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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534735/the-use-of-the-gaps-in-noise-test-as-an-index-of-the-enhanced-left-temporal-cortical-thinning-associated-with-the-transition-between-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Vasiliki Vivian Iliadou, Doris-Eva Bamiou, Christos Sidiras, Nikolaos P Moschopoulos, Magda Tsolaki, Ioannis Nimatoudis, Gail D Chermak
BACKGROUND: The known link between auditory perception and cognition is often overlooked when testing for cognition. PURPOSE: To evaluate auditory perception in a group of older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of auditory perception. STUDY SAMPLE: Adults with MCI and adults with no documented cognitive issues and matched hearing sensitivity and age. DATA COLLECTION: Auditory perception was evaluated in both groups, assessing for hearing sensitivity, speech in babble (SinB), and temporal resolution...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534149/joint-effects-of-peer-presence-and-fatigue-on-risk-and-reward-processing-in-late-adolescence
#2
Karol Silva, Jamie Patrianakos, Jason Chein, Laurence Steinberg
Peers are thought to increase adolescents' risk-taking behavior, at least in part, by heightening their sensitivity to rewards. In this study, we investigate whether the effect of peers on late adolescent males is exacerbated when youth are cognitively fatigued, a state characterized by weakened cognitive control and heightened orientation toward rewards, and well established as a factor that compromises decision making. We hypothesized that fatigued adolescents' top-down regulation of reward-related impulses may be compromised, thereby potentially amplifying the effect of peers on reward- and risk-seeking behavior...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533608/changes-of-gait-parameters-following-constrained-weight-shift-training-in-patients-with-stroke
#3
Seok Hyun Nam, Sung Min Son, Kyoung Kim
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of training involving compelled weight shift on the paretic lower limb on gait parameters and plantar pressure distribution in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five stroke patients participated in the study and were randomly divided into: group with a 5-mm lift on the non-paretic side for constrained weight shift training (5: constrained weight shift training) (n=15); group with a 10-mm lift on the non-paretic side for constrained weight shift training (10: constrained weight shift training) (n=15); or the control group (n=15)...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530482/the-effect-of-backpack-load-carriage-on-the-kinetics-and-kinematics-of-ankle-and-knee-joints-during-uphill-walking
#4
Jinkyu Lee, Yong-Jin Yoon, Choongsoo S Shin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load carriage on the kinematics and kinetics of the ankle and knee joints during uphill walking, including joint work, range of motion (ROM), and stance time. Fourteen males walked at a self-selected speed on an uphill (15°) slope wearing military boots and carrying a rifle in hand without a backpack (control condition) and with a backpack. The results showed that the stance time significantly decreased with backpack carriage (p<.05). The mediolateral impulse significantly increased with backpack carriage (p<...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529875/advanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-for-detecting-brain-injury-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-university-amateur-boxers
#5
M G Hart, C R Housden, J Suckling, R Tait, A Young, U Müller, V F J Newcombe, I Jalloh, B Pearson, J Cross, R A Trivedi, J D Pickard, B J Sahakian, P J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND/AIM: The safety of amateur and professional boxing is a contentious issue. We hypothesised that advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing could provide evidence of acute and early brain injury in amateur boxers. METHODS: We recruited 30 participants from a university amateur boxing club in a prospective cohort study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing was performed at three time points: prior to starting training; within 48 h following a first major competition to detect acute brain injury; and one year follow-up...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528231/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-problem-gamblers-with-co-occurring-antisocial-personality-disorder
#6
Austin W Blum, Eric W Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVES: Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. METHOD: Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks...
