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Impulse control

Charlotte L Rae, Vanessa E Botan, Cassandra D Gould van Praag, Aleksandra M Herman, Jasmina A K Nyyssönen, David R Watson, Theodora Duka, Sarah N Garfinkel, Hugo D Critchley
Motor actions can be facilitated or hindered by psychophysiological states of readiness, to guide rapid adaptive action. Cardiovascular arousal is communicated by cardiac signals conveying the timing and strength of individual heartbeats. Here, we tested how these interoceptive signals facilitate control of motor impulsivity. Participants performed a stop signal task, in which stop cues were delivered at different time points within the cardiac cycle: at systole when the heart contracts (T-wave peak, approximately 300 ms following the R-wave), or at diastole between heartbeats (R-wave peak)...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
R L Crane, S M Cox, S A Kisare, S N Patek
Many predators fracture strong mollusk shells, requiring specialized weaponry and behaviors. The current shell fracture paradigm is based on jaw- and claw-based predators that slowly apply forces (high impulse, low peak force). However, predators also strike shells with transient intense impacts (low impulse, high peak force). Toward the goal of incorporating impact fracture strategies into the prevailing paradigm, we measured how mantis shrimp ( Neogonodactylus bredini ) impact snail shells, tested whether they strike shells in different locations depending on prey shape ( Nerita spp...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
ArunSundar MohanaSundaram, Thukani Sathanantham Shanmugarajan, Velayutham Ravichandiran
Cognitive impulsivity, a form of suboptimal cost-benefit decision making is an illustrious attribute of an array of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In this study, delay discounting paradigm was used to assess the effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) on cognitive impulsivity-in an oA42i (oligomeric amyloid β1-42 plus ibotenic acid) induced AD mouse model-using a non-spatial T-maze task. The results depicted that oA42i administration elevated cognitive impulsivity, whereas DOPET treatment attenuated the impulsive behavior and matched the choice of the sham-operated controls...
June 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
M León Ruiz, M Sospedra, S Arce Arce, J Tejeiro-Martínez, J Benito-León
INTRODUCTION: A growing number of studies have evaluated the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for the symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We performed a PubMed search for articles, recent books, and recommendations from the most relevant clinical practice guidelines and scientific societies regarding the use of TMS as symptomatic treatment in MS. CONCLUSIONS: Excitatory electromagnetic pulses applied to the affected cerebral hemisphere allow us to optimise functional brain activity, including the transmission of nerve impulses through the demyelinated corticospinal pathway...
June 10, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Alberto José Cerrillo-Urbina, Antonio García-Hermoso, María Jesús Pardo-Guijarro, Mairena Sánchez-López, José Luis Santos-Gómez, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of stimulant and nonstimulant medications in children and adolescents using as an outcome measure the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV), and to examine the effect of medications in different ADHD subtypes (i.e., inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity). METHODS: MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, EBSCO (E-journal, CINAHL and SportDiscus), PUBMED, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Enrico Premi, Alberto Benussi, Antonio La Gatta, Stefano Visconti, Angelo Costa, Nicola Gilberti, Valentina Cantoni, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni, Mauro Magoni
BACKGROUND: Non-depolarizing magnetic fields, like low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) have shown the ability to modulate living structures, principally by influencing synaptic activity and ion channels on cellular membranes. Recently, the CTU Mega 20 device was presented as a molecular accelerator, using energy up to 200 J and providing high-power (2 Tesla) pulsating fields with a water-repulsive (diamagnetic) action and tissue biostimulation. We tested the hypothesis that LF-PEMFs could modulate long-term corticospinal excitability in healthy brains by applying CTU Mega 20® ...
