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Nutrition epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207842/evaluating-evidence-based-health-care-teaching-and-learning-in-the-undergraduate-human-nutrition-occupational-therapy-physiotherapy-and-speech-language-and-hearing-therapy-programs-at-a-sub-saharan-african-academic-institution
#1
Anel Schoonees, Anke Rohwer, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. METHODS: We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201847/the-differentiation-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-from-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
Alan L Buchman, Bita V Naini, Bert Spilker
Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), formerly known as parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease has often been listed in textbooks as an example of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, histology, and progression differ substantially between the conditions defined as NAFLD and the disease, IFALD. Therefore, IFALD should not be defined or considered as a type or a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but rather as a distinct disease...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187143/the-relation-between-exercise-and-glaucoma-in-a-south-korean-population-based-sample
#3
Shuai-Chun Lin, Sophia Y Wang, Louis R Pasquale, Kuldev Singh, Shan C Lin
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS: Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185876/associations-between-food-consumption-patterns-and-saliva-composition-specificities-of-eating-difficulties-children
#4
Martine Morzel, Caroline Truntzer, Eric Neyraud, Hélène Brignot, Patrick Ducoroy, Géraldine Lucchi, Cécile Canlet, Ségolène Gaillard, Florian Nicod, Sophie Nicklaus, Noël Peretti, Gilles Feron
Identifying objective markers of diet would be beneficial to research fields such as nutritional epidemiology. As a preliminary study on the validity of using saliva for this purpose, and in order to explore the relationship between saliva and diet, we focused on clearly contrasted groups of children: children with eating difficulties (ED) receiving at least 50% of their energy intake through artificial nutrition vs healthy controls (C). Saliva of ED and C children was analyzed by various methods (targeted biochemical analyses, 2-D electrophoresis coupled to MS, (1)H NMR) and their diet was characterized using food frequency questionnaires, considering 148 food items grouped into 13 categories...
February 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183454/frailty-and-nutrition-from-epidemiological-and-clinical-evidence-to-potential-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Mary Yannakoulia, Eva Ntanasi, Costas A Anastasiou, Nikolaos Scarmeas
Frailty is a geriatric condition characterized by unintentional weight loss, low muscle strength, feeling of exhaustion, reduced physical activity capacity and slow walking speed. Theoretically, nutrition is a factor closely related to the frailty syndrome: all frailty criteria are more or less affected by poor eating habits, whereas frailty itself may have a negative effect on eating and, thus, on the nutritional status. Indeed, research data suggest an association between frailty and specific constituents of diet, namely protein and energy intake, as well as intakes of specific micronutrients...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182763/evaluation-of-the-nutritional-status-of-workers-of-transformation-industries-adherent-to-the-brazilian-workers-food-program-a-comparative-study
#6
Ingrid W Leal Bezerra, António Gouveia Oliveira, Liana G B Pinheiro, Célia M M Morais, Luciano M B Sampaio
The objective of this study was to assess whether the Brazilian Workers' Food Program (WFP) is associated with changes in the nutritional status of workers in the transformation industry. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, comparative study, based on prospectively collected data from a combined stratified and two-stage probability sample of workers from 26 small and medium size companies, 13 adherent and 13 non-adherent to the WFP, in the food, mining and textile sectors. Study variables were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and dietary intake at lunch obtained by 24-hour dietary recall...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176772/tea-consumption-and-its-interactions-with-tobacco-smoking-and-alcohol-drinking-on-oral-cancer-in-southeast-china
#7
F Chen, B-C He, L-J Yan, F-P Liu, J-F Huang, Z-J Hu, Z Lin, X-Y Zheng, L-S Lin, Z-F Zhang, L Cai
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological results on the association between tea consumption and oral cancer remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the exact relationship between tea consumption and oral cancer in Chinese population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A large-scale case-control study was conducted on 586 oral cancer patients and 1024 controls frequency-matched by age and gender. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structure questionnaire...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173607/review-suggests-that-the-immunoregulatory-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-allergenic-foods-can-provoke-oral-tolerance-if-introduced-early-to-infants-diets
#8
REVIEW
Despina-Zoe T Mermiri, Theodora Lappa, Athina L Papadopoulou
: For years, the advice was to postpone introducing allergenic foods, in order to prevent food allergies. However, food allergies have escalated rather than declined and our review of the latest epidemiological, immunological and nutritional research suggests that early weaning practices may be beneficial. The most allergenic foods, such as fish, eggs and peanuts, have proved to be inherently rich in tolerogenic substances that can play a significant role in preventing allergies. CONCLUSION: We found evidence that the immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of allergenic foods can provoke oral tolerance if introduced early to both low-risk and high-risk infants...
