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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053705/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-pregnant-rats-and-effects-on-inflammatory-markers-in-the-brainstem-of-neonates
#1
Allison Judkins, Rhaya L Johnson, Samuel T Murray, Steven Yellon, Christopher G Wilson
BackgroundVagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is an FDA-approved method delivering electrical impulses for treatment of depression and epilepsy in adults. The vagus nerve innervates the majority of visceral organs and cervix, but potential impacts of VNS on the progress of pregnancy and the fetus are not well studied.MethodsWe tested the hypothesis that VNS in pregnant dams does not induce inflammatory changes in the cardiorespiratory control regions of the pups' brainstem, potentially impacting the morbidity and mortality of offspring...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053023/n-acetylcysteine-for-nonsuicidal-self-injurious-behavior-in-adolescents-an-open-label-pilot-study
#2
Kathryn R Cullen, Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Patricia Carstedt, Nicholas Marka, Katharine Nelson, Michael J Miller, Kristina Reigstad, Ana Westervelt, Meredith Gunlicks-Stoessel, Lynn E Eberly
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is common in adolescents and young adults, and few evidence-based treatments are available for this significant problem. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely available nutritional supplement that has been studied in some psychiatric disorders relevant to NSSI including mood and addictive disorders. This pilot study tested the use of NAC as a potential treatment for NSSI in youth. METHODS: Thirty-five female adolescents and young adults with NSSI aged 13-21 years were enrolled in this study that had an open-label, single-arm study design...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052999/impulsivity-and-compulsivity-in-internet-gaming-disorder-a-comparison-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#3
Yeon-Jin Kim, Jae A Lim, Ji Yoon Lee, Sohee Oh, Sung Nyun Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Jong Eun Ha, Jun Soo Kwon, Jung-Seok Choi
Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by a loss of control and a preoccupation with Internet games leading to repetitive behavior. We aimed to compare the baseline neuropsychological profiles in IGD, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the spectrum of impulsivity and compulsivity. Methods A total of 225 subjects (IGD, N = 86; AUD, N = 39; OCD, N = 23; healthy controls, N = 77) were administered traditional neuropsychological tests including Korean version of the Stroop Color-Word test and computerized neuropsychological tests, including the stop signal test (SST) and the intra-extra dimensional set shift test (IED)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051684/a-tripartite-taxonomy-of-character-evidence-for-intrapersonal-interpersonal-and-intellectual-competencies-in-children
#4
Daeun Park, Eli Tsukayama, Geoffrey P Goodwin, Sarah Patrick, Angela L Duckworth
Other than cognitive ability, what competencies should schools promote in children? How are they organized, and to what extent do they predict consequential outcomes? Separate theoretical traditions have suggested interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual dimensions, reflecting how children relate to other people, manage their own goals and impulses, and engage with ideas, respectively. However, very little work has examined character empirically. In the current investigation, we partnered with middle schools that had previously identified character strengths relevant in their communities...
January 2017: Contemporary Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048569/impulse-control-in-negative-mood-states-emotional-eating-and-food-addiction-are-associated-with-lower-quality-of-life-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity
#5
Meredith H Rose, Evan P Nadler, Eleanor R Mackey
Objectives: Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome to evaluate in adolescents with severe obesity, yet intrapersonal predictors of QoL are understudied. The current study assessed whether difficulty with impulse control when experiencing a negative mood (negative urgency) is associated with poorer QoL, mediated by more emotional eating and food addiction. Method: Participants consisted of 69 primarily female (71%), minority (76%) adolescents aged 13-21 (M age = 16...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045682/effects-of-hermetic-storage-on-adult-sitophilus-oryzae-l-coleoptera-curculionidae-acoustic-activity-patterns-and-mortality
#6
A W Njoroge, R W Mankin, B W Smith, D Baributsa, Thomas Phillips
Hermetic storage is of interest to farmers and warehouse managers as a method to control insect pests in small storage facilities. To develop improved understanding of effects of hermetic storage on insect pest activity and mortality over time, oxygen levels, acoustic signals, and observations of visual movement were recorded from replicates of 25, 50, and 100 adult Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) hermetically sealed in 500- and 1,000-ml glass jars. Recordings were done for 28 d; twice daily for the first 6 d and twice weekly thereafter...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043656/from-eyes-to-hands-transfer-of-learning-in-the-simon-task-across-motor-effectors
#7
Ashika Verghese, Jason B Mattingley, Phoebe E Palmer, Paul E Dux
