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Snake envenomation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776445/community-based-audits-of-snake-envenomations-in-a-resource-challenged-setting-of-cameroon-case-series
#1
Frank-Leonel Tianyi, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Benjamin Momo Kadia, Armand Seraphin Nkwescheu
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with the highest mortality burden in poor rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Inadequate surveillance systems result in loss of morbidity and mortality data in these settings. Although rarely reported in these resource-constraint environments, community-based audits are recognised pivotal tools which could help update existing data and indicate key public health interventions to curb snakebite-related mortality...
May 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774760/safety-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-copperhead-snakebite-patients
#2
Hoang X Pham, Michael E Mullins
INTRODUCTION: Current management guidelines for pit viper envenomations recommend against the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain control due to concern for platelet dysfunction and resulting coagulopathy. However, prior research suggests that copperhead snakes generally do not cause coagulopathy and they are responsible for most of the venomous snakebites in the USA. Thus, we compared the occurrences of clinically apparent bleeding and most abnormal laboratory values of coagulation between copperhead envenomation patients who received NSAIDs and those who did not...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764824/achieving-full-neurological-recovery-in-snakebite-using-best-supportive-care
#3
Sally Wright, Genevieve Haddock
A 29-year-old woman presented to a community hospital in Sierra Leone 2 hours after being bitten by an unknown snake. On arrival, she was agitated though alert, however deteriorated into respiratory arrest. There was no local availability of antivenom. The patient remained in respiratory arrest undergoing best supportive care in a low-resource setting for 2 hours 55 minutes before returning to spontaneous ventilation. She went on to make a full neurological recovery. Though spontaneous recovery following snakebite envenoming is rare, this case showcases that good communication and basic manoeuvres can have a hugely positive impact on patient outcome...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758383/does-size-matter-venom-proteomic-and-functional-comparison-between-night-adder-species-viperidae-causus-with-short-and-long-venom-glands
#4
Francisco C P Coimbra, James Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Bianca Op den Brouw, Brett Hamilton, Jordan Debono, Paul Masci, Nathaniel Frank, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Night adders (Causus species within the Viperidae family) are amphibian specialists and a common source of snakebite in Africa. Some species are unique in that they have the longest venom glands of any viper, extending approximately 10% of the body length. Despite their potential medical importance and evolutionary novelty, their venom has received almost no research attention. In this study, venoms from a short-glanded species (C. lichtensteinii) and from a long-glanded species (C. rhombeatus) were compared using a series of proteomic and bioactivity testing techniques to investigate and compare the toxin composition and functioning of the venoms of these two species...
May 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746978/clinical-studies-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-antivenoms
#5
David J Williams, Abdulrazaq G Habib, David A Warrell
In the 1890s, hyperimmune sera proved effective in animals against challenge by the snake venom against which they had been raised. They were first used, apparently successfully, in a human patient in about 1895. Since then, antivenoms have become accepted as the only reliable specific treatment for snake-bite envenoming. Despite decades of accumulated clinical experience and a number of published randomised comparative and observational studies, the clinical effectiveness and safety of some antivenoms remain open to question, due to a lack of robust randomised controlled trial data...
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730150/neurotoxicity-fingerprinting-of-venoms-using-on-line-microfluidic-achbp-profiling
#6
Julien Slagboom, Reka A Otvos, Fernanda C Cardoso, Janaki Iyer, Jeroen C Visser, Bjorn R van Doodewaerd, Ryan J R McCleary, Wilfried M A Niessen, Govert W Somsen, Richard J Lewis, R Manjunatha Kini, August B Smit, Nicholas R Casewell, Jeroen Kool
Venoms from snakes are rich sources of highly active proteins with potent affinity towards a variety of enzymes and receptors. Of the many distinct toxicities caused by envenomation, neurotoxicity plays an important role in the paralysis of prey by snakes as well as by venomous sea snails and insects. In order to improve the analytical discovery component of venom toxicity profiling, this paper describes the implementation of microfluidic high-resolution screening (HRS) to obtain neurotoxicity fingerprints from venoms that facilitates identification of the neurotoxic components of envenomation...
May 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729992/proteomics-functional-characterization-and-antivenom-neutralization-of-the-venom-of-pakistani-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-from-the-wild
#7
Tasnim Faisal, Kae Yi Tan, Si Mui Sim, Naeem Quraishi, Nget Hong Tan, Choo Hock Tan
The venom proteome of wild Pakistani Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) was investigated through nano-ESI-LCMS/MS of the reverse-phase HPLC fractions. A total of 54 venom proteins were identified and clustered into 11 protein families. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 , 63.8%) and Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KSPI, 16.0%) were most abundant, followed by snake venom serine protease (SVSP, 5.5%, mainly Factor V activating enzyme), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, 4.3%), snake venom metalloprotease (SVMP, 2...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723952/why-is-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-impaired-after-myonecrosis-induced-by-viperid-snake-venoms
#8
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Teresa Escalante, Rosario Hernández, Stefano Gastaldello, Patricia Saravia-Otten, Alexandra Rucavado
Skeletal muscle regeneration after myonecrosis involves the activation, proliferation and fusion of myogenic cells, and a coordinated inflammatory response encompassing phagocytosis of necrotic cell debris, and the concerted synthesis of cytokines and growth factors. Myonecrosis often occurs in snakebite envenomings. In the case of venoms that cause myotoxicity without affecting the vasculature, such as those of many elapid snakes, regeneration proceeds successfully. In contrast, in envenomings by most viperid snakes, which affect the vasculature and extracellular matrix in addition to muscle fibers, regeneration is largely impaired and, therefore, the muscle mass is reduced and replaced by fibro-adipose tissue...
