationic at physiological pH of blood. SDS-PAGE (non-reduced) analysis indicated that in the native state venom proteins either interacted with each-other or self-aggregated resulting in the formation of higher molecular mass complexes. Proteomic analysis revealed that 43 enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins in EI N...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062164/two-rare-case-reports-of-confirmed-ceylon-krait-bungarus-ceylonicus-envenoming-in-sri-lanka
#2
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, S A M Kularatne, K D M Kumarasinghe, K Jeganadan, P E A Nishanthi Ranathunga
The Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) is a deadly venomous elapid snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Its habitat is mainly in the wet zone of the island. Despite its frequent encounters in and near human dwellings, reports of envenoming are rare and limited to four in the literature. The first and last fatal reports envenoming by B. ceylonicus was in 1993. After over two decades, we report two confirmed cases of B. ceylonicus bites-one a dry bite and the other with signs and symptoms of moderate envenoming. The envenoming occurred at night while the victim was asleep, causing tightness in the chest and dyspnoea on waking up, followed by neuromuscular paralysis that did not cause respiratory failure and complete recovery was observed three days following the bite...
January 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042812/snake-venom-metalloproteinases-and-their-peptide-inhibitors-from-myanmar-russell-s-viper-venom
#3
Khin Than Yee, Morgan Pitts, Pumipat Tongyoo, Ponlapat Rojnuckarin, Mark C Wilkinson
Russell's viper bites are potentially fatal from severe bleeding, renal failure and capillary leakage. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are attributed to these effects. In addition to specific antivenom therapy, endogenous inhibitors from snakes are of interest in studies of new treatment modalities for neutralization of the effect of toxins. Two major snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs): RVV-X and Daborhagin were purified from Myanmar Russell's viper venom using a new purification strategy. Using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach to explore the Myanmar RV venom gland transcriptome, mRNAs of novel tripeptide SVMP inhibitors (SVMPIs) were discovered...
December 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017694/pitfalls-to-avoid-when-using-phage-display-for-snake-toxins
#4
Andreas Hougaard Laustsen, Line Præst Lauridsen, Bruno Lomonte, Mikael Rørdam Andersen, Brian Lohse
Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies are thus warranted, and phage display technology may be a promising avenue for bringing antivenoms into the modern era of biologics. Although phage display technology represents a robust and high-throughput approach for the discovery of antibody-based antitoxins, several pitfalls may present themselves when animal toxins are used as targets for phage display selection...
December 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001231/arachnidism-scorpionism-and-ophidism-in-ouro-preto-municipality-minas-gerais-state-brazil
#5
Gabriela Fernanda Evangelista, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo
INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study shows the profile of arachnidism, ophidism, and scorpionism in the Ouro Preto Municipality, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013. METHODS: The data were gathered from forms of the Epidemiological Surveillance Sector of the town's Health's Municipal Secretary. RESULTS: Of the 412 envenomations, 308 were caused by spiders, 78 by scorpions, and 26 by snakes. The highest number of incidents involved people aged 20-34 years...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001213/an-overview-of-bothrops-erythromelas-venom
#6
Neriane Monteiro Nery, Karla Patrícia Luna, Carla Freire Celedônio Fernandes, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
This review discusses studies on the venom of Bothrops erythromelas published over the past 36 years. During this period, many contributions have been made to understand the venomous snake, its venom, and its experimental and clinical effects better. The following chronological overview is based on 29 articles that were published between 1979 and 2015, with emphasis on diverse areas. The complexity of this task demands an integration of multidisciplinary research tools to study toxinology. This science is in need of renewed conceptual and experimental platforms aimed at obtaining a profound understanding of the highly complex pathophysiology of snakebite envenoming and toxins isolated from snakes...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989783/the-binding-effectiveness-of-anti-rdisintegrin-polyclonal-antibodies-against-disintegrins-and-pii-and-piii-metalloproteases-an-immunological-survey-of-type-a-b-and-a-b-venoms-from-mohave-rattlesnakes
#7
Esteban Cantú, Sahiti Mallela, Matthew Nyguen, Raúl Báez, Victoria Parra, Rachel Johnson, Kyle Wilson, Montamas Suntravat, Sara Lucena, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta, Elda E Sánchez
Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Initially, three types of venoms were described; type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMP)...
