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Chunhua Deng, Zhichao Zhang, Hongjun Li, Peng Bai, Xian Cao, Adrian Sandra Dobs
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between cardiovascular disease risk factors, including fasting glucose, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), LDL-c, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), C-peptide, creatinine kinase, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, C-reactive protein as well as homocysteine levels and cardiovascular events. METHODS: Data from 1545 men aged ≥40 years, with testosterone deficiency (TD) (<300 ng/dL) and non-TD (≥300 ng/dL) which were extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database 2011-2012 and analyzed...
June 20, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Ursula Wierer, Simona Arrighi, Stefano Bertola, Günther Kaufmann, Benno Baumgarten, Annaluisa Pedrotti, Patrizia Pernter, Jacques Pelegrin
The Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old glacier mummy recovered at the Tisenjoch (South Tyrol, Italy) together with his clothes and personal equipment, represents a unique opportunity for prehistoric research. The present work examines the Iceman's tools which are made from chert or are related to chert working - dagger, two arrowheads, endscraper, borer, small flake and antler retoucher - and considers also the arrowhead still embedded in the shoulder of the mummy. The interdisciplinary results achieved by study of the lithic raw material, technology, use-wear analysis, CT analysis and typology all add new information to Ötzi's individual history and his last days, and allow insights into the way of life of Alpine Copper Age communities...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer L Stewart, John J B Allen
This longitudinal pilot study examined whether baseline resting frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry correlates with depressive symptoms during the most impaired two-week period in the following year. Current-source-density (CSD) transformed resting frontal EEG asymmetry, severity of depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - II), and stress (indexed by negative life events; NLE) were recorded in never-depressed young adults with no current DSM-IV diagnosis (38 women, 16 men) at baseline. One year later, depression symptoms and NLEs experienced during the interim were assessed...
June 16, 2018: Biological Psychology
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Several studies reported that the majority of deaths in HIV-infected people are documented in their early antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow-ups. Early mortality refers to death of people on ART for follow up period of below 24 months due to any cause. The current study assessed predictors of early HIV mortality in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: We have conducted a retrospective analysis of 5299 patient records dating from June 2003- March 2015. To estimate survival time and compare the time to event among the different groups of patients, we used a Kaplan Meir curve and log-rank test...
2018: PloS One
Pedro F Amorim, Wilson J E M Costa
The high diversity of Neotropical fishes has been attributed to major South American palaeogeographic events, such as Andean uplift, rise of the Isthmus of Panama and marine transgressions. However, the unavailability of temporal information about evolution and diversification of some fish groups prevents the establishment of robust hypotheses about correlations between species diversification and proposed palaeogeographical events. One example is the Anablepidae, a family of teleost fishes found mostly in coastal habitats of Central and South America, but also in some inner river basins of South America...
2018: PloS One
Connie Lamm, Sonya Troller-Renfree, Charles H Zeanah, Charles A Nelson, Nathan A Fox
Institutional rearing is associated with deficits in executive functions, such as inhibitory control, and may contribute to later externalizing behavior problems. In the current study, we explored the impact of institutional rearing on attention in the context of inhibiting a planned action. As part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), children were randomized to either remain in the institutions in which they lived (Care as Usual Group) or be placed into foster family homes (Foster Care Group)...
June 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Alexandra B Columbus, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, William R Berry, Adil H Haider, Ali Salim, Joaquim M Havens
BACKGROUND: Emergency general surgery (EGS) is characterized by high rates of morbidity and mortality. Though checklists and associated communication-based huddle strategies have improved outcomes, these tools have never been specifically examined in EGS. We hypothesized that use of an evidence-based communication tool aimed to trigger intraoperative discussion could improve communication in the EGS operating room (OR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a set of discussion prompts based on modifiable factors identified from previously published studies aimed to encourage all team members to speak up and to centralize awareness of patient disposition and intraoperative transfusion practices...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Fidelia A A Dake, Kamil Fuseini
BACKGROUND: The birth of a child is a vital event that needs to be registered but this is not always the case as an estimated 40 million births go unregistered annually. Birth registration safeguards the basic rights of children and gives them an identity, citizenship/nationality and legal protection against violence, abuse and human rights violations. It is therefore necessary that all births are registered and even more critical that the registration of a birth is followed by the issuance of a birth certificate...
June 13, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
S M Iftekhar Uddin, Mohammadhassan Mirbolouk, Zeina Dardari, David I Feldman, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Andrew P DeFilippis, Philip Greenland, Ron Blankstein, Kevin L Billups, Martin Miner, Khurram Nasir, Michael J Blaha
Vascular erectile dysfunction (ED) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share common risk factors including obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. ED and CVD also have common underlying pathological mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.1 Despite these close relationships, the evidence documenting ED as an independent predictor of future CVD events is limited.We therefore leveraged the MESA study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), an ethnically diverse, community-based, multisite prospective cohort study, to examine the value of self-reported ED for predicting incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and CVD in those free of these CVD events at baseline...
June 11, 2018: Circulation
Allan Pinto Leal, Raquel Soares Oliveira, Ana Paula Artusi Perin, Bruna Trindade Borges, Patrícia de Brum Vieira, Tiago Gomes Dos Santos, Lúcia Vinadé, Chiara Valsecchi, Cháriston André Dal Belo
Rhinella icterica is a poisonous toad whose toxic secretion has never been studied against entomotoxic potential. Sublethal doses of Rhinella icterica toxic secretion (RITS) were assayed in Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches, in order to understand the physiological and behavioral parameters, over the insect central and peripheral nervous system. RITS (10 μg/g) injections, induced behavioral impairment as evidenced by a significant decrease (38 ± 14%) in the distance traveled (p < .05), followed by an increase (90 ± 6%) of immobile episodes (p < ...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Matina Kouvari, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Christina Chrysohoou, Ekavi Georgousopoulou, Venetia Notara, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Christos Pitsavos, The Attica Greecs Studies Investigators
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle remains a huge driving force of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) onset/progression. Lifestyle-patterns are highly dependent on gender-related attitudes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gender-specific association of lifestyle-related factors (adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), physical activity (PA), smoking) on 10-year first and recurrent CVD events. METHOD: Two prospective studies, the ATTICA (2002-2012, n=3,042 subjects free-of-CVD) and GREECS (2004-2014, n=2,172 subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)) were used...