May 1, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716988/structures-of-n-glycans-of-bothrops-venoms-revealed-as-molecular-signatures-that-contribute-to-venom-phenotype-in-viperid-snakes
#9
Débora Andrade-Silva, David Ashline, Thuy Tran, Aline S Lopes, Silvia Regina Travaglia Cardoso, Marcelo S Reis, André Zelanis, Solange M T Serrano, Vernon N Reinhold
The complexity of snake venoms has long been investigated to explore a myriad of biologically active proteins and peptides that are used for immobilizing or killing prey, and are responsible for the pathological effects observed upon envenomation. Glycosylation is the main post-translational modification (PTM) of viperid venoms but currently there is little understanding of how protein glycosylation impacts the variation of venom proteomes. We have previously reported that Bothrops venom glycoproteomes contain a core of components that markedly define their composition and parallel their phylogenetic classification...
May 1, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705150/a-myotoxic-lys49-phospholipase-a-2-homologue-is-the-major-component-of-the-venom-of-bothrops-cotiara-from-misiones-argentina
#10
Adolfo de Roodt, Julián Fernández, Daniela Solano, Bruno Lomonte
Bothrops cotiara is a pitviper found in Southeastern Brazil and, scarcely, in the Misiones province of Argentina. In contrast to considerable information available on the venom of the Brazilian snake population, that of Misiones has received little attention. While exploring the chromatographic venom profile of Argentinean B. cotiara, a major protein peak was found which, according to a previous study, is not present in the venom of Brazilian origin. The corresponding protein was isolated by RP-HPLC, and characterized by electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) assay, and myotoxic activities...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704534/toxin-resolved-antivenomics-guided-assessment-of-the-immunorecognition-landscape-of-antivenoms
#11
Juan J Calvete, Yania Rodríguez, Sarai Quesada-Bernat, Davinia Pla
Snakebite envenoming represents a major issue in rural areas of tropical and subtropical regions across sub-Saharan Africa, South to Southeast Asia, Latin America and Oceania. Antivenoms constitute the only scientifically validated therapy for snakebite envenomings, provided they are safe, effective, affordable, accessible and administered appropriately. However, the lack of financial incentives in a technology that has remained relatively unchanged for more than a century, has contributed to some manufacturers leaving the market and others downscaling production or increasing the prices, leading to a decline in the availability and accessibility for these life-saving antidotes to millions of rural poor most at risk from snakebites in low income countries...
April 25, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698755/unresolved-issues-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathogenesis-of-local-tissue-damage-induced-by-snake-venoms
#12
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Alexandra Rucavado, Teresa Escalante, Cristina Herrera, Julián Fernández, Bruno Lomonte, Jay W Fox
Snakebite envenoming by viperid species, and by some elapids, is characterized by a complex pattern of tissue damage at the anatomical site of venom injection. In severe cases, tissue destruction may be so extensive as to lead to permanent sequelae, with serious pathophysiological, social and psychological consequences. Significant advances have been performed in the study of venom-induced tissue damage, including identification and characterization of the toxins involved, insights into the mechanisms of action of venoms and toxins, and study of tissue responses to venom-induced injury...
