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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913429/heritability-of-the-effective-connectivity-in-the-resting-state-default-mode-network
#1
Junhai Xu, Xuntao Yin, Haitao Ge, Yan Han, Zengchang Pang, Baolin Liu, Shuwei Liu, Karl Friston
The default mode network (DMN) is thought to reflect endogenous neural activity, which is considered as one of the most intriguing phenomena in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies have found that key regions within the DMN are highly interconnected. Here, we characterized the genetic influences on causal or directed information flow within the DMN during the resting state. In this study, we recruited 46 pairs of twins and collected fMRI imaging data using a 3.0 T scanner. Dynamic causal modeling was conducted for each participant, and a structural equation model was used to calculate the heritability of DMN in terms of its effective connectivity...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857682/functional-connectivity-substrates-for-tdcs-response-in-minimally-conscious-state-patients
#2
Carlo Cavaliere, Marco Aiello, Carol Di Perri, Enrico Amico, Charlotte Martial, Aurore Thibaut, Steven Laureys, Andrea Soddu
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique recently employed in disorders of consciousness, and determining a transitory recovery of signs of consciousness in almost half of minimally conscious state (MCS) patients. Although the rising evidences about its possible role in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric conditions exist, no evidences exist about brain functional connectivity substrates underlying tDCS response. We retrospectively evaluated resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of 16 sub-acute and chronic MCS patients (6 tDCS responders) who successively received a single left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) tDCS in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833940/cingulo-opercular-network-efficiency-mediates-the-association-between-psychotic-like-experiences-and-cognitive-ability-in-the-general-population
#3
Julia M Sheffield, Sridhar Kandala, Gregory C Burgess, Michael P Harms, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Psychosis is hypothesized to occur on a spectrum between psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. In the middle of the spectrum are individuals who endorse psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) that may not impact daily functioning or cause distress. Individuals with PLEs show alterations in both cognitive ability and functional connectivity of several brain networks, but the relationship between PLEs, cognition, and functional networks remains poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed resting-state fMRI data, a range of neuropsychological tasks, and questions from the Achenbach Adult Self Report (ASR) in 468 individuals from the Human Connectome Project...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782128/network-level-dysconnectivity-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-psychosis-dissociating-transdiagnostic-and-diagnosis-specific-alterations
#4
Qiyong Gong, Xinyu Hu, William Pettersson-Yeo, Xin Xu, Su Lui, Nicolas Crossley, Min Wu, Hongyan Zhu, Andrea Mechelli
The neuroimaging literature provides compelling evidence for functional dysconnectivity in people with psychosis. However, it is likely that at least some of the observed alterations represent secondary effects of illness chronicity and/or antipsychotic medication. In addition, the extent to which these alterations are specific to psychosis or represent a transdiagnostic feature of psychiatric illness remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the diagnostic specificity of functional dysconnectivity in drug-naïve first-episode psychosis (FEP)...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771857/brain-alterations-in-low-frequency-fluctuations-across-multiple-bands-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Mònica Giménez, Andrés Guinea-Izquierdo, Victoria Villalta-Gil, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Eva Real, Jesús Pujol, Ben J Harrison, Josep Maria Haro, Joao R Sato, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Narcís Cardoner, Pino Alonso, José Manuel Menchón, Carles Soriano-Mas
The extent of functional abnormalities in frontal-subcortical circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still unclear. Although neuroimaging studies, in general, and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI), in particular, have provided relevant information regarding such alterations, rs-fMRI studies have been typically limited to the analysis of between-region functional connectivity alterations at low-frequency signal fluctuations (i.e., <0.08 Hz). Conversely, the local attributes of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal across different frequency bands have been seldom studied, although they may provide valuable information...
October 22, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750155/altered-task-specific-deactivation-in-the-default-mode-network-depends-on-valence-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Bin Zhang, Shijia Li, Chuanjun Zhuo, Meng Li, Adam Safron, Axel Genz, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu, Martin Walter
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric condition in which patients often have difficulties regulating their emotions. Prior studies have shown that attention bias towards negative emotion is linked to activation in regions of the default mode network (DMN) in MDD individuals. Furthermore, MDD patients showed increased resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the medial prefrontal cortex and other DMN structures. METHODS: Twenty-one MDD patients that currently experiencing depressive episodes and twenty-five healthy control participants performed the current emotional expectancy paradigm in a gradient-echo SENSE-SPIRAL fMRI...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743373/depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-are-associated-to-disruption-of-default-mode-network-in-subacute-ischemic-stroke
#7
Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Marina Weiler, Sara Regina Meira Almeida, Brunno Machado de Campos, Lenise Valler, Li Min Li
Depression and anxiety symptoms are common after stroke and associated to reduction in quality of life and poor physical and social outcomes. The Default Mode Network (DMN) plays an important role in the emotional processing. We investigated whether these symptoms are associated to a disruption of DMN functional connectivity in the first month after stroke. Thirty-four subacute ischemic stroke patients were submitted to: 1) behavioral assessment through Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders; 2) neuropsychological assessment using Mini Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; 3) resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition using a 3 T scanner (Philips Achieva)...
