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David A Kroodsma, Juan Mayorga, Timothy Hochberg, Nathan A Miller, Kristina Boerder, Francesco Ferretti, Alex Wilson, Bjorn Bergman, Timothy D White, Barbara A Block, Paul Woods, Brian Sullivan, Christopher Costello, Boris Worm
Although fishing is one of the most widespread activities by which humans harvest natural resources, its global footprint is poorly understood and has never been directly quantified. We processed 22 billion automatic identification system messages and tracked >70,000 industrial fishing vessels from 2012 to 2016, creating a global dynamic footprint of fishing effort with spatial and temporal resolution two to three orders of magnitude higher than for previous data sets. Our data show that industrial fishing occurs in >55% of ocean area and has a spatial extent more than four times that of agriculture...
February 23, 2018: Science
Yasuhiko Kubota, Mary Cushman, Neil Zakai, Wayne D Rosamond, Aaron R Folsom
TV viewing is associated with risk of arterial vascular diseases, but has not been evaluated in relation to venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in Western populations. In 1987-1989, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study obtained information on the frequency of TV viewing in participants aged 45-64 and followed them prospectively. In individuals free of prebaseline VTE (n = 15, 158), we used a Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident VTE according to frequency of TV viewing ("Never or seldom", "Sometimes", "Often" or "Very often")...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Bei-Bei Yang, Hua Xiao, Xiao-Jie Li, Min Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rhupus without using corticosteroids. METHODS: Twenty rhupus patients [meeting the criteria for both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)] who had never been treated with corticosteroids, DMARDs, or biological agents with a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) >3.2 and lupus nephritis determined from histopathological specimens were enrolled...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
Roos M van der Vuurst de Vries, Julia Y Mescheriakova, Tessel F Runia, Theodora A M Siepman, Beatrijs H A Wokke, Johnny P A Samijn, Rogier Q Hintzen
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a modifiable risk factor that influences the disease course of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), there are conflicting results about the association between smoking and the risk of a subsequent MS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of clinically definite MS (CDMS) in smoking and non-smoking patients at time of a first demyelinating event. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty patients, aged 18-50 years, were included in our prospective CIS cohort...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Michael Shapiro, Yair Levy
Objectives: To examine the independent effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment on cardiovascular morbidity among RA patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of RA patients treated at Meir medical center between 2003-2013 was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups, those who had been treated with HCQ during the course of their disease and those who had never received it. The two groups were compared for possible confounding factors...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
G David Batty, Keum Ji Jung, Yejin Mok, Sun Ju Lee, Joung Hwan Back, Sunmi Lee, Sun Ha Jee
Aims Systematic reviews report an association between poorer oral health and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. This contentious relationship may not be causal but existing studies have been insufficiently well powered comprehensively to examine the role of confounding, particularly by cigarette smoking. Accordingly, we sought to examine the role of smoking in generating the relationship between oral health and coronary heart disease in life-long non-smokers. Methods and results In the Korean Cancer Prevention Study, 975,685 individuals (349,579 women) aged 30-95 years had an oral examination when tooth loss, a widely used indicator of oral health, was ascertained...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Oronzo Capozzi, Roscoe Stanyon, Nicoletta Archidiacono, Takafumi Ishida, Svetlana A Romanenko, Mariano Rocchi
Sex/autosome translocations are rare events. The only known example in catarrhines is in the silvered-leaf monkey. Here the Y chromosome was reciprocally translocated with chromosome 1. The rearrangement produced an X1 X2 Y1 Y2 sex chromosome system. At least three chromosomal variants of the intact chromosome 1 are known to exist. We characterized in high resolution the translocation products (Y1 and Y2 ) and the polymorphic forms of the intact chromosome 1 with a panel of more than 150 human BAC clones. We showed that the translocation products were extremely rearranged, in contrast to the high level of marker order conservation of the other silvered-leaf monkey chromosomes...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alon Hafri, John C Trueswell, Brent Strickland
A crucial component of event recognition is understanding event roles, i.e. who acted on whom: boy hitting girl is different from girl hitting boy. We often categorize Agents (i.e. the actor) and Patients (i.e. the one acted upon) from visual input, but do we rapidly and spontaneously encode such roles even when our attention is otherwise occupied? In three experiments, participants observed a continuous sequence of two-person scenes and had to search for a target actor in each (the male/female or red/blue-shirted actor) by indicating with a button press whether the target appeared on the left or the right...
