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Affective neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240642/body-mass-s-impact-on-response-to-fixed-dose-vasopressin-in-patients-with-septic-shock
#1
Heather Torbic, Gretchen L Sacha, Seth R Bauer, Simon W Lam
INTRODUCTION: The effect of patient weight and body mass index (BMI) on hemodynamic response to vasoactive medications is not fully understood. In titratable vasopressors, this effect is less likely a concern due to the ability to titrate dose to response, however, with the use of fixed-dose vasopressin, patient weight and BMI may impact response. METHODS: This was a single center, retrospective cohort of patients who received fixed-dose vasopressin for septic shock for ≥6 hours with concomitant catecholamines in the medical, surgical, or neurosciences intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary care center...
December 13, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235448/how-do-the-reference-montage-and-electrodes-setup-affect-the-measured-scalp-eeg-potentials
#2
Shiang Hu, Yongxiu Lai, Pedro Antonio Valdés-Sosa, Maria Luisa Brings-Vega, Dezhong Yao
OBJECTIVE: Human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely applied in cognitive neuroscience and clinical studies due to its non-invasiveness and ultra-high time resolution. However, the representativeness of the measured EEG potentials for the underneath neural activities is still a problem under debate. This study aims to investigate systematically how both reference montage and electrodes setup affect the accuracy of EEG potentials. APPROACH: First, the standard EEG potentials are generated by the forward calculation with a single dipole in the neural source space, for eleven channel numbers (10, 16, 21, 32, 64, 85, 96, 128, 129, 257, 335)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213489/in-search-of-the-moral-psychological-and-neuroevolutionary-basis-of-political-partisanship
#3
REVIEW
Vitor Geraldi Haase, Isabella Starling-Alves
In many countries, a radical political divide brings several socially relevant decisions to a standstill. Could cognitive, affective and social (CAS) neuroscience help better understand these questions? The present article reviews the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of the political partisanship divide. A non-systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis were conducted. Three main points are identified and discussed: 1) Political partisan behavior rests upon deep moral emotions. It is automatically processed and impervious to contradiction...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209156/machine-learning-classification-combining-multiple-features-of-a-hyper-network-of-fmri-data-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Hao Guo, Fan Zhang, Junjie Chen, Yong Xu, Jie Xiang
Exploring functional interactions among various brain regions is helpful for understanding the pathological underpinnings of neurological disorders. Brain networks provide an important representation of those functional interactions, and thus are widely applied in the diagnosis and classification of neurodegenerative diseases. Many mental disorders involve a sharp decline in cognitive ability as a major symptom, which can be caused by abnormal connectivity patterns among several brain regions. However, conventional functional connectivity networks are usually constructed based on pairwise correlations among different brain regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203849/an-integrated-brain-behavior-model-for-working-memory
#5
D A Moser, G E Doucet, A Ing, D Dima, G Schumann, R M Bilder, S Frangou
Working memory (WM) is a central construct in cognitive neuroscience because it comprises mechanisms of active information maintenance and cognitive control that underpin most complex cognitive behavior. Individual variation in WM has been associated with multiple behavioral and health features including demographic characteristics, cognitive and physical traits and lifestyle choices. In this context, we used sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCAs) to determine the covariation between brain imaging metrics of WM-network activation and connectivity and nonimaging measures relating to sensorimotor processing, affective and nonaffective cognition, mental health and personality, physical health and lifestyle choices derived from 823 healthy participants derived from the Human Connectome Project...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197616/the-effect-of-monitor-raster-latency-on-veps-erps-and-brain-computer-interface-performance
#6
Sebastian Nagel, Werner Dreher, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Martin Spüler
BACKGROUND: Visual neuroscience experiments and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) control often require strict timings in a millisecond scale. As most experiments are performed using a personal computer (PC), the latencies that are introduced by the setup should be taken into account and be corrected. As a standard computer monitor uses a rastering to update each line of the image sequentially, this causes a monitor raster latency which depends on the position, on the monitor and the refresh rate...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194171/improving-the-accuracy-of-delirium-assessments-in-neuroscience-patients-scaling-a-quality-improvement-program-to-improve-nurses-skill-compliance-and-accuracy-in-the-use-of-the-confusion-assessment-method-in-the-intensive-care-unit-tool
#7
Justin DiLibero, Susan DeSanto-Madeya, Rachael Dottery, Lauren Sullivan, Sharon C O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Delirium affects up to 80% of critically ill patients; however, many cases of delirium go unrecognized because of inaccurate assessments. The effectiveness of interventions to improve assessment accuracy among the general population has been established, but assessments among neuroscience patients are uniquely complicated due to the presence of structural neurologic changes. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this quality improvement project were to improve the accuracy of nurse's delirium assessments among neuroscience patients and to determine the comparative effectiveness of the intervention between medical and neuroscience patients...
