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Nutrition epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777304/no-improvement-in-vitamin-d-status-in-german-infants-and-adolescents-between-2009-and-2014-despite-public-recommendations-to-increase-vitamin-d-intake-in-2012
#1
Clemens Kunz, Jürgen Hower, Anette Knoll, Kristin L Ritzenthaler, Thomas Lamberti
PURPOSE: Vitamin D is a key component for the growth and development of children and adolescents, influencing a multitude of functions. Worldwide epidemiological studies have shown that minimum vitamin D blood levels of ≥ 20.0 ng/ml, often defined as vitamin D sufficiency by international and national nutrition and pediatric organizations, are often not met in practice. In 2012 the D-A-CH (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) nutrition societies increased their vitamin D intake recommendations fourfold from 200 IU (5 µg) to 800 IU (20 µg) per day...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773586/seafood-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-science-advisory-from-the-american-heart-association
#2
REVIEW
Eric B Rimm, Lawrence J Appel, Stephanie E Chiuve, Luc Djoussé, Mary B Engler, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Dariush Mozaffarian, David S Siscovick, Alice H Lichtenstein
Since the 2002 American Heart Association scientific statement "Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease," evidence from observational and experimental studies and from randomized controlled trials continues to emerge to further substantiate the beneficial effects of seafood long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. A recent American Heart Association science advisory addressed the specific effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events...
May 17, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764623/pancreatic-cancer-a-critical-review-of-dietary-risk
#3
REVIEW
Asmaa A Salem, Gerardo G Mackenzie
Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease. It is estimated that about 90% of pancreatic cancer cases are due to environmental risk factors. Among these, approximately 50% of pancreatic cancer cases may be attributed to diet, which is largely modifiable. Given this large attribution to diet, there have been numerous epidemiological studies assessing the risk of various dietary factors on the incidence of pancreatic cancer. However, many of these studies present conflicting and/or inconclusive findings. The objective of this review is two-fold: (a) to summarize the current evidence on the association between various dietary factors and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer and (b) to discuss what additional studies are needed to better elucidate the role of diet as a potential risk factor for pancreatic cancer...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763458/immunity-levels-to-poliovirus-in-lao-children-and-adults-before-the-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-outbreak-a-retrospective-study
#4
Maude Pauly, Antony P Black, Phonepaseuth Khampanisong, Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Judith M Hübschen, Naphavanh Nanthavong, Kong Sayasinh, Prapan Jutavijittum, Bounthome Samountry, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Sabine Diedrich, Claude P Muller
In 2015, several provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) experienced a vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreak. This survey was conducted (i) to evaluate the vaccination coverage in different settings and cohorts using the seroprevalence of anti-poliovirus (PV) antibodies as a surrogate measure, and (ii) to explore the usefulness of an ELISA in a country with limited resources and a specific epidemiological setting. IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA in Lao children (n = 1216) and adults (n = 1228), including blood donors and health care workers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762478/insulin-sensitivity-and-glucose-homeostasis-can-be-influenced-by-metabolic-acid-load
#5
REVIEW
Lucio Della Guardia, Michael Alex Thomas, Hellas Cena
Recent epidemiological findings suggest that high levels of dietary acid load can affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Consumption of high protein diets results in the over-production of metabolic acids which has been associated with the development of chronic metabolic disturbances. Mild metabolic acidosis has been shown to impair peripheral insulin action and several epidemiological findings suggest that metabolic acid load markers are associated with insulin resistance and impaired glycemic control through an interference intracellular insulin signaling pathways and translocation...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761424/dietary-intake-of-total-polyphenol-and-polyphenol-classes-and-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-the-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-epic-cohort
#6
Raul Zamora-Ros, Valerie Cayssials, Mazda Jenab, Joseph A Rothwell, Veronika Fedirko, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Anne Tjønneland, Cecilie Kyrø, Kim Overvad, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Franck Carbonnel, Yahya Mahamat-Saleh, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Elissavet Valanou, Effie Vasilopoulou, Giovanna Masala, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Fulvio Ricceri, Elisabete Weiderpass, Marko Lukic, Torkjel M Sandanger, Cristina Lasheras, Antonio Agudo, Maria-Jose Sánchez, Pilar Amiano, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Emily Sonestedt, Bodil Ohlsson, Lena Maria Nilsson, Martin Rutegård, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H Peeters, Kay-Thee Khaw, Nicholas J Wareham, Kathryn Bradbury, Heinz Freisling, Isabelle Romieu, Amanda J Cross, Paolo Vineis, Augustin Scalbert
Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759646/quantification-of-38-dietary-polyphenols-in-plasma-by-differential-isotope-labelling-and-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
David Achaintre, Audrey Gicquiau, Liang Li, Sabina Rinaldi, Augustin Scalbert
Polyphenols constitute one of the most complex classes of phytochemicals in the human diet and have been suggested to play a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers. However, evidence from epidemiological studies is still needed to better understand their role in disease prevention. To do so, robust methods for the accurate measurement of these molecules in large series of samples are needed. We report here the development of a highly-sensitive method based on differential isotope labelling with 13 C- and 12 C-dansyl chloride for the analysis of 38 structurally diverse polyphenols in 50 μL plasma by tandem mass spectrometry with limits of quantification varying between 0...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752538/famine-exposure-in-early-life-is-associated-with-visceral-adipose-dysfunction-in-adult-females
#8
Chi Chen, Li Zhao, Zhiyuan Ning, Qin Li, Bing Han, Jing Cheng, Yi Chen, Xiaomin Nie, Fangzhen Xia, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
PURPOSE: Epidemiologic studies have revealed that early life malnutrition increases later risk of metabolic diseases. The visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel sex-specific index that shows promise as a marker of visceral adipose dysfunction. We aimed to explore whether exposure to the Chinese famine between 1959 and 1962 during fetal and childhood periods was related to VAI in adulthood. METHODS: Our data source was SPECT-China, a population-based cross-sectional study in East China...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746750/-knowledge-and-use-of-nutrient-labelling-of-industrialized-foods-and-beverages-in-mexico
#9
Lizbeth Tolentino-Mayo, Sofía Rincón-Gallardo Patiño, Liliana Bahena-Espina, Víctor Ríos, Simón Barquera
OBJECTIVE: To keep record of the knowledge and use of information of the different food labels on industrialized products in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered a semi-structured survey-developed by research¬ers free of conflict interestin a subsample of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2016. This survey was previously validated and piloted in different populations of varying socio¬economic levels and age and country regions. RESULTS: Data was collected from a total of 8 667 individuals ≥20 years of age...
May 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744938/accurate-determination-of-energy-requirements-in-hospitalised-patients-with-parenteral-nutrition
#10
G Quiroz-Olguín, I Medina-Vera, A E Serralde-Zúñiga, A Gulias-Herrero, A I Sánchez-Rosales, M Guevara-Cruz
BACKGROUND: The prescription of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hospitalised patients requires an estimation of the energy requirements. Most studies employing prediction equations (PEs) to estimate energy requirements have focused on critically ill patients. The present study aimed to evaluate several PEs of the resting energy expenditure (REE) to identify the most accurate equation for estimating the REE required for PN. METHODS: This cross-sectional and descriptive study included patients hospitalised with medical or surgical diagnoses, making them candidates for PN...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744236/brief-assessments-and-screening-for-geriatric-conditions-in-older-primary-care-patients-a-pragmatic-approach
#11
REVIEW
Laurence Seematter-Bagnoud, Christophe Büla
This paper discusses the rationale behind performing a brief geriatric assessment as a first step in the management of older patients in primary care practice. While geriatric conditions are considered by older patients and health professionals as particularly relevant for health and well-being, they remain too often overlooked due to many patient- and physician-related factors. These include time constraints and lack of specific training to undertake comprehensive geriatric assessment. This article discusses the epidemiologic rationale for screening functional, cognitive, affective, hearing and visual impairments, and nutritional status as well as fall risk and social status...
2018: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743650/the-transition-to-modernity-and-chronic-disease-mismatch-and-natural-selection
#12
REVIEW
Stephen Corbett, Alexandre Courtiol, Virpi Lummaa, Jacob Moorad, Stephen Stearns
The Industrial Revolution and the accompanying nutritional, epidemiological and demographic transitions have profoundly changed human ecology and biology, leading to major shifts in life history traits, which include age and size at maturity, age-specific fertility and lifespan. Mismatch between past adaptations and the current environment means that gene variants linked to higher fitness in the past may now, through antagonistic pleiotropic effects, predispose post-transition populations to non-communicable diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, cancer and coronary artery disease...
May 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741567/a-matter-of-survival-the-detrimental-consequences-of-adverse-early-life-conditions
#13
Susanne R de Rooij
Studies across different species have shown that moderate dietary restriction is associated with longer lifespan. Surprisingly however, when diet is restricted in prenatal life, the effect is completely the opposite. Animal work and human epidemiologic data have shown that undernutrition in utero negatively affects health in later life and reduces lifespan considerably. In this issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology, Schoeps et al. provide new evidence that variations in nutritional conditions during pregnancy relate to the future health of the unborn child (1)...