October 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984062/rbaltmip-a-recombinant-alpha-type-myotoxin-inhibitor-from-bothrops-alternatus-rhinocerophis-alternatus-snake-as-a-potential-candidate-to-complement-the-antivenom-therapy
#8
Norival A Santos-Filho, Tiago S Sousa, Johara Boldrini-França, Ludier K Santos-Silva, Danilo L Menaldo, Flávio Henrique-Silva, Adélia C O Cintra, Helen J Laure, Carla C N Mamede, Fábio de Oliveira, Thalita B Riul, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, José C Rosa, Suely V Sampaio
Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (PLIs) are important targets in the search and development of new drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of an alpha-type phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Bothrops alternatus (Rhinocerophis alternatus) snake in its recombinant form (rBaltMIP) to complement the conventional antivenom therapy. Biochemical experiments showed that rBaltMIP presented pI 5.8 and molecular masses of ∼21 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 19.57 kDa by MALDI/TOF MS. After tryptic peptides sequencing, the results were compared with other PLIs available in databases, showing 100% identity between rBaltMIP and its native inhibitor BaltMIP and from 92% to 96% identity with other inhibitors...
October 28, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974231/fatal-self-envenomation-in-a-brown-tree-snake-boiga-irregularis-from-south-east-queensland
#9
Andrew Gordon Hill, Lewis McKillop
The case history and clinical signs of a fatal self-envenomation event by a brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis, in South-east Queensland, Australia, are presented. Clinical signs began 20 minutes post-envenomation with muscle twitching, ataxia, and heat seeking behavior which progressed to partial paralysis by 6 hours, generalised paralysis and respiratory arrest at 10 hours and cardiac arrest by 12 hours post-envenomation. Clinical signs are suggestive of potent neurotoxicity for B. irregularis to its own venom...
December 11, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951506/corrigendum-to-rapid-and-selective-detection-of-experimental-snake-envenomation-use-of-gold-nanoparticle-based-lateral-flow-assay-toxicon-119-2016-299-306
#10
Balasaheb S Pawade, Nitin C Salvi, Innus K Shaikh, Arun B Waghmare, Nitin D Jadhav, Vishal B Wagh, Abhilasha S Pawade, Indrasen G Waykar, Mugdha Potnis-Lele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936776/unraveling-the-proteome-composition-and-immuno-profiling-of-western-india-russell-s-viper-venom-for-in-depth-understanding-of-its-pharmacological-properties-clinical-manifestations-and-effective-antivenom-treatment
#11
Bhargab Kalita, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of western India (WI) Russell's viper venom (RVV) was correlated with pharmacological properties and pathological manifestations of RV envenomation. Proteins in the 5-19 and 100-110 kDa mass ranges were the most predominate (∼35.1%) and least abundant (∼3.4%) components, respectively, of WI RVV. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE indicated the occurrence of multiple subunits, non-covalent oligomers, self-aggregation, and/or interactions among the RVV proteins. A total of 55 proteins belonging to 13 distinct snake venom families were unambiguously identified by ESI-LC-MS/MS analysis...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930893/severe-snakebite-envenoming-in-intensive-care
#12
REVIEW
Jiří Valenta, Zdeněk Stach, Pavel Michálek
Snakebites by exotic venomous snakes can cause serious or even life-threatening envenoming. In Europe and North America most victims are breeders, with a few snakebites from wild native American rattlesnakes. The envenomed victims may present in organ and/or system failure with muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, circulatory instability, acute kidney injury, severe coagulation disorder, and local disability - compartment syndrome and necrosis. Best managed by close collaboration between clinical toxicology and intensive care, most severe envenomings are managed primarily by intensive care physicians...
2016: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904261/the-north-south-divide-in-snake-bite-envenomation-in-india
#13
REVIEW
Vivek Chauhan, Suman Thakur
Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the 'big four' that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel's viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e...
