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Qualitative methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914078/computer-vision-based-image-analysis-of-bacteria
#1
Jonas Danielsen, Pontus Nordenfelt
Microscopy is an essential tool for studying bacteria, but is today mostly used in a qualitative or possibly semi-quantitative manner often involving time-consuming manual analysis. It also makes it difficult to assess the importance of individual bacterial phenotypes, especially when there are only subtle differences in features such as shape, size, or signal intensity, which is typically very difficult for the human eye to discern. With computer vision-based image analysis - where computer algorithms interpret image data - it is possible to achieve an objective and reproducible quantification of images in an automated fashion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913556/how-does-age-related-macular-degeneration-affect-real-world-visual-ability-and-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review
#2
Deanna J Taylor, Angharad E Hobby, Alison M Binns, David P Crabb
OBJECTIVES: To review systematically the evidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affecting real-world visual ability and quality of life (QoL). To explore trends in specific topics within this body of the literature. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES and Health and Psychosocial Instruments for articles published up to January 2015 for studies including people diagnosed with AMD, assessing real-world visual ability or QoL as an outcome...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913344/perceptual-image-fusion-using-wavelets
#3
Paul Hill, Mohammed Ebrahim Al-Mualla, David Bull
A perceptual image fusion method is proposed that employs explicit luminance and contrast masking models. These models are combined to give the perceptual importance of each coefficient produced by the Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform of each input image. This combined model of perceptual importance is used to select which coefficients are retained and furthermore to determine how to present the retained information in the most effective way. This work is the first to give a principled approach to image fusion from a perceptual perspective...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913246/measuring-content-overlap-during-handoff-communication-using-distributional-semantics-an-exploratory-study
#4
Joanna Abraham, Thomas Kannampallil, Vignesh Srinivasan, William Galanter, Gail Tagney, Trevor Cohen
OBJECTIVE: We develop and evaluate a methodological approach to measure the degree and nature of overlap in handoff communication content within and across clinical professions. This extensible, exploratory approach relies on combining techniques from conversational analysis and distributional semantics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We audio-recorded handoff communication of residents and nurses on the General Medicine floor of a large academic hospital (n=120 resident and n=120 nurse handoffs)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913114/the-role-of-pharmacists-in-caring-for-young-people-with-chronic-illness
#5
Nicola J Gray, Karen L Shaw, Felicity J Smith, Jonathan Burton, Julie Prescott, Rachel Roberts, David Terry, Janet E McDonagh
PURPOSE: To explore the perceived and potential roles of pharmacists in the care of young people aged 10-24 years with chronic illness, through the exemplar of juvenile arthritis, from the perspectives of UK community and hospital pharmacists, health service commissioners, rheumatology health professionals, and lay advocates. METHODS: A sequential mixed methods study design comprises the following: focus groups with community and hospital pharmacists; telephone interviews with pharmacy and rheumatology stakeholders and commissioners; and multidisciplinary group discussions to prioritize roles generated by the first two qualitative phases...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912744/quality-of-life-after-stroke-in-pakistan
#6
Wardah Khalid, Shafquat Rozi, Tazeen Saeed Ali, Iqbal Azam, Michael T Mullen, Saleem Illyas, Qamar Un-Nisa, Nabila Soomro, Ayeesha Kamran Kamal
BACKGROUND: There is very little information about the quality of life (QOL) of stroke survivors in LMIC countries with underdeveloped non communicable health infrastructures, who bear two thirds of the global stroke burden. METHODOLOGY: We used a sequential mix methods approach. First, a quantitative analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 700 participants, who constituted 350 stroke survivor and their caregiver dyads. QOL of stroke survivor was assessed via Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SSQOLS) whereas QOL of caregivers was assessed through RAND-36...
December 3, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912142/how-do-individuals-value-health-states-a-qualitative-investigation
#7
M Karimi, J Brazier, S Paisley
Despite the importance of health state values in informing resource allocation in health care, there is arguably little known about how individuals value health. Previous studies have shown that a variety of non-health factors and beliefs are important in valuing health, but there is less evidence in the literature about how individuals' beliefs affect their preferences or what role non-health factors play in the process of forming preferences. This study investigated the thought processes of 21 U.K. based participants in March 2013 who valued health states using semi-structured interviews and a think-aloud protocol, with the aim to better understand the relationship between health states, the individual's underlying beliefs, and the individual's preferences...