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741561/ramadan-pregnancy-nutrition-and-epidemiology
#14
Aryeh D Stein
Ramadan is observed by 1.6 billion Muslims. In a paper published this month that uses data from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System site in Burkina Faso, it is found that experiencing Ramadan in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of child mortality. Ramadan exposes observant individuals to a specific pattern of nutrition and other behaviors, including changes in sleep patterns. How these behaviors might result in child mortality is not yet understood, and the findings reported in the paper should be replicated in other settings...
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738949/associations-of-urinary-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-with-bone-mass-density-and-osteoporosis-in-u-s-adults-nhanes-2005-2010
#15
Jing Guo, Yun Huang, Suchen Bian, Chuning Zhao, Yumin Jin, Dongdong Yu, Xinkai Wu, Dan Zhang, Weiming Cao, Fangyuan Jing, Guangdi Chen
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental endocrine disruptors, which may modify the bone mineralization. However, epidemiological evidences on this issue were scant. We aimed to investigate the associations of PAHs with bone mass density (BMD) and osteoporosis based on a nationally-representative sample from general U.S. POPULATION: Data utilized were extracted from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Nine urinary PAHs (U-PAHs) metabolites were measured as exposure biomarkers...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738041/association-between-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-sodium-excretion-in-urine-of-african-descendants-in-brazil-a-population-based-study
#16
Elisângela Milhomem Dos Santos, Dyego José de Araújo Brito, Ana Karina da Cunha Teixeira França, Joyce Santos Lages, Alcione Miranda Dos Santos, Natalino Salgado Filho
INTRODUCTION: Excessive salt intake is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and sodium excretion in urine samples of Brazilians of African ancestry. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,211 Brazilians of African ancestry living in Alcântara City, Maranhão, Brazil. Demographic, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data were analyzed...
May 7, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734966/accelerated-nutrition-transition-in-the-north-west-province-of-south-africa-results-from-the-prospective-urban-and-rural-epidemiology-pure-nwp-sa-cohort-study-2005-to-2010
#17
Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Sarie Lee, Ria Laubscher, Hester H Vorster
OBJECTIVE: South Africa (SA) is in the midst of a health transition characterized by a quadruple burden of diseases and a nutrition transition. The existing nutrition transition in SA, accompanied by the coexistence of under- and overnutrition in the population, motivated the present study. Its objectives were to measure and report the changes in nutrient intakes of rural and urban black Africans over time to assess the impact of urbanization and modernization of lifestyles on dietary intakes and non-communicable disease (NCD) risk...
May 8, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730665/associations-between-dietary-patterns-and-post-bronchodilation-lung-function-in-the-sapaldia-cohort
#18
Nina Steinemann, Leticia Grize, Marco Pons, Thomas Rothe, Daiana Stolz, Alexander Turk, Christian Schindler, Christine Brombach, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not restricted to smokers. Dietary habits may contribute to the disease occurrence. Epidemiological studies point to a protective effect of fruit and vegetable intake against COPD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between dietary patterns and parameters of lung function related to COPD in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). METHODS: Data were included from the second follow-up assessment of the SAPALDIA cohort in 2010-2011 using a food frequency questionnaire...
May 4, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725544/stability-of-folate-and-vitamin-b-12-in-human-serum-after-long-term-storage-a-follow-up-after-13-years
#19
Eugène H J M Jansen, Piet K Beekhof
In epidemiological and nutrition research, it is very important to evaluate the stability of biomarkers as function of both storage time and temperature. In this study, the stability of folate and vitamin B12 in human serum samples has been tested after long-term storage at -80°C up to 13 years. Serum samples of 16 individuals were used in this study. The concentration of folate and vitamin B12 has been determined at t =0 and at 1, 8, and 13 years after storage at -80°C. The folate concentrations in serum samples remained stable at -80°C...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717755/mediterranean-diet-food-consumption-and-risk-of-late-life-depression-the-mugello-study
#20
G Pagliai, F Sofi, F Vannetti, S Caiani, G Pasquini, R Molino Lova, F Cecchi, S Sorbi, C Macchi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate eating habits and adherence to Mediterranean Diet (MD) in relation to the risk of depression in a cohort of nonagenarians enrolled within the Mugello Study, an epidemiological study aimed at investigating both clinically relevant geriatric items and various health issues, including those related to nutritional status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Homes and nursing homes in the Mugello area, Florence, Italy...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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