February 16, 2018: Cognition
Debora Rapaport, Boris Fichtman, Hilla Weidberg, Eli Sprecher, Mia Horowitz
Intracellular membrane fusion depends on the presence of specific mediators, the vesicle (v-) and the target (t-) SNAREs (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, NSF, attachment protein SNAP receptors), whose interaction brings apposing membranes to close proximity and initiates their fusion. SNAP29 (synaptosomal-associated protein 29), a t-SNARE protein, is involved in multiple fusion events during intracellular transport and affects structure of organelles such as the Golgi apparatus and focal adhesions...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Emiliano A Rodríguez-Caulo, Ana Guijarro-Contreras, Juan Otero-Forero, María José Mataró, Gemma Sánchez-Espín, Arantza Guzón, Carlos Porras, Miguel Such, Antonio Ordóñez, José María Melero-Tejedor, Manuel Jiménez-Navarro
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, the use of ministernotomy in cardiac surgery has increased. Quality of life and patient satisfaction after ministernotomy have never been compared to conventional full sternotomy in randomised trials. The aim of the study is to determine if this minimally invasive approach improves quality of life, satisfaction and clinical morbimortality outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: The QUALITY-AVR trial is a single-blind, single-centre, independent, and pragmatic randomised clinical trial comparing ministernotomy ("J" shaped upper hemisternotomy toward right 4th intercostal space) to full sternotomy in patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis scheduled for elective aortic valve replacement...
February 17, 2018: Trials
Ype de Jong, Rhiannon B van Loenhout, Dingeman J Swank, Casper L Jansen, Bastiaan J Sorgdrager
We describe a case of polymicrobial bacterial pericarditis with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis , caused by pericardial penetration of the tip of the catheter of a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB). The patient developed a cardiac tamponade, and subsequently emergency pericardiocentesis was performed. Analysis of earlier CT scans showed that the tip of the catheter had migrated through the liver and through the diaphragm into the pericardium, and was in contact with the myocardium. After stabilisation he was operated to remove the LAGB...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Martina Radner, Annette Henry
We report about an infant who was diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (Werdnig-Hoffmann) at the age of 7 weeks. In a detailed discussion with the physicians the parents decided against mechanical ventilation in the event of either acute or chronical respiratory failure. During care at home all palliative actions were taken to optimize the quality of life for the child. The boy died at the age of 7 months at home. Whether continuous mechanical ventilation in a child with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 should be the individual decision of the parents or whether it should never be offered by the physicians is discussed controversially in the present medical literature...
February 15, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Claudio R Lazzari, Aurélie Fauquet, Chloé Lahondère
Kissing bugs possess a highly developed thermal sense and when starved, they attempt to bite any object which temperature is close to that of a warm-blooded host. At each feeding event, these insects take massive meals in just a few minutes. One could then expect fed-bugs being heated-up by the ingested warm blood and so becoming attractive to starved conspecifics. This is not however the case, arising the question about why cannibalism is very rare among these insects. Recently, the ability of thermoregulating during feeding has been demonstrated in Rhodnius prolixus...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Mark I Evans, Robert D Eden, David W Britt, Shara M Evans, Barry S Schifrin
BACKGROUND: Even Key Opinion leaders now concede that electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) cannot reliably identify fetal acidemia which many vouch as the only labor mediated pathophysiologic precursor for cerebral palsy (CP). We have developed the "Fetal Reserve Index" - an algorithm combining five dynamic components of EFM (1. Rate, 2. Variability, 3. Accelerations, 4. Decelerations, and 5. Excessive uterine activity) considered individually that are combined with the presence of: 6...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Firas Al-Kawas, Harry Aslanian, John Baillie, Filip Banovac, Jonathan M Buscaglia, James Buxbaum, Amitabh Chak, Bradford Chong, Gregory A Coté, Peter V Draganov, Kulwinder Dua, Valerie Durkalski, B Joseph Elmunzer, Lydia D Foster, Timothy B Gardner, Brian S Geller, Priya Jamidar, Laith H Jamil, Rajesh N Keswani, Mouen A Khashab, Gabriel D Lang, Ryan Law, David Lichtenstein, Simon K Lo, Sean McCarthy, Silvio Melo, Daniel Mullady, Jose Nieto, J Bayne Selby, Vikesh K Singh, Rebecca L Spitzer, Brian Strife, Paul Tarnaksy, Jason R Taylor, Jeffrey Tokar, Andrew Y Wang, April Williams, Field Willingham, Patrick Yachimski
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to the drainage of malignant obstruction at the liver hilum remains uncertain. We aim to compare percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) to endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) as the first intervention in patients with cholestasis due to suspected malignant hilar obstruction (MHO). METHODS: The INTERCPT trial is a multi-center, comparative effectiveness, randomized, superiority trial of PTBD vs. ERC for decompression of suspected MHO...
