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Qualitative methods

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239639/alzheimer-s-biomarkers-in-daily-practice-abide-project-rationale-and-design
#1
Arno de Wilde, Ingrid S van Maurik, Marleen Kunneman, Femke Bouwman, Marissa Zwan, Eline A J Willemse, Geert Jan Biessels, Mirella Minkman, Ruth Pel, Niki S M Schoonenboom, Ellen M A Smets, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof, Andrew Stephens, Erik J van Lier, Richard Batrla-Utermann, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen, Bart N M van Berckel, Wiesje M van der Flier
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's biomarkers in daily practice (ABIDE) project is designed to translate knowledge on diagnostic tests (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], cerebrospinal fluid [CSF], and amyloid positron emission tomography [PET]) to daily clinical practice with a focus on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: ABIDE is a 3-year project with a multifaceted design and is structured into interconnected substudies using both quantitative and qualitative research methods...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239201/immersogeometric-cardiovascular-fluid-structure-interaction-analysis-with-divergence-conforming-b-splines
#2
David Kamensky, Ming-Chen Hsu, Yue Yu, John A Evans, Michael S Sacks, Thomas J R Hughes
This paper uses a divergence-conforming B-spline fluid discretization to address the long-standing issue of poor mass conservation in immersed methods for computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) that represent the influence of the structure as a forcing term in the fluid subproblem. We focus, in particular, on the immersogeometric method developed in our earlier work, analyze its convergence for linear model problems, then apply it to FSI analysis of heart valves, using divergence-conforming B-splines to discretize the fluid subproblem...
February 1, 2017: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238895/hispanic-mothers-views-of-the-fathers-role-in-promoting-healthy-behaviors-at-home-focus-group-findings
#3
Karina R Lora, Marshall Cheney, Paul Branscum
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity prevention interventions rarely take into account the unique role of fathers in promoting healthy home environments. OBJECTIVE: To use qualitative methodology to examine the views of Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 to 5 years regarding fathers' roles in promoting healthy behaviors at home. DESIGN: Nine focus groups were conducted in Spanish with Hispanic mothers of preschool-aged children (N=55) from October to December 2015...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238674/experiences-and-effects-of-structurally-involving-residents-in-the-nursing-home-by-means-of-participatory-action-research-a-mixed-method-study
#4
Lien Van Malderen, Patricia De Vriendt, Tony Mets, Dominique Verté, Ellen Gorus
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the effects of introducing participatory action research (PAR) within the nursing home (NH) on residents' quality of life (QoL) and NH experience and participation, and to explore their experiences with PAR. DESIGN: A mixed methods design was chosen, including a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) and qualitative interviews. SETTING: For the RCT, 3 NHs were randomly allocated to 3 conditions: an intervention (weekly PAR activity), an active control (weekly reminiscence-activity), or passive control (care as usual)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238451/public-reaction-to-the-uk-government-strategy-on-childhood-obesity-in-england-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-summary-of-online-reaction-to-media-reports
#5
Rebecca Gregg, Ajay Patel, Sumaiya Patel, Laura O'Connor
This work aimed to summarise public real-time reaction to the publication of the UK government childhood obesity strategy by applying a novel research design method. We used a netnographic technique to carry out thematic analysis of user-generated comments to online newspaper articles related to the strategy. We examined likes/dislikes associated with comments as a proxy of agreement of the wider community with identified themes. To examine media influence on the comments we carried out thematic analysis of online media headlines published about the strategy, and compared these themes with themes identified from comments...
February 20, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238193/applying-the-theory-of-reasoned-action-to-understanding-teen-pregnancy-with-american-indian-communities
#6
Elizabeth A Dippel, Jessica D Hanson, Tracey R McMahon, Emily R Griese, DenYelle B Kenyon
Objectives American Indian girls have higher teen pregnancy rates than the national rate. Intervention studies that utilize the Theory of Reasoned Action have found that changing attitudes and subjective norms often leads to subsequent change in a variety of health behaviors in young adults. The current study goal is to better understand sexual decision-making among American Indian youth using the Theory of Reasoned Action model and to introduce ways to utilize attitudes and subjective norms to modify risky behaviors...
February 25, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237976/patients-with-heart-failure-as-co-designers-of-an-educational-website-implications-for-medical-education
#7
Anne Mette Kristiansen, Jette R Svanholm, Inge Schjødt, Karsten Mølgaard Jensen, Charlotte Silén, Klas Karlgren
Objectives: To identify the learning needs of patients with heart failure between outpatients follow-up visits from their perspective and to ascertain what they emphasize as being important in the design of an educational website for them. Methods: We conducted a two-step qualitative study at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Twenty patients with heart failure participated either in focus group interviews, diary writing, or video-recorded design sessions. Data on learning needs were collected in step 1 and analyses, therefore, helped develop the preliminary prototypes of a website...