June 8, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Brandon H Schlomann
A central problem in population ecology is understanding the consequences of stochastic fluctuations. Analytically tractable models with Gaussian driving noise have led to important, general insights, but they fail to capture rare, catastrophic events, which are increasingly observed at scales ranging from global fisheries to intestinal microbiota. Due to mathematical challenges, growth processes with random catastrophes are less well characterized and it remains unclear how their consequences differ from those of Gaussian processes...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
John R Giudicessi, Michael J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) may be the sentinel expression of a sudden cardiac death-predisposing genetic heart disease (GHD). Although shown to underlie many unexplained SCAs in the young, the contribution of GHDs to sentinel SCA has never been quantified across the age spectrum. Thus, we sought to determine the contribution of GHDs in single-center referral cohort of non-ischemic SCA survivors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective analysis of 3037 patients was used to identify all individuals who experienced a sentinel event of SCA...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Therdpong Tempark, Suparuj Lueangarun, Susheera Chatproedprai, Ratchathorn Panchaprateep, Marisa Pongprutthipan, Siriwan Wananukul
BACKGROUND: Limited data of sun protection knowledge in laser treatment patients exists therefore, preventative information should be provided by dermatologists to minimize harmful effects. OBJECTIVE: To assess sun protection knowledge-behavior and knowledge to prevent adverse events from laser therapy among patients who visited a laser clinic at a tertiary university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. METHODS: This is a self-reported questionnaire, cross-sectional survey...
June 8, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Olivier Gaudin, Vannina Seta, Marina Alexandre, Gérôme Bohelay, Françoise Aucouturier, Sabine Mignot-Grootenboer, Saskia Ingen-Housz-Oro, Céline Bernardeschi, Pierre Schneider, Benoît Mellottee, Frédéric Caux, Catherine Prost-Squarcioni
Mucous membrane pemphigoids (MMPs) and bullous pemphigoid (BP) are autoimmune bullous diseases that share physiopathological features: both can result from autoantibodies directed against BP180 or BP230 antigens. An association has been reported between BP and intake of gliptins, which are dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical and immunological differences have been reported between gliptin-induced BPs and classical BPs: mucosal involvement, non-inflammatory lesions, and target BP180 epitopes other than the NC16A domain...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy. Infections and vaccines have been hypothesized to play a role in triggering GBS development. These beliefs can play a role in reducing vaccination coverage. In this report, data concerning this hypothesis are discussed. It is shown that an association between vaccine administration and GBS has never been proven for most of debated vaccines, although it cannot be definitively excluded. The only exception is the influenza vaccine, at least for the preparation used in 1976...
June 4, 2018: Vaccine
Angela R Branche, Hongmei Yang, James Java, Jeanne Wiltse-Holden, David J Topham, Michael Peasley, Michael R Frost, Moon H Nahm, Ann R Falsey
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcus is a commensal of the upper respiratory tract and colonization is common in young children. Carriage studies have provided insights on vaccine effects in children and may also be useful for assessing vaccines in adults. However, culture based prevalence studies in older adults describe low colonization rates. Therefore, we assessed cumulative incidence of pneumococcal colonization in older adults using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the lytA gene and risk factors for carriage...
June 2, 2018: Vaccine
Yoshimasa Hirashima, Daisuke Okada, Shoichi Shibata, Shu Yoshida, Shoichiro Fujisono, Tsutomu Omatsu, Tetsuya Mizutani, Makoto Nagai
While neurotropic bovine astroviruses (BoAstVs) have been identified in North America and Europe, their presence has never been reported in Asia. In this study, we detected BoAstV in the brain of a steer showing neurological signs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified virus belongs to the Virginia/Human-Mink-Ovine clade, which contains most of the neurotropic astroviruses including the neurotropic BoAstVs. Similarity plot analysis showed that the virus was closely related to the American BoAstV NeuroS1 strain with respect to the ORF regions and to the European BoAstV CH13 strain in the 3' untranslated region, suggesting the occurrence of intra-genotypic recombination events...
June 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
Birte Moeller, Christian Frings
Many accounts of human action control assume bindings between features of stimuli and responses of individual events. One widely accepted assumption about these bindings is that they do not contain temporal-order representations regarding the integrated elements. Even though several theories either explicitly or implicitly include it, this assumption has never been tested directly. One reason for this lack of evidence is likely that typical stimulus-response binding paradigms are inapt for such a test. Adapting a new paradigm of response-response binding to include order switches between response integration and retrieval, we were able to analyze possible representation of order information in bindings for the first time...
June 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Munish K Heer, David Clark, Paul R Trevillian, Philip Sprott, Kerrin Palazzi, Adrian D Hibberd
BACKGROUND: Lymphocele development following renal transplantation is a significant adverse event. It may cause acute graft dysfunction or venous obstruction. There are no consistent risk factors reported in literature. Perioperative fluid balance may lead to increased lymphocele formation and has never been studied. We aimed to analyse incidence and risk factors for lymphocele formation. We hypothesized that overhydration in perioperative period is a risk factor. METHODS: We analysed 250 consecutive renal transplant recipients from 2006 to 2014...
June 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
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