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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633993/microfluidics-as-a-strategic-player-to-decipher-single-cell-omics
#1
REVIEW
Ouriel Caen, Heng Lu, Philippe Nizard, Valerie Taly
Most cell studies are performed at a population level, relying on the assumption of a normal distribution of the function and fate of a cell among a population. However, technologies allowing single-cell analysis (SCA) have recently arisen and have led to increasing evidence of cell population heterogeneity and its importance. Tremendous amounts of new data could now be uncovered to redefine our understanding of cell omics. Microfluidics has emerged as a major technological player in this new era and is gradually increasing in use among biology laboratories, mainly due to the single-cell high-throughput handling solutions it offers...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625133/recent-advances-in-targeting-the-hiv-1-tat-tar-complex
#2
Fardokht A Abulwerdi, Stuart F J Le Grice
Following seminal discoveries by Rosen and co-workers in 1985, the HIV-1 TAR has emerged as one of the most extensively studied regulatory elements of the HIV-1 genome. Located adjacent to the long terminal repeat promoter, this cis-acting motif, in conjunction with the viral Tat protein, plays a critical role in viral genomic RNA synthesis via modification of the transcription complex. As such, the Tat/TAR axis has been the subject of intense efforts aimed at developing therapeutic interventions, directed against both the protein and nucleic acid components...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624724/high-throughput-screening-technologies-for-enzyme-engineering
#3
REVIEW
Chelsea K Longwell, Louai Labanieh, Jennifer R Cochran
Emerging technologies are enabling ultra-high-throughput screening of combinatorial enzyme libraries to identify variants with improved properties such as increased activity, altered substrate specificity, and increased stability. Each of these enzyme engineering platforms relies on compartmentalization of reaction components, similar to microtiter plate-based assays which have been commonly used for testing the activity of enzyme variants. The technologies can be broadly divided into three categories according to their spatial segregation strategy: (1) cells as reaction compartments, (2) in vitro compartmentalization via synthetic droplets, and (3) microchambers...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624270/implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-navigator-role-to-improve-emergency-department-throughput
#4
Paul Fulbrook, Melanie Jessup, Frances Kinnear
BACKGROUND: Emergency department overcrowding impacts patients, staff, and quality of care, and there is government pressure to optimize throughput and reduce waiting times. One solution for improving patient flow is the emerging 'navigator' role: a nurse that supports staff in care delivery; facilitating efficient and timely patient movement through the emergency department. METHODS: A 20-week project was implemented to evaluate an emergency department nurse navigator role...
June 14, 2017: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624226/transcriptome-wide-investigation-of-mrna-circrna-in-mir-184-and-its-r-57c-u-mutant-type-treatment-of-human-lens-epithelial-cells
#5
Yueqiu Luo, Siyu Liu, Ke Yao
m-miR-184 (mutant miR-184, r.57c > u) appears in familial hereditary ocular diseases, including keratoconus, cataracts, EDICT (endothelial dystrophy, iris hypoplasia, congenital cataract, and stromal thinning) syndrome, severe keratoconus, and non-ectatic corneal thinning. The biological function of m-miR-184 in these ocular diseases remains unclear. With the emergence of high-throughput sequencing, it is now possible to discover many different biological components simultaneously. Using two different RNA libraries, we sequenced the complete transcriptome of HLE cells treated with miR-184, m-miR-184, and a negative control...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623087/highly-multiplex-real-time-pcr-based-screening-for-blood-borne-pathogens-on-an-openarray-platform
#6
Elena Grigorenko, Carolyn Fisher, Sunali Patel, Valerie Winkelman, Phillip Williamson, Caren Chancey, Germán Añez, Maria Rios, Victoria Majam, Sanjai Kumar, Robert Duncan
Molecular diagnostics are increasingly used in the blood bank industry. A device that can combine simultaneous detection of multiple targets with the flexibility of inclusion of emerging pathogens is desirable for testing blood products. A highly multiplexed blood-borne pathogen panel (BBPP) using dual-label probe chemistry (TaqMan assays) was developed for simultaneous detection and discrimination of 17 viral pathogens in human plasma samples and 13 bacterial and protozoan pathogens in human blood samples on the OpenArray platform...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621886/review-of-emerging-metabolomic-tools-and-resources-2015-2016
#7
REVIEW
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra, Johannes F Fahrmann, Dmitry Grapov
Data processing and analysis are major bottlenecks in high-throughput metabolomic experiments. Recent advancements in data acquisition platforms are driving trends toward increasing data size (e.g. petabyte scale) and complexity (multiple omic platforms). Improvements in data analysis software and in silico methods are similarly required to effectively utilize these advancements and link the acquired data with biological interpretations. Herein we provide an overview of recently developed and freely-available metabolomic tools, algorithms, databases and data analysis frameworks...
