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Trancription factor

Yoko Yamada, Andrew Cassidy, Pauline Schaap
Sporulation in Dictyostelium fruiting bodies evolved from amoebozoan encystation with both being induced by cAMP acting on PKA, but with downstream components still being unknown. Using tagged mutagenesis to find missing pathway components, we identified a sporeless mutant defective in a nuclear protein, SpaA. Expression of prespore genes was strongly reduced in spaA- cells, while expression of many spore stage genes was absent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of a SpaA-YFP gene fusion showed that (pre)spore gene promoters bind directly to SpaA, identifying SpaA as a transcriptional regulator...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Radhakrishnan Chandraprabha Vineetha, Prakash Binu, Pettamanna Arathi, Raveendran Harikumaran Nair
Arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) is a potent drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has achieved remarkable remissions in patients. Unfortunately, clinical reports have shown that the treatment is associated with cardiotoxicity. Many efforts have been made to mitigate drug-mediated cardiac damage using naturally occurring antioxidant compounds possessing free radical scavenging activity. The present investigation aims to explore protective role of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and α-tocopherol (α-TOC) from As2 O3 -induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes through the evaluation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) transcription factors...
June 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
J S Carroll
Most breast cancers are driven by a transcription factor called oestrogen receptor (ER). Understanding the mechanisms of ER activity in breast cancer has been a major research interest and recent genomic advances have revealed extraordinary insights into how ER mediates gene transcription and what occurs during endocrine resistance. This review discusses our current understanding on ER activity, with an emphasis on several evolving, but important areas of ER biology.
July 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Emília Hijová, Alena Šoltésová, Rastislav Salaj, Jozef Kuzma, Ladislav Strojný, Alojz Bomba, Kristína Gregová
The aim of presented study was to investigate the influence of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin on the activity of β-glucuronidase enzyme, and counts of coliform and lactobacilli in fresh caecal digesta, cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8), and trancription nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB) activities in colon tissue and blood samples of rats with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis. The rats were randomly divided into four groups - CG, AC, AC+PRE and AC+PRO. Colitis was induced using of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7d...
2015: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Shalini Mudalkar, Ramesh Golla, Sreenivas Ghatty, Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy
Camelina sativa L. is an emerging biofuel crop with potential applications in industry, medicine, cosmetics and human nutrition. The crop is unexploited owing to very limited availability of transcriptome and genomic data. In order to analyse the various metabolic pathways, we performed de novo assembly of the transcriptome on Illumina GAIIX platform with paired end sequencing for obtaining short reads. The sequencing output generated a FastQ file size of 2.97 GB with 10.83 million reads having a maximum read length of 101 nucleotides...
January 2014: Plant Molecular Biology
Arkadi Shwartz, Shaul Yogev, Eyal D Schejter, Ben-Zion Shilo
How signal transduction, which is dynamic and fluctuating by nature, is converted into a stable trancriptional response, is an unanswered question in developmental biology. Two ETS-domain transcription factors encoded by the pointed (pnt) locus, PntP1 and PntP2, are universal downstream mediators of EGFR-based signaling in Drosophila. Full disruption of pnt function in developing eye imaginal discs reveals a photoreceptor recruitment phenotype, in which only the R8 photoreceptor cell type is specified within ommatidia...
July 2013: Development
A Gonzalez-Flores, R Aguilar-Quesada, E Siles, S Pozo, M I Rodríguez-Lara, L López-Jiménez, M López-Rodríguez, A Peralta-Leal, D Villar, D Martín-Oliva, L del Peso, E Berra, F J Oliver
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) mediate the transcriptional adaptation of hypoxic cells. The extensive transcriptional programm regulated by HIFs involves the induction of genes controlling angiogenesis, cellular metabolism, cell growth, metastasis, apoptosis, extracellular matrix remodeling and others. HIF is a heterodimer of HIF-α and HIF-β subunits. In addition to HIF-1α, HIF-2α has evolved as an isoform that contributes differently to the hypoxic adaptation by performing non-redundant functions. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear protein involved in the control of DNA repair and gene transcription by modulating chromatin structure and acting as part of gene-specific enhancer/promoter-binding complexes...