April 23, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664034/incidence-prognosis-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-individuals-of-snakebite-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#13
Ramulu Pulimaddi, Amruth Rao Parveda, Balkishan Brahmanpally, Paul Marx Kalakanda, K Ramakrishna, Venkata Ramana Devi Chinnapaka
Background & objectives: The snakebites are considered to be an occupational hazard in agriculture workers and the snake handlers, resulting in a considerable morbidity, mortality and economical implications. This study was conducted to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, renal injury and clinical outcome in snakebite victims who developed acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: This hospital-based prospective, observational study was done on 100 cases who were admitted for the management of snakebite and found to develop AKI in a tertiary care hospital at Hyderabad, India...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659601/in-vitro-assessment-of-cytotoxic-activities-of-lachesis-muta-muta-snake-venom
#14
Stephanie Stransky, Fernanda Costal-Oliveira, Letícia Lopes-de-Souza, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Vania Maria Martin Braga
Envenomation by the bushmaster snake Lachesis muta muta is considered severe, characterized by local effects including necrosis, the main cause of permanent disability. However, cellular mechanisms related to cell death and tissue destruction, triggered by snake venoms, are poorly explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect caused by L. m. muta venom in normal human keratinocytes and to identify the cellular processes involved in in cellulo envenomation. In order to investigate venom effect on different cell types, Alamar Blue assay was performed to quantify levels of cellular metabolism as a readout of cell viability...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659491/antivenom-production-against-bothrops-jararaca-and-bothrops-erythromelas-snake-venoms-using-cross-linked-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-an-immunoadjuvant
#15
Karla Samara Rocha Soares, Fiamma Gláucia-Silva, Alessandra Daniele-Silva, Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Nathália Kelly de Araújo, Yamara Arruda Silva de Menezes, Igor Zumba Damasceno, Denise Vilarinho Tambourgi, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
In Brazil, envenomation by snakes of the genus Bothrops is clinically relevant, particularly for the species Bothrops jararaca and B. erythromelas . The most effective treatment for envenomation by snakes is the administration of antivenoms associated with adjuvants. Novel adjuvants are required to reduce side effects and maximize the efficiency of conventional serum and vaccine formulations. The polymer chitosan has been shown to have immunoadjuvant properties, and it has been used as a platform for delivery systems...
April 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651298/true-or-false-coral-snake-is-it-worth-the-risk-a-micrurus-corallinus-case-report
#16
Marcelo Abrahão Strauch, Guilherme Jones Souza, Jordana Nahar Pereira, Tyelli Dos Santos Ramos, Marcelo Oliveira Cesar, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, Fernando Chagas Patrão-Neto, Paulo A Melo
Background: Bites provoked by the genus Micrurus represent less than 1% of snakebite cases notified in Brazil, a tiny fraction compared with other genus such as Bothrops and Crotalus , which together represent almost 80% of accidents. In addition to their less aggressive behavior, habits and morphology of coral snakes are determinant factors for such low incidence of accidents. Although Micrurus bites are rare, victims must be rescued and hospitalized in a short period of time, because this type of envenoming may evolve to a progressive muscle weakness and acute respiratory failure...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626299/short-chain-consensus-alpha-neurotoxin-a-synthetic-60-mer-peptide-with-generic-traits-and-enhanced-immunogenic-properties
#17
Guillermo de la Rosa, Ligia L Corrales-García, Ximena Rodriguez-Ruiz, Estuardo López-Vera, Gerardo Corzo
The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626137/snakebites-in-africa-and-europe-a-military-perspective-and-update-for-contemporary-operations
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Wilkins, D S Burns, D Wilson, D A Warrell, L E M Lamb
Snakebite envenoming is rare among military patients, with few cases reported in recent years. Increasingly, however, military operations are taking place in remote parts of Africa, which are inhabited by numerous species of venomous snake, and in Europe, where dangerous species exist but are less common. Bites from a venomous snake may prove fatal, and therefore military medics must be adequately prepared to manage them. This paper reviews the most medically significant species of venomous snake present in Africa and Europe, before suggesting an evidence-based approach to snakebite prevention and management, including possible changes to the UK's Clinical Guidelines for Operations...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625942/lethal-toxic-dose-i-p-ld50-total-protein-contents-and-comparative-hemolytic-potential-of-99mtc-labeled-non-labeled-naja-naja-karachiensis-venom
#19
Muhammad Hassham Bin Asad, Arooj Fatima Asad, Sumbal Bibi, Kaleem Ullah, Tariq Javed, Majeed Ullah, Atif Ali, Ziaur Rahman Qureshi, Muhammad Imran Amirzada, Yasser Msa Al-Kahraman, Syed Muhammad Farid Hasan, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Albert Rizvanov
Recent recognition about snake bite envenomation on June, 2017 as neglected tropical disease under category-A by World Health Organization advocated again its undeniable importance. Present circumstances reasoned to work on a neglected subspecies of Naja naja, i.e., Naja naja karachiensis (N. n. karachensis) has been documented for frequent deaths in Pakistan. In this study median lethal toxic dose (LD50 ) was determined intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice and was found to be 2.0µg/g (2.0mg/kg) equal in potency to Naja pallida (red spitting African cobra)...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621529/severe-snakebite-envenomation-in-french-guiana-when-antivenom-is-not-available
#20
Hatem Kallel, Claire Mayence, Stéphanie Houcke, Cyrille Mathien, Hossein Mehdaoui, José María Gutiérrez, Bruno Megarbane, Didier Hommel, Dabor Resiere
In French Guiana, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili, Bothrops bilineatus, Lachesis muta and Micrurus sp are responsible for most cases of snakebite envenomation. The clinical features in patients suffering from envenomations by viperid snakes involve local tissue damage and systemic manifestations, such as hemorrhage, coagulopathies and hemodynamic instability. We report a severe case of envenomation in a patient bitten by a large unidentified pit viper in French Guiana. Due to lack of antivenom, the patient only received symptomatic management...
April 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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