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Affective neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213134/speech-in-noise-perception-in-musicians-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Emily B J Coffey, Nicolette Mogilever, Robert J Zatorre
The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203140/tamoxifen-activation-of-cre-recombinase-has-no-persisting-effects-on-adult-neurogenesis-or-learning-and-anxiety
#2
Peter Rotheneichner, Pasquale Romanelli, Lara Bieler, Sebastian Pagitsch, Pia Zaunmair, Christina Kreutzer, Richard König, Julia Marschallinger, Ludwig Aigner, Sébastien Couillard-Després
Adult neurogenesis is a tightly regulated process continuously taking place in the central nervous system of most mammalian species. In neuroscience research, transgenic animals bearing the tamoxifen-inducible CreER(T2)-Lox system are widely used. In this study, we made use of a Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP transgenic mouse model in which the CreER(T2) activates the expression of YFP in multipotent neural stem cells upon tamoxifen application. Humoral factors, such as the levels of estrogens, have been reported to affect the hippocampal neurogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197543/impedance-spectrum-in-cortical-tissue-implications-for-propagation-of-lfp-signals-on-the-microscopic-level
#3
Stéphanie Miceli, Torbjørn V Ness, Gaute T Einevoll, Dirk Schubert
Brain research investigating electrical activity within neural tissue is producing an increasing amount of physiological data including local field potentials (LFPs) obtained via extracellular in vivo and in vitro recordings. In order to correctly interpret such electrophysiological data, it is vital to adequately understand the electrical properties of neural tissue itself. An ongoing controversy in the field of neuroscience is whether such frequency-dependent effects bias LFP recordings and affect the proper interpretation of the signal...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191317/intersect-between-self-esteem-and-emotion-regulation-in-narcissistic-personality-disorder-implications-for-alliance-building-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Elsa Ronningstam
Building an alliance with patients with pathological narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder, NPD, can be challenging and include avoidance, negative reactivity and disruptions. A main contributing factor can be the complex interaction between emotion and self-esteem regulation, which affects patients' ability to engage in a therapeutic alliance and treatment. Recent studies, especially in neuroscience have identified functional characteristic and compromises in self-esteem and emotion regulation related to NPD...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169814/examen-de-la-port%C3%A3-e-des-connaissances-sur-les-concepts-du-toucher-et-du-massage-et-de-leurs-effets-sur-l%C3%A2-agitation-et-le-stress-des-personnes-%C3%A3-g%C3%A3-es-hospitalis%C3%A3-es-atteintes-de-d%C3%A3-mence
#5
Corinne Schaub, Armin von Gunten, Diane Morin
<ce:para>This scoping review examines the effects of touch/massage on agitation and stress in aged hospitalized patients suffering from dementia. This intervention is multidimensional, at the edges of medical neurosciences, nursing sciences, and social sciences. This review is primarily supported by a biological model of social relations, describing the interconnection between cognition, affect, and endocrine aspects of attachment modes. It is also guided by nursing sciences conceptualizations which anchors touch/massage in the heart of nursing practice...
October 27, 2016: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168820/counter-intuitive-moral-judgement-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Dane A Rowley, Miles Rogish, Timothy Alexander, Kevin J Riggs
Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163140/decoded-fmri-neurofeedback-can-induce-bidirectional-confidence-changes-within-single-participants
#7
Aurelio Cortese, Kaoru Amano, Ai Koizumi, Hakwan Lau, Mitsuo Kawato
Neurofeedback studies using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) have recently incorporated the multi-voxel pattern decoding approach, allowing for fMRI to serve as a tool to manipulate fine-grained neural activity embedded in voxel patterns. Because of its tremendous potential for clinical applications, certain questions regarding decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) must be addressed. Specifically, can the same participants learn to induce neural patterns in opposite directions in different sessions? If so, how does previous learning affect subsequent induction effectiveness? These questions are critical because neurofeedback effects can last for months, but the short- to mid-term dynamics of such effects are unknown...
February 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107798/introduction-attention-plasticity
#8
Joseph B Hopfinger
Mechanisms of attention are a prime target for investigating the plasticity of the adult brain, as these core mechanisms act at the intersection of top-down and bottom-up processing, and the wide variety of methods used in attention research can be utilized to elucidate the mechanisms of plasticity. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents three new empirical papers and a discussion paper with peer commentaries. In the first article, Voelker, Sheese and colleagues investigate the influence of genetic variation on the effectiveness of attention training...