November 22, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911959/barriers-to-timely-and-safe-blood-transfusion-for-pph-patients-evidence-from-a-qualitative-study-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#8
Sadika Akhter, Iqbal Anwar, Rashida Akter, Feroza Akhter Kumkum, Monjura Khatun Nisha, Fatema Ashraf, Ferdousi Islam, Nazneen Begum, Mahbub Elahi Chowdhury, Anne Austin, Syed Shariful Islam, Aminur Rahman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Bangladesh, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality accounting for 31% of all blood transfusions in the country. Although safe blood transfusion is one of the 8 signal functions of Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC) strategy, most of the designated public sector CEmOC facilities do not have on-site blood storage system. Emergent blood is mainly available from external blood banks. As a result, emergent patients are to rely on an unregulated network of brokers for blood which may raise question about blood safety...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911035/content-validity-of-the-credibility-and-expectancy-questionnaire-in-a-pain-rehabilitation-setting
#9
Vera-Christina Mertens, Albine Moser, Jeanine Verbunt, Rob Smeets, Mariëlle Goossens
: Content validity, the proper reflection of the concept to be measured, is yet unknown for the Credibility and Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ). It is frequently used in pain rehabilitation because treatment expectancy is influential on the outcome. OBJECTIVE: To test and improve the content validity of the CEQ in a sample of patients with chronic pain in different phases of their treatment. METHODS: A qualitative observational study design using the Three-Step Test-Interview method was used...
December 2, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910757/free-radical-scavenging-activities-of-cultured-mycelia-of-paecilomyces-hepiali-ascomycetes-extracts-and-structural-characterization-of-bioactive-components-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#10
Lucia Ungvarska Mal'ucka, Jarmila Harvanova, Martin Pavlik, Martin Rajtar, Lukas Jarosciak
Current research is focused on testing the cultivation of Paecilomyces hepiali mycelia on various plant substrates and producing fungus or mycelial biomass with qualitatively interesting substances. P. hepiali mycelia was cultivated using solid-state fermentation of different substrates. Mycelial biomass was then analyzed, and antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging method for different ethanolic extracts based on a millet substrate (extract 1) or a chickpea substrate (extract 2)...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910099/physician-engagement-strategies-in-care-coordination-findings-from-the-centers-for-medicare-medicaid-services-health-care-innovation-awards-program
#11
Megan Skillman, Caitlin Cross-Barnet, Rachel Friedman Singer, Sarah Ruiz, Christina Rotondo, Roy Ahn, Lynne Page Snyder, Erin M Colligan, Katherine Giuriceo, Adil Moiduddin
OBJECTIVE: To identify roles physicians assumed as part of new health care delivery models and related strategies that facilitated physician engagement across 21 Health Care Innovation Award (HCIA) programs. DATA SOURCES: Site-level in-depth interviews, conducted from 2014 to 2015 (N = 672) with program staff, leadership, and partners (including 95 physicians) and direct observations. STUDY DESIGN: NORC conducted a mixed-method evaluation, including two rounds of qualitative data collected via site visits and telephone interviews...
December 2, 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909516/the-role-of-noacs-in-atrial-fibrillation-management-a-qualitative-study
#12
Katherine Kirley Md Ms, Goutham Rao Md, Victoria Bauer Bs, Christopher Masi Md PhD
Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) benefit from anticoagulation to reduce stroke risk. However, 30-60% of patients with AF are not anticoagulated. This study explored physicians' reasons for under-treatment of AF, focusing on the role of the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs). We interviewed primary care physicians and cardiologists involved in AF management in a variety of practice settings. We conducted interviews using a semi-structured format and analyzed the data using the Framework Method. Four themes emerged...