February 25, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237926/palette-based-image-recoloring-using-color-decomposition-optimization
#8
Qing Zhang, Chunxia Xiao, Han-Qiu Sun, Feng Tang
Previous works on palette-based color manipulation typically fail to produce visually pleasing results with vivid color and natural appearance. In this paper, we present an approach to edit colors of an image by adjusting a compact color palette. Different from existing methods that fail to preserve inherent color characteristics residing in the source image, we propose a color decomposition optimization for flexible recoloring while retaining these characteristics. For an input image, we first employ a variant of the k-means algorithm to create a palette consisting of a small set of most representative colors...
February 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237923/maven-an-algorithm-for-multi-parametric-automated-segmentation-of-brain-veins-from-gradient-echo-acquisitions
#9
Serena Monti, Sirio Cocozza, Pasquale Borrelli, Sina Straub, Mark E Ladd, Marco Salvatore, Enrico Tedeschi, Giuseppe Palma
Cerebral vein analysis provides a chance to study, from an unusual viewpoint, an entire class of brain diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and traumatic brain injuries. Manual segmentation approaches can be used to assess vascular anatomy, but they are observer-dependent and time consuming; therefore, automated approaches are desirable, as they also improve reproducibility. In the present work, a new, fully automated algorithm, based on structural, morphological and relaxometric information, is proposed to segment the entire cerebral venous system from MR images...
February 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237916/real-time-assessment-of-mechanical-tissue-trauma-in-surgery
#10
James H Chandler, Faisal Mushtaq, Benjamin Moxley-Wyles, Nicholas P West, Gregory W Taylor, Peter R Culmer
: This work presents a method to assess and prevent tissue trauma in real-time during surgery. BACKGROUND: Tissue trauma occurs routinely during laparoscopic surgery with potentially severe consequences. As such, it is crucial that a surgeon is able to regulate the pressure exerted by surgical instruments. We propose a novel method to assess the onset of tissue trauma by considering the mechanical response of tissue as it is loaded in real-time. METHODS: We conducted a parametric study using a lab-based grasping model and differing load conditions...
February 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237824/damage-detection-of-fatigue-cracks-under-nonlinear-boundary-condition-using-subharmonic-resonance
#11
Mengyang Zhang, Li Xiao, Wenzhong Qu, Ye Lu
In recent years, the nonlinear ultrasonic technique has been widely utilized for detecting fatigue crack, one of the most common forms of damage. However, one of limitations associated with this technique is that nonlinearities can be produced not only by damage but also by various intrinsic effects such as boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of a nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as two elastic, frictionless half spaces that enter into contact during vibration and where the contact obeys the basic Hertz contact law...
February 4, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237522/development-and-field-testing-of-a-decision-support-tool-to-facilitate-shared-decision-making-in-contraceptive-counseling
#12
Christine Dehlendorf, Judith Fitzpatrick, Jody Steinauer, Lawrence Swiader, Kevin Grumbach, Cara Hall, Miriam Kuppermann
OBJECTIVE: We developed and formatively evaluated a tablet-based decision support tool for use by women prior to a contraceptive counseling visit to help them engage in shared decision making regarding method selection. METHODS: Drawing upon formative work around women's preferences for contraceptive counseling and conceptual understanding of health care decision making, we iteratively developed a storyboard and then digital prototypes, based on best practices for decision support tool development...