February 13, 2014: Oncogene
Véronique Bergougnoux, David Zalabák, Michaela Jandová, Ondřej Novák, Anika Wiese-Klinkenberg, Martin Fellner
Light is one of the most important factor influencing plant growth and development all through their life cycle. One of the well-known light-regulated processes is de-etiolation, i.e. the switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis. The hormones cytokinins (CKs) play an important role during the establishment of photomorphogenesis as exogenous CKs induced photomorphogenesis of dark-grown seedlings. Most of the studies are conducted on the plant model Arabidopsis, but no or few information are available for important crop species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L...
2012: PloS One
Carlos Avila-Ramirez, Mariana Tinajero-Trejo, Kelly S Davidge, Claire E Monk, David J Kelly, Robert K Poole
The microaerophilic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni possesses inducible systems for resisting NO. Two globins--Cgb (a single-domain globin) and Ctb (a truncated globin)--are up-regulated in response to NO via the positively acting transcription factor NssR. Our aims were to determine whether these oxygen-binding globins also function in severely oxygen-limited environments, as in the host. At growth-limiting oxygen transfer rates, bacteria were more S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) sensitive, irrespective of the presence of Cgb, Ctb, or NssR...
February 1, 2013: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Sophie de Bentzmann, Patrick Plésiat
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative environmental species and an opportunistic microorganism, establishes itself in vulnerable patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis or hospitalized in intensive care units. It has become a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide (about 10% of all such infections in most European Union hospitals) and a serious threat to Public Health. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics have also led to the selection of resistant strains against which very few therapeutic options exist...
July 2011: Environmental Microbiology
Constance Zugowski, Franziska Lieder, Annekatrin Müller, Josephine Gasch, Florian M Corvinus, Richard Moriggl, Karlheinz Friedrich
Aberrant activation of STAT3 in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tissue is correlated with elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We analyzed transcriptional regulation of the human MMP-1 promoter in CRC cells by tyrosine phosphorylated (pY-) STAT3. One of six putative STAT binding elements within a 4.3 kb MMP-1 trancriptional promoter fragment showed a particular high affinity for STAT3 in vitro. However, the most profound regulatory influence on MMP-1 promoter activity resides in a proximal region relative to the transcriptional start, bearing a pair of putative binding sites for STAT3 and AP-1...
May 2011: Biological Chemistry
Oliberto Sánchez Ramos, Yanet Prieto Carratalá, Silvia Gómez Puerta, Natalie C Parra Pereira, Lester Suárez Amarán, Silvana P Jimenez Chaves, Jorge R Toledo Alonso
Lentiviral vectors containing the green fluorescent protein gene have been successfully used to select transgenic embryos before transfer to a surrogate mother. However, there are apparently no reports regarding early detection of transgenic embryos using a lentiviral vector carrying an additional transcription unit for tissue-specific expression of a valuable protein. In this study, two HIV-based lentiviral vectors were constructed. The first one contained the green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence driven by the early SV40 promoter (Lv-G), whereas the other contained an additional transcription unit for the expression of E2 glycoprotein from classical swine fever virus, driven by a 1...
April 15, 2011: Theriogenology
Kevin R W Ngoei, Bruno Catimel, Nicole Church, Daisy S Lio, Con Dogovski, Matthew A Perugini, Paul M Watt, Heung-Chin Cheng, Dominic C H Ng, Marie A Bogoyevitch
An improved understanding of the roles of protein kinases in intracellular signalling and disease progression has driven significant advances in protein kinase inhibitor discovery. Peptide inhibitors that target the kinase protein substrate-binding site have continued to attract attention. In the present paper, we describe a novel JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) inhibitory peptide PYC71N, which inhibits JNK activity in vitro towards a range of recombinant protein substrates including the transcription factors c-Jun, ATF2 (activating trancription factor 2) and Elk1, and the microtubule regulatory protein DCX (doublecortin)...
March 15, 2011: Biochemical Journal
Jean-Christophe Gelly, Mickael Orgeur, Claude Jacq, Gaëlle Lelandais
Mitochondria constitute complex and flexible cellular entities, which play crucial roles in normal and pathological cell conditions. The database MitoGenesisDB focuses on the dynamic of mitochondrial protein formation through global mRNA analyses. Three main parameters confer a global view of mitochondrial biogenesis: (i) time-course of mRNA production in highly synchronized yeast cell cultures, (ii) microarray analyses of mRNA localization that define translation sites and (iii) mRNA transcription rate and stability which characterize genes that are more dependent on post-transcriptional regulation processes...