Inhibition of irrelevant and conflicting information and responses is crucial for goal-directed behaviour and adaptive functioning. In the Simon task, for example, responses are slowed if their mappings are spatially incongruent with stimuli that must be discriminated on a nonspatial dimension. Previous work has shown that practice with incongruent spatial mappings can reduce or even reverse the Simon effect. We asked whether such practice transfers between the manual and oculomotor systems and if so to what extent this occurs across a range of behavioural tasks...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043085/a-pilot-open-series-of-lamotrigine-in-dbt-treated-eating-disorders-characterized-by-significant-affective-dysregulation-and-poor-impulse-control
#8
Mary Ellen Trunko, Terry A Schwartz, Laura A Berner, Anne Cusack, Tiffany Nakamura, Ursula F Bailer, Joanna Y Chen, Walter H Kaye
BACKGROUND: There is little effective psychopharmacological treatment for individuals with eating disorders who struggle with pervasive, severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. METHODS: This pilot open series evaluated lamotrigine, a mood stabilizer, in the treatment of patients with eating disorders who did not respond adequately to antidepressant medications. Nine women with anorexia nervosa- or bulimia nervosa-spectrum eating disorders in partial hospital or intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)-based eating disorder treatment took lamotrigine for 147 ± 79 days (mean final dose = 161...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040723/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-combat-veterans-suffering-from-impulsive-aggression
#9
T Varkevisser, T E Gladwin, L Heesink, J van Honk, E Geuze
Impulsive aggression is common amongst military personnel after deployment, and may arise because of impaired top-down regulation of the amgydala by prefrontal regions. This study sought to further explore this hypothesis via resting-state functional connectivity analyses in impulsively aggressive combat veterans. Male combat veterans with (n = 28) and without (n = 30) impulsive aggression problems underwent resting-state fMRI. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted with the following seed-regions: basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CeM), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and anterior insular cortex (AIC)...
October 12, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040007/probing-birth-order-effects-on-narrow-traits-using-specification-curve-analysis
#10
Julia M Rohrer, Boris Egloff, Stefan C Schmukle
The idea that birth-order position has a lasting impact on personality has been discussed for the past 100 years. Recent large-scale studies have indicated that birth-order effects on the Big Five personality traits are negligible. In the current study, we examined a variety of more narrow personality traits in a large representative sample ( n = 6,500-10,500 in between-family analyses; n = 900-1,200 in within-family analyses). We used specification-curve analysis to assess evidence for birth-order effects across a range of models implementing defensible yet arbitrary analytical decisions (e...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036823/prevalence-and-correlates-of-behavioral-disorders-in-old-age-subjects-with-cognitive-impairment-results-from-the-regal-project
#11
Virginia Boccardi, Manuela Conestabile Della Staffa, Marta Baroni, Sara Ercolani, Michele Francesco Croce, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Patrizia Mecocci
BACKGROUND: Presence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is very common in subjects with cognitive impairment, representing an important determinant of disease progression, institutionalization, and worse prognosis. Knowledge of the prevalence and correlates of BPSD in community-living old subjects with cognitive impairment is limited so far, but it is essential for establishing specifically tailored care and cure in such a vulnerable population. OBJECTIVE: With this study, we aimed at investigating, in a large sample of old age subjects with cognitive impairment, BPSD prevalence and correlates including the main demographic, clinical, and socio-environmental characteristics...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035979/effect-of-a-commercially-available-footwear-insole-on-biomechanical-variables-associated-with-common-running-injuries
#12
Ryan T Lewinson, Darren J Stefanyshyn
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Dr. Scholl's Active Series (DSAS) footwear insoles alter biomechanical variables associated with running injuries. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled experiment. SETTING: Sport medicine and biomechanics gait analysis laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen healthy adults. INTERVENTIONS: The control condition was the participant's own athletic footwear. The experimental condition was the participant's own athletic footwear plus a DSAS insole...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034964/hemispheric-asymmetry-of-the-frontolimbic-cortex-in-young-adults-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#13
Q Zhou, M Zhong, S Yao, X Jin, Y Liu, C Tan, X Zhu, J Yi
OBJECTIVE: Although the frontolimbic cortex has been implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), information about possible asymmetries in this region in patients with BPD is limited. This study aimed to examine whether frontolimbic cortex asymmetries differ between patients with BPD and healthy individuals. METHODS: The brains of 30 young adult patients with BPD and 32 healthy control subjects were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The participants completed self-report scales assessing impulsivity, affect intensity and other psychological variables...