January 20, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101479/excessive-daytime-sleepiness-and-sleep-disorders-in-a-population-of-patients-with-epilepsy-a-case-control-study
#9
Matilde Gammino, Leila Zummo, Anna Lo Bue, Lidia Urso, Valeria Terruso, Oreste Marrone, Brigida Fierro, Ornella Daniele
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are several primary causes for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy. Up to now, studies in the literature report conflicting data in terms of both prevalence and aetiology. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of EDS and some sleep disorders in a population of patients with epilepsy treated with no more than two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We also investigated the role of the depression of mood as a variable that can negatively affect EDS...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#10
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080966/active-interoceptive-inference-and-the-emotional-brain
#12
REVIEW
Anil K Seth, Karl J Friston
We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080961/interoception-beyond-homeostasis-affect-cognition-and-mental-health
#13
Manos Tsakiris, Hugo Critchley
Interoception refers to the sensing of the internal state of one's body. Interoception is distinct from the processing of sensory information concerning external (non-self) stimuli (e.g. vision, hearing, touch and smell) and is the afferent axis to internal (autonomic and hormonal) physiological control. However, the impact of interoception extends beyond homeostatic/allostatic reflexes: it is proposed to be fundamental to motivation, emotion (affective feelings and behaviours), social cognition and self-awareness...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070755/social-adversity-and-antisocial-behavior-mediating-effects-of-autonomic-nervous-system-activity
#14
Shawn E Fagan, Wei Zhang, Yu Gao
The display of antisocial behaviors in children and adolescents has been of interest to criminologists and developmental psychologists for years. Exposure to social adversity is a well-documented predictor of antisocial behavior. Additionally, measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and heart rate, have been associated with antisocial behaviors including rule-breaking and aggression. Social neuroscience research has begun to investigate how neurobiological underpinnings affect the relationship between social adversity and antisocial/psychopathic behavior in children and adolescents...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039039/group-comparison-of-cortical-fiber-connectivity-map-an-application-between-post-stroke-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#15
Kai Liu, Teng Zhang, Winnie C W Chu, Vincent C T Mok, Defeng Wang, Lin Shi
Structural connectome measurement combined with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography allows generation of a whole-brain connectome. However, current cortical structural connectivity (SC) measurements have not been well combined with the vertex-wise multi-subjects statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using group comparison vertex-wise analysis for cortical SC measurement. A fiber connectivity density (FiCD) method based on a combination of a diffusion fiber tracking technique and cortical surface-based analysis was used to measure the whole-brain cortical SC map (FiCD map)...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032783/neurological-exclusiveness-or-unified-science-inclusiveness-comment-on-schwartz-et-al-2016
#16
Arthur W Staats
Schwartz, Lilienfeld, Meca, and Sauvigné (2016) argue effectively and productively that neuroscience is monistic (excludes other fields) in a way that affects negatively psychology department makeup, psychology grant support, and the way students are trained. They conclude, rather, that it is important to effect an inclusion of different fields of psychology. This paper broadens and strengthens their position. However, it also points out that a call for inclusiveness raises a central question. How is inclusiveness to be accomplished? Without stipulation to the contrary the call is for an eclecticism...
December 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032321/targeting-the-cerebellum-by-noninvasive-neurostimulation-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Kim van Dun, Florian Bodranghien, Mario Manto, Peter Mariën
Transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation of the brain are novel and highly promising techniques currently employed in both research and clinical practice. Improving or rehabilitating brain functions by modulating excitability with these noninvasive tools is an exciting new area in neuroscience. Since the cerebellum is closely connected with the cerebral regions subserving motor, associative, and affective functions, the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathways are an interesting target for these new techniques...
December 28, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032249/anxiety-and-depressive-symptoms-among-two-seriously-medically-ill-populations-and-their-family-caregivers-a-comparison-and-clinical-implications
#18
Kelly M Shaffer, Jamie M Jacobs, Jessica N Coleman, Jennifer S Temel, Jonathan Rosand, Joseph A Greer, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common among patients with acute illness and their families. In oncology, psychosocial services addressing these symptoms are increasingly part of regular practice. Less is known about psychiatric distress among patients with acute neurological injury (ANI) and their family caregivers. To highlight this inequity in psychosocial intervention across medical services, we compared anxiety and depressive symptomatology shortly following diagnosis among patients facing incurable cancer or ANI and their family caregivers...
December 28, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027954/simulating-social-interactions-for-the-experimental-investigation-of-joint-attention
#19
REVIEW
Nathan Caruana, Genevieve McArthur, Alexandra Woolgar, Jon Brock
Social interactions are, by their nature, dynamic and reciprocal - your behaviour affects my behaviour, which affects your behaviour in return. However, until recently, the field of social cognitive neuroscience has been dominated by paradigms in which participants passively observe social stimuli from a detached "third person" perspective. Here we consider the unique conceptual and methodological challenges involved in adopting a "second person" approach whereby social cognitive mechanisms and their neural correlates are investigated within social interactions (Schilbach et al...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018255/an-affective-neuroscience-framework-for-the-molecular-study-of-internet-addiction
#20
Christian Montag, Cornelia Sindermann, Benjamin Becker, Jaak Panksepp
Internet addiction represents an emerging global health issue. Increasing efforts have been made to characterize risk factors for the development of Internet addiction and consequences of excessive Internet use. During the last years, classic research approaches from psychology considering personality variables as vulnerability factor, especially in conjunction with neuroscience approaches such as brain imaging, have led to coherent theoretical conceptualizations of Internet addiction. Although such conceptualizations can be valuable aid, the research field is currently lacking a comprehensive framework for determining brain-based and neurochemical markers of Internet addiction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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