February 10, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237117/biochemical-methods-to-monitor-autophagic-responses-in-plants
#13
Y Bao, Y Mugume, D C Bassham
The study of autophagy in plants is rapidly increasing, due to its pivotal and fundamental roles in responding to stressful stimuli, recycling nutrients during senescence, and maintaining growth under normal conditions. Assays for detecting autophagy in plants have generally been based on microscopic observations, providing qualitative information on autophagy activity. Here, we discuss biochemical assays for detecting autophagy, which have the potential for providing more quantitative information, with a focus on immunoblotting with antibodies against ATG8, NBR1, or epitope tags fused to ATG proteins...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237098/measurement-of-autolysosomal-ph-by-dual-wavelength-ratio-imaging
#14
A Saric, S Grinstein, S A Freeman
Cellular components sequestered by autophagosomes during macroautophagy must be degraded and their components recycled in order to maintain homeostasis. To this end cells orchestrate the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, degradative organelles that are rich in hydrolases. Most of the lysosomal enzymes function optimally at low pH, and products of macromolecular catabolism are cotransported with protons across the autolysosomal membrane. These functions are facilitated by the ability of lysosomes to pump protons inward, acidifying their lumen...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237091/development-of-an-indirect-competitive-immunochromatographic-strip-test-for-rapid-detection-and-determination-of-anticancer-drug-harringtonine
#15
Seiichi Sakamoto, Gorawit Yusakul, Poomraphie Nuntawong, Tharita Kitisripanya, Waraporn Putalun, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto
Harringtonine (HT) is a natural compound, which is mainly produced by the genus Cephalotaxus, and has been clinically utilized in China for the treatment of acute leukemia and lymphoma. However, the amounts of HT in the Cephalotaxus species are very small; therefore, plant tissue cultures have been focused upon to enhance HT production. Qualitative/quantitative methods for HT detection are required to screen superior cell lines. We developed a one-step indirect competitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) using colloidal gold nanoparticles conjugated with highly specific monoclonal antibodies against HT (MAb 1D2) for simple, rapid, and sensitive detection of HT in plant samples...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237023/workflows-and-individual-differences-during-visually-guided-routine-tasks-in-a-road-traffic-management-control-room
#16
Sandra D Starke, Chris Baber, Neil J Cooke, Andrew Howes
Road traffic control rooms rely on human operators to monitor and interact with information presented on multiple displays. Past studies have found inconsistent use of available visual information sources in such settings across different domains. In this study, we aimed to broaden the understanding of observer behaviour in control rooms by analysing a case study in road traffic control. We conducted a field study in a live road traffic control room where five operators responded to incidents while wearing a mobile eye tracker...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237008/kansei-engineering-as-a-tool-for-the-design-of-in-vehicle-rubber-keypads
#17
Joana Vieira, Joana Maria A Osório, Sandra Mouta, Pedro Delgado, Aníbal Portinha, José Filipe Meireles, Jorge Almeida Santos
Manufacturers are currently adopting a consumer-centered philosophy which poses the challenge of developing differentiating products in a context of constant innovation and competitiveness. To merge both function and experience in a product, it is necessary to understand customers' experience when interacting with interfaces. This paper describes the use of Kansei methodology as a tool to evaluate the subjective perception of rubber keypads. Participants evaluated eleven rubber keys with different values of force, stroke and snap ratio, according to seven Kansei words ranging from "pleasantness" to "clickiness"...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236986/-inclusion-criteria-and-rating-scales-for-rcts-in-psychiatry-the-future-of-qualitative-studies
#18
D Pringuey, R Pommier, F Pringuey-Criou, S Boyer, C Massoubre, E Fakra, M Adida, R Belzeaux, T Bottai, J-M Azorin
An inventory on the two critical dimensions that structure the Randomized Controlled Trial in Psychiatry, namely the definition of inclusion criteria for eligible patients for testing and the choice of psychometric methods of pathology assessment and its evolution during the experiment, considers the importance of increasingly numerous and precise international recommendations. Taking into account the formal constraints of industrial, questioning the cultural differences of the methodological approach of the tests, meeting the requirements of feasibility and ever increasing security, frequent cumbersome procedure often contrasts with the modest nature of the results...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236688/interventions-and-working-relationships-of-voluntary-organisations-for-diabetes-self-management-a-cross-national-study
#19
Mari Carmen Portillo, Anne Kennedy, Elka Todorova, Elena Regaira, Michel Wensing, Christina Foss, Christos Lionis, Ivaylo Vassilev, Valentin Goev, Anne Rogers
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has become a challenging health priority globally. Given the tensions of financially burdened health systems in Europe the mobilisation of community resources like voluntary organisations and community groups is seen as a health policy strategy to sustain the management of long-term conditions like diabetes. However, little is known about how this is happening in practice in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To explore diabetes self-management interventions undertaken or promoted by voluntary organisations and community groups in Europe; and describe the types of working relationships between these organisations, European health systems and users when implementing diabetes self-management programmes in different areas...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236076/how-intervention-and-implementation-characteristics-relate-to-community-therapists-attitudes-toward-evidence-based-practices-a-mixed-methods-study
#20
Miya Barnett, Lauren Brookman-Frazee, Jennifer Regan, Dana Saifan, Nicole Stadnick, Anna Lau
Therapists' perceptions toward evidence-based practices (EBPs) are important in implementation efforts, however little is known about characteristics of EBPs associated with more positive attitudes. This mixed-methods study examined how intervention and implementation characteristics of six EBPs related to therapist attitudes. Quantitative analysis of 793 cross-sectional surveys revealed that therapists endorsed more positive attitudes toward EBPs with (1) prescribed session content and order and (2) required consultation...
February 24, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
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