October 2016: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903075/australian-taipan-oxyuranus-spp-envenoming-clinical-effects-and-potential-benefits-of-early-antivenom-therapy-australian-snakebite-project-asp-25
#14
Christopher I Johnston, Nicole M Ryan, Margaret A O'Leary, Simon G A Brown, Geoffrey K Isbister
CONTEXT: Taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) are medically important venomous snakes from Australia and Papua New Guinea. The objective of this study was to describe taipan envenoming in Australian and its response to antivenom. METHODS: Confirmed taipan bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project. Data were collected prospectively on all snakebites, including patient demographics, bite circumstances, clinical effects, laboratory results, complications and treatment...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902669/an-anaphylactoid-reaction-to-rattlesnake-envenomation-in-a-pediatric-patient
#15
Logan Rencher, Joanna Schwartz, Alexandra Wilson
Rattlesnake envenomation causes a spectrum of symptoms and signs, many of which closely resemble an anaphylactic reaction. Development of airway compromise after a snake bite to an extremity is unusual, but has been previously reported. The majority of such reports detail a history of probable sensitization from previous contact with snakes or snake venom. Few reports exist without such previous contact; no reports are of pediatric cases. Here we present a 14-year-old boy with no history of prior snake exposure who presents with an anaphylactoid reaction after a rattlesnake bite...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890774/inhibition-of-local-effects-induced-by-bothrops-erythromelas-snake-venom-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-brazilian-polyvalent-bothropic-antivenom-and-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-jatropha-gossypiifolia
#16
Juliana Félix-Silva, Jacyra A S Gomes, Jacinthia B Xavier-Santos, Júlia G R Passos, Arnóbio A Silva-Junior, Denise V Tambourgi, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa
Bothrops erythromelas is a snake of medical importance responsible for most of the venomous incidents in Northeastern Brazil. However, this species is not included in the pool of venoms that are used in the Brazilian polyvalent bothropic antivenom (BAv) production. Furthermore, it is well known that antivenom therapy has limited efficacy against venom-induced local effects, making the search for complementary alternatives to treat snakebites an important task. Jatropha gossypiifolia is a medicinal plant widely indicated in folk medicine as an antidote for snakebites, whose effectiveness against Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) has been previously demonstrated in mice...
January 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888371/protective-effect-of-the-sulfated-agaran-isolated-from-the-red-seaweed-laurencia-aldingensis-against-toxic-effects-of-the-venom-of-the-snake-lachesis-muta
#17
Ana Cláudia Rodrigues da Silva, Luciana Garcia Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Rabello Duarte, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Eladio Flores Sanchez, Miguel Daniel Noseda, André Lopes Fuly
Snakebite is a serious occupational hazard affecting mainly rural populations of tropical and subtropical developing countries. Lachesis muta (Bushmaster) bites are extremely serious but are rarely reported in the literature. Bushmaster envenomings are characterized by intense local pain, edema, neurotoxicity, hypotension, local hemorrhage, and dramatic systemic alterations. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century; however, it fails to neutralize local tissue damage and hemorrhage, leading to morbidity or disabilities in victims...
November 25, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886134/priority-actions-and-progress-to-substantially-and-sustainably-reduce-the-mortality-morbidity-and-socioeconomic-burden-of-tropical-snakebite
#18
Robert A Harrison, José María Gutiérrez
The deliberations and conclusions of a Hinxton Retreat convened in September 2015, entitled "Mechanisms to reverse the public health neglect of snakebite victims" are reported. The participants recommended that the following priority actions be included in strategies to reduce the global impact of snake envenoming: (a) collection of accurate global snakebite incidence, mortality and morbidity data to underpin advocacy efforts and help design public health campaigns; (b) promotion of (i) public education prevention campaigns; (ii) transport systems to improve access to hospitals and (iii) establishment of regional antivenom-efficacy testing facilities to ensure antivenoms' effectiveness and safety;...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876196/clinically-significant-envenomation-from-postmortem-copperhead-agkistrodon-contortrix
#19
Michael P Emswiler, F Phillip Griffith, Kirk L Cumpston
Over 14,000 copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) bites were reported to United States poison centers between 1983 and 2008, and 1809 cases were reported to poison centers in 2014. The copperhead is primarily found in the southeastern United States and belongs to the pit viper subfamily Crotalinae, which also includes the water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) and rattlesnakes (Crotalus and Sistrurus genera). Postmortem rattlesnakes have been reported to cause clinically significant envenomation; we report a case of a postmortem copperhead causing clinically significant envenomation after inadvertent puncture with the deceased copperhead fang...
November 18, 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871786/ischemic-brain-infarcts-and-intracranial-haemorrhages-following-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-bite-in-sri-lanka
#20
R M M K Namal Rathnayaka, S A M Kularatne, K D M Kumarasinghe, Janaka Ranaweera, P E A Nishanthi Ranathunga
Snakebite is an important medical problem in Sri Lanka. Of the deadly venomous snakes, Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is widely distributed and responsible for most of the fatalities of snakebite in the country. It is not uncommon to see atypical manifestations in Russell's viper bite. We report the events of intracranial haemorrhages and multiple ischemic brain infarcts following Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) bite of a previously healthy 43-years-old male who succumbed to envenoming.
January 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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