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Snake envenomation

Raghavendra Gowda, Rajesh Rajaiah, Nataraj Angaswamy, Sharath Krishna, Vishwanath Bannikuppe Sannanayak
Trimeresurus malabaricus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southwestern part of India. In earlier reports, we have shown that envenomation by T. malabaricus venom leading to strong local tissue damage but the mechanism of action is not clearly revealed. Local tissue damage affected by T. malabaricus venom is of great importance since the poison has serious systemic effects including death in the case of multiple attacks. The present study details the major manifestations of T. malabaricus venom and the induction of local tissue damage, which suggests that most toxins are present in the form of hydrolytic enzymes...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Caroline Serino-Silva, Karen Morais-Zani, Marcos Hikari Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira Toyama, Henrique Hessel Gaeta, Caroline Fabri Bittencourt Rodrigues, Wéslei da Silva Aguiar, Alexandre Keiji Tashima, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, Anita Mitico Tanaka-Azevedo
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are enzymes acting on the cell membrane phospholipids resulting in fatty acids and lysophospholipids and deconstructing the cell membrane. This protein is commonly found in snake venoms, causing tissue inflammation in the affected area. Evidence indicates that snakes have natural resistance to their own venom due to protective properties in plasma, that inhibit the action of proteins present in their venom. Given that, this study aimed to purify and characterize a γPLI from Bothrops jararaca serum, named γBjPLI...
2018: PloS One
Anderson da Silva Souza, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, João Arthur Alcântara, Monique Freire, Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim, Marcus Lacerda, Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira, Hui Wen Fan, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Snake envenoming represents a major burden for public health worldwide. In the Amazon, the official number of cases and deaths detected is probably underestimated because of the difficulty riverine and indigenous populations have reaching health centers in order to receive medical assistance. Thus, integrated analysis of health information systems must be used in order to improve adequate health policies. The aim of this work is to describe a series of deaths and identify risk factors for lethality from snakebites in the state of Amazonas, Brazil...
February 25, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Elda E Sánchez, Roschman González, Sara Lucena, Stefanie García, Héctor J Finol, Montamas Suntravat, María E Girón, Irma Fernández, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
Crotamine is a cationic, non-enzymatic, protein integrating a minor family of myotoxins, composed of 42 amino acid residues, described in Viperidae and Crotalidae snake's families that has been used in neuroscience research, drug progressing and molecular diversity reports. Crotamine-like protein (CLP) from C.o.helleri venom was isolated in fraction 5 from 7 peaks obtained by sulfopropyl waters protein pak cationic exchange column. In tricine-SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions this CLP showed a single band of ~8 kDa molecular weight...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Aaron Cunningham, Marc Auerbach, Mark Cicero, Mubeen Jafri
BACKGROUND: Recent mass casualty events in the United States have highlighted the need for public preparedness to prevent death from uncontrolled hemorrhage. The Pediatric Trauma Society (PTS) reviewed the literature regarding pediatric tourniquet usage with the aim to provide recommendations about the utility of this adjunct for hemorrhage control in children. METHODS: Search terms "pediatric" and "tourniquet" were used to query the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health for pertinent literature...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Joy R Makdisi, Dennis P Kim, Paytra A Klein, Jeffrey A Klein
BACKGROUND: Snake envenomation is a neglected global health problem. There is a need for a prehospital treatment of neurotoxic snakebite that prolongs survival and allows time for a victim to reach a hospital for antivenom therapy. Tumescent epinephrine consists of a large volume of dilute epinephrine (2 mg/l) injected subcutaneously. It functions as "contravenom" by causing capillary vasoconstriction and delaying venom absorption. METHODS: A murine model of neurotoxic envenomation using lidocaine as a surrogate for neurotoxic snake venom was first developed in a pilot study...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Maanoj N Sasidaran, Stephen P Samuel, Soundararaj ChinnaRaju, Michael Antonysamy, Tommaso C Bulfone, Matthew R Lewin
Parotid swelling, an unusual and poorly understood sign, is associated with poor prognosis in the setting of Russell's viper envenomation. The large, aggressive Russell's viper is one of the most deadly snakes causing severe hematological and neurological manifestations. Research into this sign should be initiated and understanding could lead to improved outcomes.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Robert K Needleman, Isabelle P Neylan, Timothy Erickson
INTRODUCTION: Climate change has been scientifically documented, and its effects on wildlife have been prognosticated. We sought to predict the overall impact of climate change on venomous terrestrial species. We hypothesize that given the close relationship between terrestrial venomous species and climate, a changing global environment may result in increased species migration, geographical redistribution, and longer seasons for envenomation, which would have repercussions on human health...