October 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716544/amygdala-based-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-and-anxiety-disorders-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#8
Rudineia Toazza, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Augusto Buchweitz, Roberta Dalle Molle, Danitsa Marcos Rodrigues, Roberta Sena Reis, Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Nathalia Bianchini Esper, Cristiano Aguzzoli, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Gisele Gus Manfro
Anxiety disorders (AD) are the most prevalent group of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults. Nevertheless, the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders is still poorly understood. This study investigated differences in the functional connectivity of intrinsic amygdala-based networks of participants with and without AD. Resting state fMRI data were obtained from 18 participants with an AD and 19 healthy comparison individuals. Psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using standardized structured interviews...
September 22, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712047/coupling-between-spontaneous-pupillary-fluctuations-and-brain-activity-relates-to-inattentiveness
#9
A L Breeden, G J Siegle, M E Norr, E M Gordon, C J Vaidya
Autonomic activity in neurological and psychiatric disorders is often dysregulated, particularly in the context of attentional behaviors. This suggests that interplay between the autonomic nervous system and aspects of the central nervous system subserving attention may be disrupted in these conditions. Better understanding these interactions and their relationship to individual variation in attentional behaviors could facilitate development of mechanistic biomarkers. We identified brain regions defined by trait-sensitive central-autonomic coupling as a first step in this process...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694638/intrinsic-brain-abnormalities-in-young-healthy-adults-with-childhood-trauma-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity
#10
Shaojia Lu, Weijia Gao, Zhaoguo Wei, Dandan Wang, Shaohua Hu, Manli Huang, Yi Xu, Lingjiang Li
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma confers great risk for the development of multiple psychiatric disorders; however, the neural basis for this association is still unknown. The present resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to detect the effects of childhood trauma on brain function in a group of young healthy adults. METHODS: In total, 24 healthy individuals with childhood trauma and 24 age- and sex-matched adults without childhood trauma were recruited...
September 30, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667698/data-driven-phenotypic-categorization-for-neurobiological-analyses-beyond-dsm-5-labels
#11
Nicholas T Van Dam, David O'Connor, Enitan T Marcelle, Erica J Ho, R Cameron Craddock, Russell H Tobe, Vilma Gabbay, James J Hudziak, F Xavier Castellanos, Bennett L Leventhal, Michael P Milham
BACKGROUND: Data-driven approaches can capture behavioral and biological variation currently unaccounted for by contemporary diagnostic categories, thereby enhancing the ability of neurobiological studies to characterize brain-behavior relationships. METHODS: A community-ascertained sample of individuals (N = 347, 18-59 years of age) completed a battery of behavioral measures, psychiatric assessment, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a cross-sectional design...
July 19, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594665/altered-neural-connectivity-in-adult-female-rats-exposed-to-early-life-social-stress
#12
Benjamin C Nephew, Wei Huang, Guillaume L Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Jean A King
The use of a variety of neuroanatomical techniques has led to a greater understanding of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. One recent advance that has been particularly valuable is the development of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in clinical studies. The current study investigates changes in RSFC in F1 adult female rats exposed to the early life chronic social stress (ECSS) of the daily introduction of a novel male intruder to the cage of their F0 mothers while the F1 pups are in the cage...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550863/data-quality-influences-observed-links-between-functional-connectivity-and-behavior
#13
Joshua S Siegel, Anish Mitra, Timothy O Laumann, Benjamin A Seitzman, Marcus Raichle, Maurizio Corbetta, Abraham Z Snyder
A growing field of research explores links between behavioral measures and functional connectivity (FC) assessed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies suggest that measurement of these relationships may be corrupted by head motion artifact. Using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we find that a surprising number of behavioral, demographic, and physiological measures (23 of 122), including fluid intelligence, reading ability, weight, and psychiatric diagnostic scales, correlate with head motion...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531067/review-of-thalamocortical-resting-state-fmri-studies-in-schizophrenia
#14
Monica Giraldo-Chica, Neil D Woodward
Brain circuitry underlying cognition, emotion, and perception is abnormal in schizophrenia. There is considerable evidence that the neuropathology of schizophrenia includes the thalamus, a key hub of cortical-subcortical circuitry and an important regulator of cortical activity. However, the thalamus is a heterogeneous structure composed of several nuclei with distinct inputs and cortical connections. Limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods and conflicting findings from post-mortem investigations have made it difficult to determine if thalamic pathology in schizophrenia is widespread or limited to specific thalamocortical circuits...