February 7, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168902/environmental-tobacco-smoke-and-periodontitis-in-us-non-smokers-2009-to-2012
#9
Julie D Sutton, Mabel L Salas Martinez, Mary M Gerkovich
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies using half-mouth designs for assessment of periodontal disease prevalence have reported that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure of non-smokers is associated with 2-3 fold increase in the odds of developing periodontitis. In response to the possibility of underreporting of periodontitis the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) updated periodontal examination procedures in 2009 for the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), including full-mouth, 6-site periodontal probing and attachment loss assessment...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165362/relationship-between-selected-serum-metallic-elements-and-obesity-in-children-and-adolescent-in-the-u-s
#10
Yun Fan, Chunlan Zhang, Jin Bu
The prevalence of obesity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide. Metallic elements are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. To date, whether environmental exposure to metallic elements has effects on obesity in children and adolescents is still unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of blood metallic elements with obesity in U.S. children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study was performed with 5404 children and adolescents (6-19 years, 2745 males and 2659 females) who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014...
February 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161111/-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-healthy-adults-aged-18-65%C3%A2-years-in-northern-france
#11
X Deplanque, A Wullens, L Norberciak
INTRODUCTION: Screening and treatment of vitamin D deficiency are the subject of several publications. A lot of recognized risk factors have increased steadily, leading to the recognition of populations at risk. Despite their exposure to the same risk factors as other populations, there are no recommendations concerning healthy adults, a population rarely studied. To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adults aged 18-65 years residing in northern France and to search for correlated risk factors at 20ng/mL...
February 1, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159493/alcohol-consumption-and-the-risk-of-renal-cancers-in-the-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-epic-wozniak-mb-brennan-p-brenner-dr-overvad-k-olsen-a-tj%C3%A3-nneland-a-boutron-ruault-mc-clavel-chapelon-f-fagherazzi-g-katzke-v-k%C3%A3-hn-t-boeing
#12
Raman Jay, P Brennan, Brenner, K Overvad, A Olsen, A Tjønneland, M C Boutron-Ruault, F Clavel-Chapelon, Fagherazzi, V Katzke, T Kühn, H Boeing, M M Bergmann, A Steffen, A Naska, A Trichopoulou, D Trichopoulos, C Saieva, S Grioni, S Panico, R Tumino, P Vineis, H B Bueno-de-Mesquita, P H Peeters, A Hjartåker, E Weiderpass, L Arriola, E Molina-Montes, E J Duell, C Santiuste, R Alonso de la Torre, A Barricarte Gurrea, T Stocks, M Johansson, B Ljungberg, N Wareham, K T Khaw, R C Travis, A J Cross, N Murphy, E Riboli, G Scelo
Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires...