June 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Rafael Heiss, Marion Kellermann, Bernd Swoboda, Casper Grim, Matthias S May, Wolfgang Wuest, Michael Uder, Armin M Nagel, Thilo Hotfiel
Study Design Controlled laboratory study with repeated measures. Background Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is one of the most common reasons for impaired muscle performance in sports. However, little consensus exists regarding which treatments may be most effective and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Objectives To investigate the influence of compression garments on the development of DOMS, focusing on changes in muscle perfusion and muscle stiffness. Methods Muscle perfusion and stiffness, calf circumference, muscle soreness, passive ankle dorsiflexion, and creatine kinase levels were assessed on participants before (baseline) a DOMS-inducing eccentric calf exercise intervention and 60 h later (follow-up)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Tayana Panova, Xavier Carbonell
Aims In light of the rise in research on technological addictions and smartphone addiction in particular, the aim of this paper was to review the relevant literature on the topic of smartphone addiction and determine whether this disorder exists or if it does not adequately satisfy the criteria for addiction. Methods We reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies on smartphone addiction and analyzed their methods and conclusions to make a determination on the suitability of the diagnosis "addiction" to excessive and problematic smartphone use...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Eric Anson, Robin T Bigelow, Stephanie Studenski, Nandini Deshpande, Yuri Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: Standing on foam with eyes closed (FOEC) has been characterized as a measure of vestibular function; however, the relative contribution of vestibular function and proprioceptive function to the FOEC test has not been well described. In this study, the authors investigate the relationship between peripheral sensory systems (vestibular and proprioception) and performance on the FOEC test in a cohort of healthy adults. DESIGN: A total of 563 community-dwelling healthy adults (mean age, 72...
June 11, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Coline Macquart, Rene Jüttner, Caroline Le Dour, Maria Chatzifrangkeskou, Alain Schmitt, Michael Gotthardt, Gisèle Bonne, Antoine Muchir
Mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) cause an autosomal dominant inherited form of dilated cardiomyopathy associated with cardiac conduction disease (hereafter referred to as LMNA cardiomyopathy). Compared with other forms of dilated cardiomyopathy, mutations in LMNA are responsible for a more aggressive clinical course due to a high rate of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow direct communication between neighboring cells, which are involved in electrical impulse propagation and coordinated contraction of the heart...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Cin Cin Tan, Julie C Lumeng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies on obesogenic eating behaviors in young children have mainly focused on the roles of family environment and parental behaviors. However, intrapersonal characteristics, particularly executive functions, have recently gained more attention in the literature. Therefore, herein we review work on children's executive functions (EFs), particularly the roles of cold and hot executive functions on children's obesogenic eating behaviors. RECENT FINDINGS: Most work examining the associations between EF and obesogenic eating among children has focused on the cool EF, particularly inhibitory control/impulsivity...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Min-Jing Lee, Miao-Chun Chou, Wen-Jiun Chou, Chien-Wei Huang, Ho-Chang Kuo, Sheng-Yu Lee, Liang-Jen Wang
Background: Heavy metals are known to be harmful for neurodevelopment and they may correlate to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we aim to explore the relationships between multiple heavy metals (manganese, lead, cadmium, mercury, antimony, and bismuth), neurocognitive function, and ADHD symptoms. Methods: We recruited 29 patients with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I), 47 patients with ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity type (ADHD-H/I), and 46 healthy control children. Urine samples were obtained to measure the levels of the aforementioned heavy metals in each child...
June 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Megan Chesin, Michele Cascardi
OBJECTIVES: To test whether three cognitive-affective correlates, mindfulness, emotion reactivity, and depressive symptom severity, have different associations with current suicidal ideation (SI), a history of suicide attempt (SA) and SA+SI among emerging adults. To test whether impulsive-aggression (IA) moderates associations between cognitive-affective correlates of suicidal behavior and suicidality. METHODS: Survey data on current SI, SA history, mindfulness, emotion reactivity, depressive symptom severity, and IA were collected from 780 emerging adults...