June 16, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620577/population-structure-of-the-soft-tick-ornithodoros-maritimus-and-its-associated-infectious-agents-within-a-colony-of-its-seabird-host-larus-michahellis
#8
Marlene Dupraz, Céline Toty, Elodie Devillers, Thomas Blanchon, Eric Elguero, Marion Vittecoq, Sara Moutailler, Karen D McCoy
The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonoses depends on the movement of both hosts and vectors, which can differ greatly in intensity across spatial scales. Because of their life history traits and small size, vector dispersal may be frequent, but limited in distance. However, little information is available on vector movement patterns at local spatial scales, and particularly for ticks, transmitting the greatest diversity of recognized infectious agents. To test the degree to which ticks can disperse and disseminate pathogens at local scales, we investigated the temporal dynamics and population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus within a colony of its seabird host, the Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618012/metabolomic-signature-of-brain-cancer
#9
Renu Pandey, Laura Caflisch, Alessia Lodi, Andrew J Brenner, Stefano Tiziani
Despite advances in surgery and adjuvant therapy, brain tumours represent one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in both adults and children. Gliomas constitute about 60% of all cerebral tumours, showing varying degrees of malignancy. They are difficult to treat due to dismal prognosis and limited therapeutics. Metabolomics is the untargeted and targeted analyses of endogenous and exogenous small molecules, which characterizes the phenotype of an individual. This emerging "omics" science provides functional readouts of cellular activity that contribute greatly to the understanding of cancer biology including brain tumour biology...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612856/high-throughput-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-screening-of-inland-waters-of-southern-california
#10
A C Mehinto, D R VanDervort, W Lao, G He, M S Denison, S M Vliet, D C Volz, R D Mazor, K A Maruya
The impact of unmonitored contaminants, also known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), on freshwater streams remains largely uncharacterized. Water samples from 31 streams representing urban, agricultural and undeveloped (i.e., open space) land use in Southern California (USA) were analyzed for in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. The extent and magnitude of bioactivity screened using endocrine-responsive cell bioassays and a fish embryo screening assay were low. In contrast, a wider gradient of responses for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) assay was observed, which was negatively correlated with a measure of benthic community structure...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611744/rnaseq-reveals-complex-response-of-campylobacter-jejuni-to-ovine-bile-and-in-vivo-gallbladder-environment
#11
Amanda J Kreuder, Jennifer A Schleining, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang, Paul J Plummer
Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611656/dissecting-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-through-network-biology
#12
Jose A Santiago, Virginie Bottero, Judith A Potashkin
Neurodegenerative diseases are rarely caused by a mutation in a single gene but rather influenced by a combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Emerging high-throughput technologies such as RNA sequencing have been instrumental in deciphering the molecular landscape of neurodegenerative diseases, however, the interpretation of such large amounts of data remains a challenge. Network biology has become a powerful platform to integrate multiple omics data to comprehensively explore the molecular networks in the context of health and disease...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607052/efficient-ultra-high-affinity-chromatography-in-a-one-step-purification-of-complex-proteins
#13
Marina N Vassylyeva, Sergiy Klyuyev, Alexey D Vassylyev, Hunter Wesson, Zhuo Zhang, Matthew B Renfrow, Hengbin Wang, N Patrick Higgins, Louise T Chow, Dmitry G Vassylyev
Protein purification is an essential primary step in numerous biological studies. It is particularly significant for the rapidly emerging high-throughput fields, such as proteomics, interactomics, and drug discovery. Moreover, purifications for structural and industrial applications should meet the requirement of high yield, high purity, and high activity (HHH). It is, therefore, highly desirable to have an efficient purification system with a potential to meet the HHH benchmark in a single step. Here, we report a chromatographic technology based on the ultra-high-affinity (Kd ∼ 10(-14)-10(-17) M) complex between the Colicin E7 DNase (CE7) and its inhibitor, Immunity protein 7 (Im7)...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604758/intrauterine-growth-retardation-associated-syncytin-b-hypermethylation-in-maternal-rat-blood-revealed-by-dna-methylation-array-analysis
#14
Dong-Mei Wu, You-E Yan, Liang-Peng Ma, Han-Xiao Liu, Wen Qu, Jie Ping
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that DNA methylation in maternal blood provides a promising target for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) screening, a common developmental toxicity. Here, we aimed to screen out IUGR-related DNA methylation status in maternal blood via high throughput profiling. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered nicotine (1.0 mg/kg) twice per day from gestational day (GD) 11 to GD20 to establish the IUGR model...
