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Affective neuroscience

Denis Pélisson, Ouazna Habchi, Muriel T N Panouillères, Charles Hernoux, Alessandro Farnè
How movements are continuously adapted to physiological and environmental changes is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. While many studies have elucidated the mechanisms which underlie short-term sensorimotor adaptation (∼10-30 min), how these motor memories are maintained over longer-term (>3-5 days) -and thanks to which neural systems-is virtually unknown. Here, we examine in healthy human participants whether the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is causally involved in the induction and/or the retention of saccadic eye movements' adaptation...
June 19, 2018: NeuroImage
D Mercerón-Martínez, W Almaguer-Melian, E Alberti-Amador, J A Bergado
The relationships between affective and cognitive processes are an important issue of present neuroscience. The amygdala, the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex appear as main players in these mechanisms. We have shown that post-training electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) speeds the acquisition of a motor skill, and produces a recovery in behavioral performance related to spatial memory in fimbria-fornix (FF) lesioned animals. BLA electrical stimulation rises bdnf RNA expression, BDNF protein levels, and arc RNA expression in the hippocampus...
June 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Friederike Barbara Haslbeck, Dirk Bassler
Human and animal studies demonstrate that early auditory experiences influence brain development. The findings are particularly crucial following preterm birth as the plasticity of auditory regions, and cortex development are heavily dependent on the quality of auditory stimulation. Brain maturation in preterm infants may be affected among other things by the overwhelming auditory environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Conversely, auditory deprivation, (e.g., the lack of the regular intrauterine rhythms of the maternal heartbeat and the maternal voice) may also have an impact on brain maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Emma Green, Holly Bennett, Carol Brayne, Fiona E Matthews
BACKGROUND: With declining rates of participation in epidemiological studies there is an important need to attempt to understand what factors might affect response. This study examines the pattern of response at different adult ages within a contemporary cross-sectional population-based cohort, the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN). METHODS: Using logistic regression, we investigated associations between age, gender and Townsend deprivation level for both participants and non-participants...
June 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
Amira M Soliman, Ahmed M Fathalla, Ahmed A Moustafa
Although adenosine plays a key role in multiple motor, affective, and cognitive processes, it has received less attention in the neuroscience field compared to other neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine). In this review, we highlight the role of adenosine in behavior as well as its interaction with other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine. We also discuss brain disorders impacted by alterations to adenosine, and how targeting adenosine can ameliorate Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. We also discuss the role of caffeine (as an adenosine antagonist) on cognition as well as a neuroprotective agent against Parkinson's disease (PD)...
February 3, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Georgia Martha Gkotsi, Jacques Gasser, Valérie Moulin
Various neuroscientific techniques are increasingly being used in criminal courts causing a vivid debate on the way that this kind of techniques will and should be used as scientific evidence. The role of experts in this context is important, since it is them that analyse, present, interpret and communicate the results of these techniques to the judges and the jury. In an attempt to contribute to the discussion about the role of the experts in criminal cases where neuroimaging evidence was introduced, we examined twenty seven cases from the US and Europe...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Susanne P Clinch, Monica Busse, Mariah J Lelos, Anne E Rosser
The basal ganglia are implicated in a wide range of motor, cognitive and behavioral activities required for normal function. This region is predominantly affected in Huntington's disease (HD), meaning that functional ability progressively worsens. However, functional outcome measures for HD, particularly those for the upper limb, are limited meaning there is an imperative for well-defined, quantitative measures. Here we describe the development and evaluation of the Moneybox test (MBT). This novel, functional upper limb assessment was developed in accordance with translational neuroscience and physiological principles for people with a broad disease manifestation, such as HD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ahmad Salimi, Jalal Pourahmad
Recent discoveries have focused on mitochondria functions in the neuroscience research for approaches to study mitochondria dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrion is one of the organelles that is possibly worst affected in cognitive impairments. These are known as "powerhouse" of the cell as they are the main source of generation of ATP through aerobic respiration. They have role in oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism, they play central role in cell differentiation, apoptosis, oxygen sensing and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, innate immunity, mitochondrial matrix calcium, and maintenance of cell quality and regulation of cytoplasmic...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Plínio Luna Albuquerque, Thyciane Mendonça, Mayara Campêlo, Lívia Shirahige, Kátia Monte-Silva
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the available evidence regarding the effects of trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on spinal monosynaptic circuit excitability in healthy individuals. SETTING: Applied Neuroscience Laboratory, Brazil. METHODS: Abstract screening was performed independently by two authors for studies found in the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS...
June 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
Mark Reybrouck, Peter Vuust, Elvira Brattico
Listening to music is above all a human experience, which becomes an aesthetic experience when an individual immerses himself/herself in the music, dedicating attention to perceptual-cognitive-affective interpretation and evaluation. The study of these processes where the individual perceives, understands, enjoys and evaluates a set of auditory stimuli has mainly been focused on the effect of music on specific brain structures, as measured with neurophysiology and neuroimaging techniques. The very recent application of network science algorithms to brain research allows an insight into the functional connectivity between brain regions...