January 2011: Nucleic Acids Research
Beatrice E Bachmeier, Valentina Mirisola, Francesco Romeo, Luca Generoso, Alessia Esposito, Raffaella Dell'eva, Fabiola Blengio, Peter H Killian, Adriana Albini, Ulrich Pfeffer
BACKGROUND: Several secondary metabolites from herbal nutrient products act as weak estrogens (phytoestrogens), competing with endogenous estrogen for binding to the estrogen receptors and inhibiting steroid converting enzymes. However, it is still unclear whether these compounds elicit estrogen dependent transcription of genes at physiological concentrations. METHODS: We compare the effects of physiological concentrations (100 nM) of the two phytoestrogens Enterolactone and Quercetin and the suspected phytoestrogen Curcumin on gene expression in the breast cancer cell line MCF7 with the effects elicited by 17-beta-estradiol (E2)...
2010: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Sandeep J Joseph, Kelly R Robbins, Enrique Pavan, Scott L Pratt, Susan K Duckett, Romdhane Rekaya
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are of important nutritional and health benefit to human. Food products of animal origin are their major dietary source and their concentration increases with high concentrate diets fed to animals. To examine the effects of diet supplementation on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, 28 Angus steers were fed either pasture only, pasture with soybean hulls and corn oil, pasture with corn grain, or high concentrate diet. At slaughter, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected, from which RNA was extracted...
March 31, 2010: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Hai Wu, Meng C Wang, Dirk Bohmann
JNK signaling functions to induce defense mechanisms that protect organisms against acute oxidative and xenobiotic insults. Using Drosophila as a model system, we investigated the role of autophagy as such a JNK-regulated protective mechanism. We show that oxidative stress can induce autophagy in the intestinal epithelium by a mechanism that requires JNK signaling. Consistently, artificial activation of JNK in the gut gives rise to an autophagy phenotype. JNK signaling can induce the expression of several autophagy-related (ATG) genes, and the integrity of these genes is required for the stress protective function of the JNK pathway...
August 2009: Mechanisms of Development
F Y Miasaki, A Vivaldi, R Ciampi, L Agate, P Collecchi, A Capodanno, A Pinchera, R Elisei
The treatment of both undifferentiated and de-differentiated thyroid tumors, which are unresponsive to radioiodine, represents one of the biggest challenges for thyroidologists. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the methylation status of retinoic acid receptors (RAR)beta2 promoter and the effect of the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) on 5 human thyroid cancer cell lines. The methylation status of RARbeta2 promoter was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR. The effect of 5-Aza-CdR on cell growth and apoptosis was evaluated by cell counting, enzymelinked immunosorbent assay tests and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, while the effect on the expression of RAR and thyroid-specific genes was measured by qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR...
August 2008: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Joachim Morschhäuser, Katherine S Barker, Teresa T Liu, Julia BlaB-Warmuth, Ramin Homayouni, P David Rogers
Constitutive overexpression of the MDR1 (multidrug resistance) gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, is a frequent cause of resistance to fluconazole and other toxic compounds in clinical Candida albicans strains, but the mechanism of MDR1 upregulation has not been resolved. By genome-wide gene expression analysis we have identified a zinc cluster transcription factor, designated as MRR1 (multidrug resistance regulator), that was coordinately upregulated with MDR1 in drug-resistant, clinical C...
November 2007: PLoS Pathogens
Forrester J Liddle, James V Alvarez, Valeria Poli, David A Frank
Aberrant activation of STAT transcription factors has been implicated in a variety of cancers. Constitutively active forms of STAT1 and STAT3 (STAT1C and STAT3C) have been developed to determine the effects of STAT activation in isolation from other cytokine-stimulated signaling pathways. These mutants were created by engineering cysteine residues into the carboxy terminus of each STAT molecule, allowing a hypothesized disulfide bond to form between two unphosphorylated monomers. To determine whether the presence of cysteine residues is sufficient to allow for functional activation in the absence of tyrosine phosphorylation, we developed STAT1C and STAT3C mutants that are unable to be phosphorylated on the critical tyrosine residue...
May 2, 2006: Biochemistry
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