June 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601982/collision-induced-dissociation-pathways-of-h1-antihistamines-by-electrospray-ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#15
Jung-Ah Do, Eunyoung Noh, Soon-Byung Yoon, Ji Hyun Lee, Sung-Kwan Park, Suresh Mandava, Sun Young Baek, Jongkook Lee
Over the past decades, mass spectrometry technologies have been developed to obtain mass accuracies of one ppm or less. Of the newly developed technologies, quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) has emerged as being well suited to routine and high-throughput analyses of pharmaceuticals. Dietary supplements and functional foods have frequently been found to be contaminated with pharmaceuticals. In our continuous efforts to develop methodologies to protect public health against adulterated dietary supplements, we have constructed a mass spectral database for 21 H1-antihistamines encountered as adulterants by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI)/Q-TOF-MS, and have proposed their possible collision-induced dissociation pathways...
June 10, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596493/upregulation-of-long-noncoding-rna-hoxa-as3-promotes-tumor-progression-and-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-glioma
#16
Fan Wu, Chuanbao Zhang, Jinquan Cai, Fan Yang, Tingyu Liang, Xiaoyan Yan, Haoyuan Wang, Wen Wang, Jing Chen, Tao Jiang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as new potentially promising therapeutic targets in many cancers. However, their prognostic value and biological functions associated with glioma remain to be elucidated. Here, High-throughput RNAseq was performed to detect the expression profiles of lncRNAs in 325 human glioma tissues. It was shown that a novel lncRNA HOXA-AS3 was one of the most significantly upregulated lncRNAs in glioma tissues. Quantitative PCR further verified the increased expression of HOXA-AS3 in patient samples and glioma cell lines...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594023/ultrafast-permeation-of-seawater-pervaporation-using-single-layered-c2n-via-strain-engineering
#17
Zhongqiao Hu, Bo Liu, Madhavi Dahanayaka, Adrian Wing-Keung Law, Jun Wei, Kun Zhou
Emerging two-dimensional (2D) ultra-thin nanomaterials are ideal candidates for next-generation high-throughput membranes. 2D carbon nitride C2N possesses intrinsic regular and uniformly distributed sub-nanometer pores which probably allow a high permeation flux. This work reports on the investigation of seawater pervaporation through a single-layered C2N membrane via a combined approach of first-principles calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The C2N layer remains stable when the strain is less than a threshold point of 12% at which the pore size is enlarged by 50%...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587163/a-tox21-approach-to-altered-epigenetic-landscapes-assessing-epigenetic-toxicity-pathways-leading-to-altered-gene-expression-and-oncogenic-transformation-in-vitro
#18
REVIEW
Craig L Parfett, Daniel Desaulniers
An emerging vision for toxicity testing in the 21st century foresees in vitro assays assuming the leading role in testing for chemical hazards, including testing for carcinogenicity. Toxicity will be determined by monitoring key steps in functionally validated molecular pathways, using tests designed to reveal chemically-induced perturbations that lead to adverse phenotypic endpoints in cultured human cells. Risk assessments would subsequently be derived from the causal in vitro endpoints and concentration vs...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586533/characterization-of-rapid-extraction-protocols-for-high-throughput-metabolomics
#19
Sarah Gehrke, Julie A Reisz, Travis Nemkov, Kirk C Hansen, Angelo D'Alessandro
RATIONALE: In the last five years, high throughput metabolomics has significantly advanced scientific research and holds the potential to promote strides in the fields of clinical metabolomics and personalized medicine. While innovations in the field of flow-injection mass spectrometry and three-minute metabolomics methods now allow investigators to process hundreds to thousands of samples per day, time-sensitive clinical applications, particularly in the emergency department, are limited by a lack of rapid extraction methods...
June 6, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584911/bioprospecting-for-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-genes-using-a-metagenomics-guided-strategy
#20
Chao Yang, Ying Yang, You Che, Yu Xia, Liguan Li, Wenguang Xiong, Tong Zhang
Emergence of new antibiotic resistance bacteria poses a serious threat to human health, which is largely attributed to the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this work, a metagenomics-guided strategy consisting of metagenomic analysis and function validation was proposed for rapidly identifying novel ARGs from hot spots of ARG dissemination, such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and animal feces. We used an antibiotic resistance gene database to annotate 76 putative β-lactam resistance genes from the metagenomes of sludge and chicken feces...
June 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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