June 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
Agnieszka Nikiforuk
Impaired cognitive functioning is recognized as an integral feature of schizophrenia. These deficits have emerged not only as an important predictor of clinical and social outcomes but also as a target for schizophrenia therapeutics. Several cognitive functions have been identified as being commonly deficient in schizophrenia patients, including attention, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, visual learning and memory or social cognition. The selected neuropsychological tests measuring these specific domains were included in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Leo Honey
A radio programme investigating how a 'rogue' immune system could affect mental health led second-year nursing student at Kingston and St George's University Leo Honey to research the subject further,
June 14, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Zohreh Gholami Doborjeh, Nikola Kasabov, Maryam Gholami Doborjeh, Alexander Sumich
Familiarity of marketing stimuli may affect consumer behaviour at a peri-perceptual processing level. The current study introduces a method for deep learning of electroencephalogram (EEG) data using a spiking neural network (SNN) approach that reveals the complexity of peri-perceptual processes of familiarity. The method is applied to data from 20 participants viewing familiar and unfamiliar logos. The results support the potential of SNN models as novel tools in the exploration of peri-perceptual mechanisms that respond differentially to familiar and unfamiliar stimuli...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mario Manto, Thierry A G M Huisman
The cerebellum is now at the forefront of research in neuroscience. This is not just a coincidence, occurring about 250 years after the first description of the human cerebellum. The cerebellum contains the majority of neurons in the central nervous system and it is heavily connected with almost all cortical and subcortical areas of the supratentorial region as well as with the brainstem and the spinal cord. Cerebellar circuits are embedded in large-scale networks contributing to motor control and neurocognition...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Tiffany C Ho, Emily L Dennis, Paul M Thompson, Ian H Gotlib
Exposure to stress, particularly in periods of rapid brain maturation such as adolescence, can profoundly influence developmental processes that undergird the organization of structural and functional brain networks and that may mediate the association between stressful experiences and maladaptive outcomes. While studies in translational developmental neuroscience often focus on how specific brain regions or targeted connections are altered by stress and psychiatric disease, the emerging field of network science may be especially valuable for elucidating the impact of stress on the intricate connectomics of the adolescent brain...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Md Sahab Uddin, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Asaduzzaman, Fakhrul Hosn, Mohammad Abu Sufian, Shinya Takeda, Oscar Herrera-Calderon, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim, G M Sala Uddin, Md Ali Asif Noor, Mst Marium Begum, Md Tanvir Kabir, Sonia Zaman, Md Shahid Sarwar, Md Mosiqur Rahman, Md Rajdoula Rafe, Md Farhad Hossain, Md Sarwar Hossain, Mohammed Ashraful Iqbal, Md Ataur Rahman Sujan
Background: Neurological disorders represent one of the most prominent causes of morbidity and mortality that adversely affect the lifestyle of patients and a major percentage of these diseases exists in developing countries. Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and prescription pattern for outpatients with neurological disorders in Bangladesh. Methods: The study was conducted on 1,684 patients in 6 hospitals (National Institute of Neurosciences and Hospital, Dhaka Medical College and Hospital, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College, Sir Salimullah Medical College, and Apollo Hospitals Dhaka) of the Dhaka City from March 2014 to June 2015...
April 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
Christian Hohenfeld, Cornelius J Werner, Kathrin Reetz
Biomarkers in whichever modality are tremendously important in diagnosing of disease, tracking disease progression and clinical trials. This applies in particular for disorders with a long disease course including pre-symptomatic stages, in which only subtle signs of clinical progression can be observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers hold particular promise due to their relative ease of use, cost-effectiveness and non-invasivity. Studies measuring resting-state functional MR connectivity have become increasingly common during recent years and are well established in neuroscience and related fields...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Julia Schmidt, Cristina Rubino, Lara A Boyd, Naznin Virji-Babul
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Concussion is a major public health concern and one of the least understood neurological injuries. Children and youth are disproportionally affected by concussion, and once injured, take longer to recover. Current guidelines recommend a period of physical and cognitive rest with a gradual progressive return to activity. Although there is limited high-quality evidence (eg, randomized controlled trials) on the benefit of physical activity and exercise after concussion, most studies report a positive impact of exercise in facilitating recovery after concussion...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Gregory Corder, Daniel C Castro, Michael R Bruchas, Grégory Scherrer
Opioids are the most commonly used and effective analgesic treatments for severe pain, but they have recently come under scrutiny owing to epidemic levels of abuse and overdose. These compounds act on the endogenous opioid system, which comprises four G protein-coupled receptors (mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin) and four major peptide families (β-endorphin, enkephalins, dynorphins, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ). In this review, we first describe the functional organization and pharmacology of the endogenous opioid system...
May 31, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Anthony Feinstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides a broad overview of conversion disorder, encompassing diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiologic theories, functional neuroimaging findings, outcome data, prognostic indicators, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Two important changes have been made to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria: the criteria that conversion symptoms must be shown to be involuntary and occurring as the consequence of a recent stressor have been dropped...
June 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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