May 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527788/taking-control-structural-and-behavioural-plasticity-in-response-to-game-based-inhibition-training-in-older-adults
#7
Simone Kühn, Robert C Lorenz, Markus Weichenberger, Maxi Becker, Marten Haesner, Julie O'Sullivan, Anika Steinert, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Susanne Brandhorst, Thomas Bremer, Jürgen Gallinat
While previous attempts to train self-control in humans have frequently failed, we set out to train response inhibition using computer-game elements. We trained older adults with a newly developed game-based inhibition training on a tablet for two months and compared them to an active and passive control group. Behavioural effects reflected in shorter stop signal response times that were observed only in the inhibition-training group. This was accompanied by structural growth in cortical thickness of right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) triangularis, a brain region that has been associated with response inhibition...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-are-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#8
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525511/factors-affecting-acoustics-and-speech-intelligibility-in-the-operating-room-size-matters
#9
Richard R McNeer, Christopher L Bennett, Danielle Bodzin Horn, Roman Dudaryk
INTRODUCTION: Noise in health care settings has increased since 1960 and represents a significant source of dissatisfaction among staff and patients and risk to patient safety. Operating rooms (ORs) in which effective communication is crucial are particularly noisy. Speech intelligibility is impacted by noise, room architecture, and acoustics. For example, sound reverberation time (RT60) increases with room size, which can negatively impact intelligibility, while room objects are hypothesized to have the opposite effect...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522966/barratt-impulsivity-in-healthy-adults-is-associated-with-higher-gray-matter-concentration-in-the-parietal-occipital-cortex-that-represents-peripheral-visual-field
#10
Jaime S Ide, Hsiang C Tung, Cheng-Ta Yang, Yuan-Chi Tseng, Chiang-Shan R Li
Impulsivity is a personality trait of clinical importance. Extant research focuses on fronto-striatal mechanisms of impulsivity and how executive functions are compromised in impulsive individuals. Imaging studies employing voxel based morphometry highlighted impulsivity-related changes in gray matter concentrations in a wide array of cerebral structures. In particular, whereas prefrontal cortical areas appear to show structural alterations in individuals with a neuropsychiatric condition, the findings are less than consistent in the healthy population...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522165/a-new-legal-treatment-for-psychopaths-perplexities-for-legal-thinkers
#11
REVIEW
Maria Isabel Gonzalez-Tapia, Ingrid Obsuth, Rachel Heeds
Public perception, fueled not only by popular and news media but also by expert claims that psychopaths are archetypes of evil: incorrigible, remorseless, cold-blooded criminals, whose crimes manifest in the most extreme levels of violence. But is there empirical evidence that psychopaths truly are what they are portrayed to be? If so, should the law respond, and adjust its treatment of psychopaths in court - permitting psychopathy to be admitted under an insanity defense and/or resulting in mitigation? In this paper, we demonstrate that fundamental questions from the law to science remain unanswered and must be addressed before any alternative treatment of psychopathy can be considered...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521736/clinical-characteristics-of-impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-chinese-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#12
Yu Zhang, An Qi He, Lin Li, Wei Chen, Zhen Guo Liu
BACKGROUND: Impulse control and related disorders (ICRDs) are clinically complications in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the clinical characteristics of ICRDs in Chinese PD patients were rarely reported. We aimed to explore the prevalence and the clinical profile of ICRDs in Chinese patients with PD. METHODS: 142 Chinese PD patients were consecutively enrolled. The symptoms of ICRDs were assessed with the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders. The clinical characteristics of patients with ICRDs and without ICRDs were compared...
May 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521376/-images-of-ageing-in-health-care-magazines-of-the-public-health-system
#13
Ilse Hartmann-Tews, Theresa Hoppe
Objectives Collective images of ageing influence attitudes towards ageing and health- related activities. The aim of this study was to explore images of ageing and old age in magazines published by public health institutions, namely health insurance companies and pharmacies. Design A standardized content analysis was conducted covering age-related articles (n=146) and accompanying photographs (n=218) of public health institutions. The stock of material comprises age-related articles of all magazines published 2012-2013 of 2 public health insurance companies (Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse: "Bleib gesund", Barmer Ersatzkasse: "Gesundheit konkret"), 2 private health insurance companies (Gothaer Versicherung: "Gothaer magazin", Deutsche Krankenversicherung: "DKV impulse") and 2 consumer magazines of pharmacies ("Apothekenumschau","Senioren Ratgeber")...