June 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909379/-it-is-an-eye-opener-that-there-is-a-relationship-between-rehabilitation-and-hiv-perspectives-of-physiotherapists-and-occupational-therapists-in-kenya-and-zambia-on-the-role-of-rehabilitation-with-adults-and-children-living-with-hiv
#13
Stephanie Nixon, Cathy Cameron, Margaret Mweshi, Esther Munalula Nkandu, Carlius Okidi, Stephen Tattle, Tammy Yates
Purpose: To present the perspectives of rehabilitation providers-physiotherapists and occupational therapists-in Kenya and Zambia on the role of rehabilitation in the care of adults and children living with HIV. Methods: This qualitative, interpretivist study was part of a broader project to adapt a Canadian e-module on HIV-related disability for rehabilitation providers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Focus groups, demographic questionnaires, and knowledge-attitude-belief surveys were conducted with rehabilitation providers in Kenya and Zambia...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909365/interviewers-experiences-with-two-multiple-mini-interview-scoring-methods-used-for-admission-to-a-master-of-physical-therapy-programme
#14
Ina van der Spuy, Angela Busch, Julia Bidonde
Purpose: To describe participants' attitudes, beliefs, and experiences with the use of two methods of scoring the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) for admission to a Master of Physical Therapy program: a rank-based scoring system (RBS; used from 2007 to 2013) and a criterion-based scoring system (CBS; tested in 2014). The MMI uses short independent assessments to obtain an aggregate score of candidates' professionalism and interpersonal skills, based on behavioural questions within scenarios that assess one attribute at a time...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909363/evidence-of-reliability-validity-and-practicality-for-the-canadian-physiotherapy-assessment-of-clinical-performance
#15
Brenda Mori, Kathleen E Norman, Dina Brooks, Jodi Herold, Dorcas E Beaton
Purpose: To investigate the internal consistency, construct validity, and practicality of the Canadian Physiotherapy Assessment of Clinical Performance (ACP), a descriptive measure used by physiotherapy students and their clinical instructors (CIs) at the mid- and endpoints of an internship to describe the students' behaviours as observed in the clinical education setting relative to what might be expected of an entry-level physiotherapist. Methods: This multi-centre study piloted the ACP in 10 university physiotherapy (PT) programmes...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909361/an-exploration-of-canadian-physiotherapists-decisions-about-whether-to-supervise-physiotherapy-students-results-from-a-national-survey
#16
Mark Hall, Cheryl Poth, Patricia Manns, Lauren Beaupre
Purpose: To explore Canadian physiotherapists' perceptions of the factors that influence their decisions whether to supervise students in clinical placements. Methods: Using accepted survey development methodology, a survey was developed and administered to 18,110 physiotherapists to identify which factors contribute to the decision to supervise students. The survey also gave respondents opportunities to provide comments; these were analyzed via directed content analysis, using the factors identified in an exploratory factor analysis as an organizing structure...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909260/prioritizing-and-funding-nepal-s-multisector-nutrition-plan
#17
Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Madhukar B Shrestha, Monica Biradavolu, Kusum Hachhethu, Robin Houston, Indu Sharma, Jolene Wun
BACKGROUND: Nepal has a long tradition of designing good multisectoral nutrition policy. However, success of policy implementation has varied. More evidence on how to successfully carry out multisector nutrition policy is needed. OBJECTIVE: We tracked the influence of Nepal's multisectoral nutrition plan (MSNP) on the process of priority setting and budgeting from 2014 to 2016. METHODS: This study used a mixed-method longitudinal design to track qualitative and budgetary changes related to MSNP processes nationally as well as in 3 districts...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909258/prioritizing-and-funding-the-uganda-nutrition-action-plan
#18
Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Alexis D'Agostino, Nancy Adero, Hannah Foehringer Merchant, Abel Muzoora, Ezekiel Mupere, Edgar Agaba, Lidan Du
BACKGROUND: In 2010, Uganda began developing its first multisectoral nutrition plan, the Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP), to reduce malnutrition. While the UNAP signals high-level commitment to addressing nutrition, knowledge gaps remain about how to successfully implement such a plan. OBJECTIVE: We tracked the UNAP's influence on the process of priority setting and funding for nutrition from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal mixed methods design to track qualitative and budgetary changes related to UNAP processes nationally as well as in 2 study districts...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909040/association-between-organisational-and-workplace-cultures-and-patient-outcomes-systematic-review-protocol
#19
J Braithwaite, J Herkes, K Ludlow, G Lamprell, L Testa
INTRODUCTION: Despite widespread interest in the topic, no current synthesis of research is available analysing the linkages between organisational or workplace cultures on the one hand, and patient outcomes on the other. This protocol proposes a systematic review to analyse and synthesise the literature to date on this topic. The resulting review will discuss characteristics of included studies in terms of the type of healthcare settings researched, the measurements of organisational and workplace culture, patient outcomes measured and the influence of these cultures on patient outcomes...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909028/teaching-about-water-relations-in-plant-cells-an-uneasy-struggle
#20
Lilianna Malińska, Eliza Rybska, Ewa Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, Małgorzata Adamiec
University students often struggle to understand the role of water in plant cells. In particular, osmosis and plasmolysis appear to be challenging topics. This study attempted to identify student difficulties (including misconceptions) concerning osmosis and plasmolysis and examined to what extent the difficulties could be revised during a plant physiology course. A questionnaire was developed to monitor university students' conceptual knowledge before and after a course, and both qualitative and quantitative data were obtained...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
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