August 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445664/multimodal-mri-based-classification-of-trauma-survivors-with-and-without-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#15
Qiongmin Zhang, Qizhu Wu, Hongru Zhu, Ling He, Hua Huang, Junran Zhang, Wei Zhang
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder. It can be difficult to discern the symptoms of PTSD and obtain an accurate diagnosis. Different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities focus on different aspects, which may provide complementary information for PTSD discrimination. However, none of the published studies assessed the diagnostic potential of multimodal MRI in identifying individuals with and without PTSD. In the current study, we investigated whether the complementary information conveyed by multimodal MRI scans could be combined to improve PTSD classification performance...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436017/functional-connectivity-and-microstructural-white-matter-changes-in-phenocopy-frontotemporal-dementia
#16
R Meijboom, R M E Steketee, I de Koning, R J Osse, L C Jiskoot, F J de Jong, A van der Lugt, J C van Swieten, M Smits
OBJECTIVES: Phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (phFTD) is a rare and poorly understood clinical syndrome. PhFTD shows core behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD) symptoms without associated cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities on conventional MRI and without progression. In contrast to phFTD, functional connectivity and white matter (WM) microstructural abnormalities have been observed in bvFTD. We hypothesise that phFTD belongs to the same disease spectrum as bvFTD and investigated whether functional connectivity and microstructural WM changes similar to bvFTD are present in phFTD...
July 19, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422412/network-structure-among-brain-systems-in-adult-adhd-is-uniquely-modified-by-stimulant-administration
#17
Robert P Cary, Siddharth Ray, David S Grayson, Julia Painter, Samuel Carpenter, Leeza Maron, Olaf Sporns, Alexander A Stevens, Joel T Nigg, Damien A Fair
Current research in connectomics highlights that self-organized functional networks or "communities" of cortical areas can be detected in the adult brain. This perspective may provide clues to mechanisms of treatment response in psychiatric conditions. Here we examine functional brain community topology based on resting-state fMRI in adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 22) and controls (n = 31). We sought to evaluate ADHD patterns in adulthood and their modification by short term stimulants administration...
July 14, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412789/dopaminergic-receptor-blockade-changes-a-functional-connectivity-network-centred-on-the-amygdala
#18
Jan Haaker, Mareike M Menz, Tahmine Fadai, Falk Eippert, Christian Büchel
Resting-state connectivity has become an increasingly important measure in characterizing the functional integrity of brain circuits in neuro-psychiatric conditions. One approach that has recently gained prominence in this regard-and which we use in this study-is to investigate how resting-state connectivity depends on the integrity of certain neuromodulator systems. Here, we use a pharmacological challenge in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the impact of dopaminergic receptor blockade on whole brain functional connectivity in twenty healthy human subjects...
November 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385746/impaired-self-agency-in-functional-movement-disorders-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#19
Carine W Maurer, Kathrin LaFaver, Rezvan Ameli, Steven A Epstein, Mark Hallett, Silvina G Horovitz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying impaired self-agency in patients with functional movement disorders using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). METHODS: We obtained resting-state fMRI on 35 patients with clinically definite functional movement disorders and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Between-group differences in functional connectivity from the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), a region previously demonstrated to play a critical role in self-agency by comparing internal predictions of movement with actual external events, were assessed using t tests...
August 9, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372239/impaired-functional-default-mode-network-in-patients-with-mild-neurological-wilson-s-disease
#20
Yongsheng Han, Hewei Cheng, Jon B Toledo, Xun Wang, Bo Li, Yongzhu Han, Kai Wang, Yong Fan
Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by cognitive, psychiatric and motor signs and symptoms that are associated with structural and pathological brain abnormalities, in addition to liver changes. However, functional brain connectivity pattern of WD patients remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated functional brain connectivity pattern of WD patients using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Particularly, we studied default mode network (DMN) using posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) based seed functional connectivity analysis and graph theoretic functional brain network analysis tools, and investigated the relationship between the DMN's functional connectivity pattern of WD patients and their attention functions examined using the attention network test (ANT)...
September 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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