May 18, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516401/endovascular-crossing-of-chronic-total-occlusions-using-an-impulse-an-explorative-design-study
#14
Aimée Sakes, Marleen van der Wiel, Dimitra Dodou, Paul Breedveld
In this study we investigated whether exerting an impulse on a Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO) improves the success rate of CTO crossing as compared to the currently used method of statically pushing the guidewire against the CTO. A prototype (Ø2 mm) was developed that generates translational momentum using a spring-loaded indenter and converts it to an impulse during impact. Mechanical performance was evaluated by measuring the peak force and momentum for different spring compressions and strike distances in air and blood-mimicking fluid...
May 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515502/ismp-adverse-drug-reactions-pregabalin-induced-stuttering-nitroglycerine-induced-bradycardia-progressing-to-asystole-minocycline-induced-dress-leading-to-liver-transplantation-and-type-1-diabetes-increased-risk-of-vertebral-fractures-in-women-receiving-thiazide
#15
Michael A Mancano
The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested...
April 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514259/does-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-affect-the-shear-wave-velocity-of-the-thyroid-gland-of-children-without-autoimmune-thyroiditis
#16
Dilek Sağlam, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Cengiz Kara, Gülay Can Yilmaz, Asli Tanrivermiş Sayit
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear wave velocity (SWV) of the thyroid gland with acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between November 2015 and April 2016, 35 T1D patients who were referred to our hospital's endocrinology outpatient clinic (mean age, 11.88 ± 4.1 years) and 30 children (mean age, 11.3 ± 3.08 years) in the control group were enrolled in the study...
May 16, 2017: Ultrasound Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512921/web-based-integrated-bipolar-parenting-intervention-for-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-a-randomised-controlled-pilot-trial
#17
Steven H Jones, Jelena Jovanoska, Rachel Calam, Laura D Wainwright, Helen Vincent, Ozgur Asar, Peter J Diggle, Rob Parker, Rita Long, Matthew Sanders, Fiona Lobban
BACKGROUND: People with bipolar disorder (BD) experience additional parenting challenges associated with mood driven fluctuations in communication, impulse control and motivation. This paper describes a novel web-based self-management approach (Integrated Bipolar Parenting Intervention; IBPI) to support parents with BD. METHOD: Parents with BD with children aged 3-10 years randomised to IBPI plus treatment as usual (TAU) or waitlist control (WL). IBPI offered 16 weeks access to interactive self-management information concerning BD and parenting issues...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511259/impulse-control-disorders-and-related-complications-of-parkinson-s-disease-therapy
#18
Alexander M Lopez, Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are most often attributed to dopamine agonist therapy; dysregulation of the mesocorticolimbic system accounts for this behavioral phenotype. The clinical presentation is commonly termed impulse control disorder (ICD): Behaviors include hypersexuality, compulsive eating, shopping, pathological gambling, and compulsive hobby participation. However, not all PD individuals taking dopamine agonists develop these behavioral changes. In this review, the authors focus on the similarities between the phenotypic presentation of ICDs with that of other reward-based behavioral disorders, including binge eating disorder, pathological gambling, and substance use disorders...
April 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507987/pitx2-in-embryonic-and-adult-myogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Francisco Hernandez-Torres, Lara Rodríguez-Outeiriño, Diego Franco, Amelia E Aranega
Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue that represents between 30 and 38% of the human body mass and has important functions in the organism, such as maintaining posture, locomotor impulse, or pulmonary ventilation. The genesis of skeletal muscle during embryonic development is a process controlled by an elaborate regulatory network combining the interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that transform myogenic precursor cells into functional muscle fibers through a finely tuned differentiation program...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504898/dissociable-contributions-of-imagination-and-willpower-to-the-malleability-of-human-patience
#20
Adrianna C Jenkins, Ming Hsu
The ability to exercise patience is important for human functioning. Although it is known that patience can be promoted by using top-down control, or willpower, to override impatient impulses, patience is also malleable-in particular, susceptible to framing effects-in ways that are difficult to explain using willpower alone. So far, the mechanisms underlying framing effects on patience have been elusive. We investigated the role of imagination in these effects. In a behavioral experiment (Experiment 1), a classic framing manipulation (sequence framing) increased self-reported and independently coded imagination during intertemporal choice...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
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