June 11, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Cheyenne Allenby, Mary Falcone, Leah Bernardo, E Paul Wileyto, Anthony Rostain, J Russell Ramsay, Caryn Lerman, James Loughead
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a core deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been shown to modulate cognitive control circuits and could enhance DLPFC activity, leading to improved impulse control in ADHD. OBJECTIVE: Hypothesis: We predicted 2.0 mA anodal stimulation (tDCS) versus sham stimulation applied over the left DLPFC would improve Conners Continuous Performance Task (CPT) scores...
April 23, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Angelina Yiu, Kara Christensen, Jean M Arlt, Eunice Y Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The tendency to engage in impulsive behaviors when distressed is linked to disordered eating. The current study comprehensively examines emotional responses to a distress tolerance task by utilizing self-report, psychophysiological measures (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA], skin conductance responses [SCRs] and tonic skin conductance levels [SCLs]), and behavioral measures (i.e., termination of task, latency to quit task). METHODS: 26 healthy controls (HCs) and a sample of treatment-seeking women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) (N = 106) completed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task- Computerized (PASAT-C)...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Yann Pelloux, Mickaël Degoulet, Alix Tiran-Cappello, Candie Cohen, Sylvie Lardeux, Olivier George, George F Koob, Serge H Ahmed, Christelle Baunez
One of the key features of addiction is the escalated drug intake. The neural mechanisms involved in the transition to addiction remain to be elucidated. Since abnormal neuronal activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN) stands as potential general neuromarker common to impulse control spectrum deficits, as observed in obsessive-compulsive disorders, the present study recorded and manipulated STN neuronal activity during the initial transition to addiction (i.e., escalation) and post-abstinence relapse (i...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Inka Ristow, Meng Li, Lejla Colic, Vanessa Marr, Carina Födisch, Felicia von Düring, Kolja Schiltz, Krasimira Drumkova, Joachim Witzel, Henrik Walter, Klaus Beier, Tillmann H C Kruger, Jorge Ponseti, Boris Schiffer, Martin Walter
A pedophilic disorder is characterised by abnormal sexual urges towards prepubescent children. Child abusive behavior is frequently a result of lack of behavioral inhibition and current treatment options entail, next to suppressing unchangeable sexual orientation, measures to increase cognitive and attentional control. We tested, if in brain regions subserving attentional control of behavior and perception of salient stimuli, such inhibition deficit can be observed also on the level of inhibitory neurotransmitters...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Vincent W W van Eif, Harsha D Devalla, Gerard J J Boink, Vincent M Christoffels
The rate and rhythm of heart muscle contractions are coordinated by the cardiac conduction system (CCS), a generic term for a collection of different specialized muscular tissues within the heart. The CCS components initiate the electrical impulse at the sinoatrial node, propagate it from atria to ventricles via the atrioventricular node and bundle branches, and distribute it to the ventricular muscle mass via the Purkinje fibre network. The CCS thereby controls the rate and rhythm of alternating contractions of the atria and ventricles...
June 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Andrzej Witusik, Łukasz Mokros, Piotr Kuna, Katarzyna Nowakowska-Domagała, Adam Antczak, Tadeusz Pietras
BACKGROUND Stress and psychological factors can induce dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to assess selected elements of the clinical presentation of COPD in the context of the severity of type A pattern of behavior, impulsiveness, and tendency for empathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 179 men with COPD and the control group consisted of 31 healthy male smokers. In all patients, the number of infectious exacerbations over the past year, the result on the dyspnea scale (MRC), and the FEV1-to- predicted FEV1 ratio was assessed...
June 6, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Helge Molde, Yasaman Moussavi, Stine Therese Kopperud, Aleksander Hagen Erga, Anita Lill Hansen, Ståle Pallesen
Background: Although several case-control studies on the prevalence of Impulse-Control Disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's Disease (PD) have been conducted, no meta-analytic study on this topic has previously been published. Thus, knowledge about the overall prevalence rate of ICD in PD and factors that might moderate this relationship is lacking. Method: Prevalence studies of ICDs in PD were identified by computer searches in the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases, covering the period from January 2000 to February 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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