October 16, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034115/impulse-control-disorder-and-response-inhibition-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-rare-case-of-totally-absent-functionality-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-review-of-literature
#14
Sara Palermo, Rosalba Morese, Maurizio Zibetti, Francesca Dematteis, Stefano Sirgiovanni, Mario Stanziano, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Leonardo Lopiano
This report illustrates a Parkinson's disease (PD) patient with impulse-control disorder (ICD) and selective impairment in response-inhibition abilities as revealed by the performance in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) anterior cingulate cortex - sensitive go-nogo task. In line with hypothesis on the role of response-inhibition disabilities in the arising of impulsivity in PD, the patient completely failed the go-nogo task. Moreover, fMRI acquisition revealed absent task-sensitive activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices for the contrast nogo versus go, which signifying that a hypo-function of this network could be associated with ICD...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034057/design-and-fabrication-of-a-low-cost-three-dimensional-bioprinter
#15
Colton McElheny, Daniel Hayes, Ram Devireddy
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting offers innovative research vectors for tissue engineering. However, commercially available bioprinting platforms can be cost prohibitive to small research facilities, especially in an academic setting. The goal is to design and fabricate a low-cost printing platform able to deliver cell-laden fluids with spatial accuracy along the X, Y, and Z axes of 0.1 mm. The bioprinter consists of three subassemblies: a base unit, a gantry, and a shuttle component. The platform utilizes four stepper motors to position along three axes and a fifth stepper motor actuating a pump...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033857/an-update-overview-on-brain-imaging-studies-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein
There are a growing number of studies on structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that IGD adolescents and adults had reduced gray matter volume in regions associated with attention motor coordination executive function and perception. Adolescents with IGD showed lower white matter (WM) integrity measures in several brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition, and emotional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032769/amphetamine-modestly-improves-conners-continuous-performance-test-performance-in-healthy-adults
#17
David A MacQueen, Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young, William Perry
OBJECTIVES: Amphetamine improves vigilance as assessed by continuous performance tests (CPT) in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Less is known, however, regarding amphetamine effects on vigilance in healthy adults. Thus, it remains unclear whether amphetamine produces general enhancement of vigilance or if these effects are constrained to the remediation of deficits in patients with ADHD. METHODS: We tested 69 healthy adults (35 female) on a standardized CPT (Conner's CPT-2) after receiving 10- or 20-mg d-amphetamine or placebo...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030130/behavioural-and-objective-vestibular-assessment-in-persons-with-osteoporosis-and-osteopenia-a-preliminary-investigation
#18
Aditi Gargeshwari, Raghav Hira Jha, Niraj Kumar Singh, Prawin Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Calcium is vital for the functioning of the inner ear hair cells as well as for the neurotransmitter release that triggers the generation of a nerve impulse. A reduction in calcium level could therefore impair the peripheric vestibular functioning. However, the outcome of balance assessment has rarely been explored in cases with osteopenia and osteoporosis, the medical conditions associated with reduction in calcium levels. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of osteopenia and osteoporosis on the outcomes of behavioural and objective vestibular assessment tests...
September 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024475/bioengineered-lungs-generated-from-human-ipscs-derived-epithelial-cells-on-native-extracellular-matrix
#19
Mahboobe Ghaedi, Andrew V Le, Go Hatachi, Arkadi Beloiartsev, Kevin Rocco, Amogh Sivarapatna, Julio J Mendez, Pavlina Baevova, Rachel N Dyal, Katie L Leiby, Eric S White, Laura E Niklason
Controls on the spatiotemporal extent of groundwater flooding are poorly understood, despite the long duration of groundwater flood events and distinct social and economic impacts. We developed a novel approach using statistical analysis of groundwater level hydrographs and impulse response functions (IRFs) and applied it to the 2013/14 Chalk groundwater flooding in the English Lowlands. We proposed a standardised index of groundwater flooding which we calculated for monthly groundwater levels for 26 boreholes in the Chalk...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020650/decision-making-under-risk-and-under-ambiguity-in-depressed-suicide-attempters-depressed-non-attempters-and-healthy-controls
#20
Eberhard A Deisenhammer, Steffen K Schmid, Georg Kemmler, Bernadette Moser, Margarete Delazer
BACKGROUND: A number of neuropsychological alterations have been found in patients who have attempted suicide. Most studies investigating decision making (DM) abilities in suicide attempters so far have used one single DM task and included patients with a lifetime history of suicide attempts. These studies have yielded conflicting results. METHOD: In this study, currently depressed in-patients who had a recent suicide attempt (within the last six months) (n = 21), depressed in-patients without a lifetime history of suicide attempts (n = 31) and a healthy control group (n = 26) were assessed with two tasks for the assessment of DM...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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