January 29, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Joann Schulte, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, Kristina Domanski, Eric Anthony Smith, Ashley Haynes, Brett Roth
OBJECTIVES: Published reports have suggested that the concurrent use of alcohol or drugs occurs among some snakebite victims, but no national assessment of such data exists. METHODS: We used data from US poison control centers collected during telephone calls in calendar years 2000-2013 to compare snake envenomations with concomitant use of drugs, alcohol, or both to snakebites lacking such use. RESULTS: A total of 608 snakebites with 659 instances of concomitant alcohol/drug use were reported, which represent approximately 1% of 92,751 snakebites reported to US poison control centers...
February 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Subraya Krishna Holla, Harish A Rao, Damodara Shenoy, Archith Boloor, Manaswitha Boyanagari
Snakebite associated with a venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) is a major public health problem. Our study aims to evaluate if fresh frozen plasma (FFP), administered after anti-snake venom (ASV), restores coagulability rapidly. At admission, all snakebite victims with a whole blood clotting time (WBCT) >20 min received ten vials of ASV according to World Health Organization criteria. After 6 h, at the discretion of the physician, patients with WBCT >20 min were divided into two groups...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
Jaime Felipe Guerrero-Garzón, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Rita Restano-Cassulini, Fernando Zamudio, Gerardo Corzo, Alejandro Alagón, Alejandro Olvera-Rodríguez
The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) represent an extremely diverse protein family in elapid venoms, where the short chain α-neurotoxins are the most relevant toxin group from the clinical point of view. Essentially, the 3FTxs variability and the low proportions of α-neurotoxins in the venoms of North American coral snakes make it difficult to obtain effective elapid antivenoms against the envenomation symptoms caused mainly by these α-neurotoxins. In this work, thirty 3FTx transcript sequences were obtained from the venom glands of four coral snake species from Mexico (M...
January 29, 2018: Biochimie
Sébastien Larréché, François-Xavier Jean, Alain Benois, Aurélie Mayet, Aurore Bousquet, Serge Vedy, Patrick Clapson, Céline Dehan, Christophe Rapp, Eric Kaiser, Audrey Mérens, Georges Mion, Christophe Martinaud
: Hemostasis disorders are one of the major clinical conditions of snakebites and are because of mechanisms which may disrupt vessels, platelets, clotting factors and fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography (TEG) could help to understand these effects in the clinical practice. A retrospective study reports a series of patients presenting a snakebite-related coagulopathy, treated with antivenom and monitored with conventional tests and TEG in a French military treatment facility (Republic of Djibouti, East Africa) between August 2011 and September 2013...
March 2018: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Mo Li, Zhi-Hui Xie, An-Yong Yu, Dong-Po He
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a neglected threat to global human health with a high morbidity rate. The present study explored the efficacy of antivenom with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) intervention on snakebites, which could provide the experimental basis for clinical adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 96) were randomized into four groups: the poison model was established by injecting Deinagkistrodon acutus (D. acutus) venom (0.8 LD50) via the caudal vein; the antivenom group was injected immediately with specific antivenom via the caudal vein after successful establishment of the envenomation model; and the antivenom + HBO group was exposed to HBO environment for 1 h once at predetermined periods of 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, and 23 h after antivenin administration...