February 14, 2018: Trials
Tianwen Lai, Yanyu Li, Zongjiong Mai, Xiaoxia Wen, Yingying Lv, Zhanqing Xie, Quanchao Lv, Min Chen, Dong Wu, Bin Wu
Purpose: Fibrosis in peripheral airways is responsible for airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Annexin A1 modulates several key biological events during inflammation. However, little is known about its role in airway fibrosis in COPD. We investigated whether levels of Annexin A1 were upregulated in patients with COPD, and whether it promoted airway fibrosis. Methods: We quantified serum Annexin A1 levels in never-smokers (n=12), smokers without COPD (n=11), and smokers with COPD (n=22)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Mickael Bonin, Nathan Mewton, Francois Roubille, Olivier Morel, Guillaume Cayla, Denis Angoulvant, Meyer Elbaz, Marc J Claeys, David Garcia-Dorado, Céline Giraud, Gilles Rioufol, Claire Jossan, Michel Ovize, Patrice Guerin
BACKGROUND: Morphine is commonly used to treat chest pain during myocardial infarction, but its effect on cardiovascular outcome has never been directly evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect and safety of morphine in patients with acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction followed up for 1 year. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the database of the CIRCUS (Does Cyclosporine Improve Outcome in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients) trial, which included 969 patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, admitted for primary percutaneous coronary intervention...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
T Leclercq, N Peake, E de Langre
The static reconfiguration of flexible beams exposed to transverse flows is classically known to reduce the drag these structures have to withstand. But the more a structure bends, the more parallel to the flow it becomes, and flexible beams in axial flows are prone to a flutter instability that is responsible for large inertial forces that drastically increase their drag. It is, therefore, unclear whether flexibility would still alleviate, or on the contrary enhance, the drag when flapping occurs on a reconfiguring structure...
January 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Fernanda C C Marcos, Neidiquele M Silveira, João B Mokochinski, Alexandra C H F Sawaya, Paulo E R Marchiori, Eduardo C Machado, Gustavo M Souza, Marcos G A Landell, Rafael V Ribeiro
Under field conditions, plants are exposed to cycles of dehydration and rehydration during their lifespan. In this study, we hypothesized that sugarcane plants previously exposed to cycles of water deficits will perform better than plants that have never faced water deficits when both are subjected to low water availability. Sugarcane plants were grown in a nutrient solution and exposed to one (1WD), two (2WD) or three (3WD) water deficit cycles. As the reference, plants were grown in a nutrient solution without adding polyethylene glycol...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Menton M Deweese, Maurizio Codispoti, Jason D Robinson, Paul M Cinciripini, Francesco Versace
BACKGROUND: While the notion that smokers reliably show higher reactivity to cigarette-related versus neutral cues is both theoretically and empirically supported, it is unclear why never-smokers also show enhanced brain responses to cigarette-related cues. METHODS: Using a repetitive picture viewing paradigm, in which responses evoked by affective cues are more resistant to habituation, we assessed the effects of stimulus repetition on event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by pleasant, unpleasant, cigarette-related, and neutral images in 34 smokers (SMO) and 34 never-smokers (NEV)...
February 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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