January 2018: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163318/anger-as-a-basic-emotion-and-its-role-in-personality-building-and-pathological-growth-the-neuroscientific-developmental-and-clinical-perspectives
#8
Riccardo Williams
Anger is probably one of the mostly debated basic emotions, owing to difficulties in detecting its appearance during development, its functional and affective meaning (is it a positive or a negative emotion?), especially in human beings. Behaviors accompanied by anger and rage serve many different purposes and the nuances of aggressive behaviors are often defined by the symbolic and cultural framework and social contexts. Nonetheless, recent advances in neuroscientific and developmental research, as well as clinical psychodynamic investigation, afford a new view on the role of anger in informing and guiding many aspects of human conducts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163257/free-will-and-the-brain-disease-model-of-addiction-the-not-so-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-and-its-modest-impact-on-the-attribution-of-free-will-to-people-with-an-addiction
#9
Eric Racine, Sebastian Sattler, Alice Escande
Free will has been the object of debate in the context of addiction given that addiction could compromise an individual's ability to choose freely between alternative courses of action. Proponents of the brain-disease model of addiction have argued that a neuroscience perspective on addiction reduces the attribution of free will because it relocates the cause of the disorder to the brain rather than to the person, thereby diminishing the blame attributed to the person with an addiction. Others have worried that such displacement of free will attribution would make the person with a drug addiction less responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140500/the-persuasion-network-is-modulated-by-drug-use-risk-and-predicts-anti-drug-message-effectiveness
#10
Richard Huskey, J Michael Mangus, Benjamin O Turner, René Weber
While a persuasion network has been proposed, little is known about how network connections between brain regions contribute to attitude change. Two possible mechanisms have been advanced. One hypothesis predicts that attitude change results from increased connectivity between structures implicated in affective and executive processing in response to increases in argument strength. A second functional perspective suggests that highly arousing messages reduce connectivity between structures implicated in the encoding of sensory information, which disrupts message processing and thereby inhibits attitude change...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124752/extending-the-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-explanations-effect-to-popular-articles-about-educational-topics
#11
Soo-Hyun Im, Keisha Varma, Sashank Varma
BACKGROUND: The seductive allure of neuroscience explanations (SANE) is the finding that people overweight psychological arguments when framed in terms of neuroscience findings. AIM: This study extended this finding to arguments concerning the application of psychological findings to educational topics. SAMPLE: Participants (n = 320) were recruited from the general public, specifically among English-speaking Amazon Mechanical Turk workers residing in the United States...
December 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124505/transitions-between-asynchronous-and-synchronous-states-a-theory-of-correlations-in-small-neural-circuits
#12
Diego Fasoli, Anna Cattani, Stefano Panzeri
The study of correlations in neural circuits of different size, from the small size of cortical microcolumns to the large-scale organization of distributed networks studied with functional imaging, is a topic of central importance to systems neuroscience. However, a theory that explains how the parameters of mesoscopic networks composed of a few tens of neurons affect the underlying correlation structure is still missing. Here we consider a theory that can be applied to networks of arbitrary size with multiple populations of homogeneous fully-connected neurons, and we focus its analysis to a case of two populations of small size...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122370/effectiveness-of-the-graded-motor-imagery-to-improve-hand-function-in-patients-with-distal-radius-fracture-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Burcu Dilek, Cigdem Ayhan, Gozde Yagci, Yavuz Yakut
STUDY DESIGN: Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. INTRODUCTION: Pain management is essential in the early stages of the rehabilitation of distal radius fractures (DRFx). Pain intensity at the acute stage is considered important for determining the individual recovery process, given that higher pain intensity and persistent pain duration negatively affect the function and cortical activity of pain response. Graded motor imagery (GMI) and its components are recent pain management strategies, established on a neuroscience basis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122031/contempt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-where-the-modularity-of-the-mind-meets-the-modularity-of-the-brain
#14
Danilo Bzdok, Leonhard Schilbach