February 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Vanessa Neale, Michael J Smout, Jamie E Seymour
For the first time the impedance-based xCELLigence real-time cell analysis system was used to measure the myotoxicity of sea snake venom. With a focus on the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus), the venom of four sea snake species and three terrestrial snake species were compared for myotoxicity against a human skeletal muscle cell line (HSkMC). Hydrophis curtus venom was also tested on a human cardiac muscle cell line (HCM). Surprisingly, all four sea snake venoms tested on HSkMC produced an initial 100-280% rise in xCELLigence cell index that peaked within the first two hours before falling...
January 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Roney Vander Dos Santos, Fabian Villalta-Romero, Danijela Stanisic, Luiz Borro, Goran Neshich, Ljubica Tasic
Around 5.5 million people suffer from snakebites per year, with about 400,000 cases with some type of sequelae, such as amputation, and 20,000 to 125,000 cases with the fatal end. Usually, the victim outcome depends on correct, agile and many times in situ intervention based on the proper identification of the snake venom type and its potential effects, among other factors. Therefore, knowledge on the snake venom composition and a research on inhibitors of snake venom target components might ameliorate envenoming dangerous outcome...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Vanessa O Zambelli, Gisele Picolo, Carlos A H Fernandes, Marcos R M Fontes, Yara Cury
Animal venoms comprise a complex mixture of components that affect several biological systems. Based on the high selectivity for their molecular targets, these components are also a rich source of potential therapeutic agents. Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A₂ (sPLA₂s). These PLA₂ belong to distinct PLA₂s groups. For example, snake venom sPLA₂s from Elapidae and Viperidae families, the most important families when considering envenomation, belong, respectively, to the IA and IIA/IIB groups, whereas bee venom PLA₂ belongs to group III of sPLA₂s...
December 19, 2017: Toxins
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
January 5, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Iasmim Baptista de Farias, Karen de Morais-Zani, Caroline Serino-Silva, Sávio S Sant'Anna, Marisa M T da Rocha, Kathleen F Grego, Débora Andrade-Silva, Solange M T Serrano, Anita M Tanaka-Azevedo
Snake venom is a variable phenotypic trait, whose plasticity and evolution are critical for effective antivenom production. A significant reduction of the number of snake donations to Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil) occurred in recent years, and this fact may impair the production of the Brazilian Bothropic Reference Venom (BBRV). Nevertheless, in the last decades a high number of Bothrops jararaca specimens have been raised in captivity in the Laboratory of Herpetology of Butantan Institute. Considering these facts, we compared the biochemical and biological profiles of B...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Sandra M Burin, Danilo L Menaldo, Suely V Sampaio, Fabiani G Frantz, Fabíola A Castro
Snake venoms are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds, including proteins belonging to the protease (serine and metalloproteinases), oxidase (L-amino acid oxidases), and phospholipase (especially phospholipases A2) enzyme classes. These toxins account for the serious deleterious effects of snake envenomations, such as tissue necrosis, neurotoxicity, and hemorrhage. In addition to their toxic effects, snake venom toxins have served as important tools for investigating the mechanisms underlying envenomation and discovering new pharmacologically active compounds with immunotherapeutic potential...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Silvina Echeverría, Elbio Leiguez, Carlos Guijas, Neide Galvão do Nascimento, Ofelia Acosta, Catarina Teixeira, Laura C Leiva, Juan Pablo Rodríguez
Inflammation is a major local feature of envenomation by bothropic snakes being characterized by a prominent local edema, pain, and extensive swelling. There are reports demonstrating that whole Bothrops snake venoms and toxins isolated from them are able to activate macrophages functions, such as phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen, cytokines and eicosanoids, however, little is known about the effects of Bothrops alternatus (B.a.) venom on macrophages. In this work, we evaluated the proinflammatory effects of B...
December 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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