January 31, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157742/stroke-epidemiology-and-risk-factor-management
#13
Amy Guzik, Cheryl Bushnell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Death from stroke has decreased over the past decade, with stroke now the fifth leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, the incidence of new and recurrent stroke is declining, likely because of the increased use of specific prevention medications, such as statins and antihypertensives. Despite these positive trends in incidence and mortality, many strokes remain preventable. The major modifiable risk factors are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco smoking, and hyperlipidemia, as well as lifestyle factors, such as obesity, poor diet/nutrition, and physical inactivity...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154522/metal-dyshomeostasis-and-their-pathological-role-in-prion-and-prion-like-diseases-the-basis-for-a-nutritional-approach
#14
REVIEW
Mattia Toni, Maria L Massimino, Agnese De Mario, Elisa Angiulli, Enzo Spisni
Metal ions are key elements in organisms' life acting like cofactors of many enzymes but they can also be potentially dangerous for the cell participating in redox reactions that lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Any factor inducing or limiting a metal dyshomeostasis, ROS production and cell injury may contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases or play a neuroprotective action. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting the central nervous system (CNS) of human and other mammalian species...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152059/morbid-obesity-in-taiwan-prevalence-trends-associated-social-demographics-and-lifestyle-factors
#15
Heng-Cheng Chang, Hsin-Chou Yang, Hsing-Yi Chang, Chih-Jung Yeh, Hsin-Hung Chen, Kuo-Chin Huang, Wen-Harn Pan
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is one of the most important public health issues worldwide. Moreover, an extreme phenotype, morbid obesity (MO) has insidiously become a global problem. Therefore, we aimed to document the prevalence trend and to unveil the epidemiological characteristics of MO in Taiwan. METHODS: Nationally representative samples aged 19 years and above from three consecutive waves of Nutrition and Health survey in Taiwan: 1993-1996, 2005-2008, and 2013-2014 (n = 3,071; 1,673; and 1,440; respectively) were analyzed for prevalence trend...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150749/occurrence-of-acrylamide-carcinogen-in-arabic-coffee-qahwa-coffee-and-tea-from-saudi-arabian-market
#16
Mohammad Rizwan Khan, Zeid Abdullah Alothman, Mu Naushad, Ahmed Khodran Alomary, Sulaiman Mohammed Alfadul, Ibrahim Hotan Alsohaimi, Mohammad Saad Algamdi
The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg(-1). In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg(-1)), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg(-1)) and tea (10-97 μg kg(-1)) contain lower amounts of acrylamide...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145420/vitamin-b12-homocysteine-and-depressive-symptoms-a-longitudinal-study-among-older-adults
#17
L E M Elstgeest, I A Brouwer, B Wj H Penninx, N M van Schoor, M Visser
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The roles of vitamin B12 and homocysteine concentration in depression are not clear. We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations of serum vitamin B12 and plasma homocysteine with depressive symptoms in Dutch older adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), blood was collected in 1995/1996 among 1352 men and women aged ⩾65 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) six times from 1995/1996 to 2011/2012...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145414/do-grape-polyphenols-improve-metabolic-syndrome-components-a-systematic-review
#18
J Woerdeman, E van Poelgeest, J C F Ket, E C Eringa, E H Serné, Y M Smulders
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological, in vitro and animal studies suggest that grape polyphenols, such as those present in wine, have favorable effects on the metabolic syndrome. However, controversy remains whether treatment with grape polyphenols is effective in humans. Here, we aimed to systemically review the effects of grape polyphenols on metabolic syndrome components in humans. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane database for all clinical trials assessing the effects of grape polyphenols on insulin sensitivity, glycemia, blood pressure or lipid levels...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142052/design-of-the-health-examination-survey-on-early-childhood-physical-growth-in-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-affected-areas
#19
Hiroko Matsubara, Mami Ishikuro, Masahiro Kikuya, Shoichi Chida, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Atsushi Ono, Noriko Kato, Susumu Yokoya, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Isojima, Zentaro Yamagata, Soichiro Tanaka, Shinichi Kuriyama, Shigeo Kure
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. METHODS: The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132571/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#20
W G Flight, A M Jones
Introduction Respiratory viruses, such as those that cause influenza and the common cold, are a regular feature of life for the entire human population. Among people with CF, these viruses are associated with prolonged respiratory illness and show a clear association with pulmonary exacerbations which in turn are associated with lung function decline and risk of death. Human rhinovirus is the most commonly encountered respiratory viral pathogen in CF although adenovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus, influenza, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus are all also responsible for infections in this population...
January 30, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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