"Contempt" is proposed to be a unique aspect of human nature, yet a non-natural kind. Its psychological construct is framed as a sentiment emerging from a stratification of diverse basic emotions and dispositional attitudes. Accordingly, "contempt" might transcend traditional conceptual levels in social psychology, including experience and recognition of emotion, dyadic and group dynamics, context-conditioned attitudes, time-enduring personality structure, and morality. This strikes us as a modern psychological account of a high-level, social-affective cognitive facet that joins forces with recent developments in the social neuroscience by drawing psychological conclusions from brain biology...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117032/a-preliminary-observational-study-of-anovulatory-uterine-bleeding-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#15
Suzanne M Brown, Susan W Fifield, Michael A Pizzi, David Alejos, Alexa N Richie, Tri A Dinh, William P Cheshire, Shon E Meek, William D Freeman
INTRODUCTION: It was observed that women with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) tended to have earlier menses than a typical 21- to 28-day cycle. The goal was to determine whether there is an association between aSAH and early onset of menses. METHODS: All cases of aSAH in women aged 18 to 55 years who were admitted to our facility's neuroscience intensive care unit from June 1, 2011, to June 30, 2012, were reviewed. The electronic healthcare record for each of these patients was examined for documentation of menses onset, computed tomography of the head, brain aneurysm characteristics, modified Fisher score and Glasgow Coma Scale on admission, presence/absence of vasospasm, medical/surgical history, and use of medications that affect the menstrual cycle...
December 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107620/lacking-quality-in-research-is-behavioral-neuroscience-affected-more-than-other-areas-of-biomedical-science
#16
Anton Bespalov, Thomas Steckler
There are many reasons why novel therapeutics fail in clinical trials but these failures are often attributed to lacking quality of preclinical data. These problems are not limited to any specific therapeutic area, academic or industrial research and are due in large part to several generic factors influencing research quality (e.g., related to definition of pre-specified endpoints, principles of study design and analysis, biased reporting, and lack of proper training). Yet, Neuroscience drug discovery is often said to be affected more than the other fields...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#17
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079687/optogenetic-inhibition-reveals-distinct-roles-for-basolateral-amygdala-activity-at-discrete-timepoints-during-risky-decision-making
#18
Caitlin A Orsini, Caesar M Hernandez, Sarthak Singhal, Kyle B Kelly, Charles J Frazier, Jennifer L Bizon, Barry Setlow
Decision making is a multifaceted process, consisting of several distinct phases that likely require different cognitive operations. Previous work showed that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical substrate for decision making involving risk of punishment; however, it is unclear how the BLA is recruited at different stages of the decision process. To this end, the current study used optogenetics to inhibit the BLA during specific task phases in a model of risky decision making (Risky Decision-making Task; RDT) in which rats choose between a small, "safe" reward and a large reward accompanied by varying probabilities of footshock punishment...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075843/-optimal-suppression-as-a-solution-to-the-paradoxical-cost-of-multitasking-examination-of-suppression-specificity-in-task-switching
#19
Maayan Katzir, Bnaya Ori, Nachshon Meiran
Switching between tasks necessitates maintaining tasks in high readiness, yet readiness creates paradoxical interference from these tasks when they are not currently required. "Optimal suppression", which targets just the interfering information, provides a partial solution to this paradox. By examining the carryover of suppression of a competitor stimulus-response (S-R) set from Trial N - 1 to Trial N, Meiran, Hsieh  and colleagues (Meiran  et al., J Exp Psychol Learn mem cognit 36:992-1002, 2010; Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 11:292-308, 2011, and Hsieh et al...
October 27, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051552/auditory-evoked-bold-responses-in-awake-compared-to-lightly-anaesthetized-zebra-finches
#20
L Van Ruijssevelt, J Hamaide, M T Van Gurp, M Verhoye, A Van der Linden
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly used in cognitive neuroscience and has become a valuable tool in the study of auditory processing in zebra finches, a well-established model of learned vocal communication. Due to its sensitivity to head motion, most fMRI studies in animals are performed in anaesthetized conditions, which might significantly impact neural activity evoked by stimuli and cognitive tasks. In this study, we (1) demonstrate the feasibility of fMRI in awake zebra finches and (2) explore how light anaesthesia regimes affect auditory-evoked BOLD responses to biologically relevant songs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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