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Impulse control

A Pratap, R Raja, C Sowmiya, O Bagdasar, Jinde Cao, G Rajchakit
Fractional order system is playing an increasingly important role in terms of both theory and applications. In this paper we investigate the global existence of Filippov solutions and the robust generalized Mittag-Leffler synchronization of fractional order neural networks with discontinuous activation and impulses. By means of growth conditions, differential inclusions and generalized Gronwall inequality, a sufficient condition for the existence of Filippov solution is obtained. Then, sufficient criteria are given for the robust generalized Mittag-Leffler synchronization between discontinuous activation function of impulsive fractional order neural network systems with (or without) parameter uncertainties, via a delayed feedback controller and M-Matrix theory...
April 4, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Chun Ping Lyu, Jian Ru Pei, L Cheryl Beseler, Yu Ling Li, Jian Hui Li, Ming Ren, Lorann Stallones, Shu Ping Ren
A case-control study was conducted to investigate associations between organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure, aggression, impulsivity, and attempted suicide. Questionnaires were used to collect information; impulsivity and aggression were measured by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Aggression Inventory (AI). A greater number of OP symptoms was associated with an increased odds of a suicide attempt after adjusting for marital status and income (OR = 1.45; CI 1.14-1.86). Attempted suicide was significantly associated with high impulsivity scores (means: 72...
March 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Eunice N Simões, Ana L Novais Carvalho, Sergio L Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Continuous performance tests (CPTs) usually utilize visual stimuli. A previous investigation showed that inattention is partially independent of modality, but response inhibition is modality-specific. Here we aimed to compare performance on visual and auditory CPTs in ADHD and in healthy controls. METHOD: The sample consisted of 160 elementary and high school students (43 ADHD, 117 controls). For each sensory modality, five variables were extracted: commission errors (CEs) and omission errors (OEs), reaction time (RT), variability of reaction time (VRT), and coefficient of variability (CofV = VRT / RT)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Andrew Harris, Adrian Parke, Mark D Griffiths
Emotions typically exert powerful, enduring, and often predictable influences over decision-making. However, emotion-based decision-making is seen as a mediator of impulsive and reckless gambling behaviour, where emotion may be seen as the antithesis of controlled and rational decision-making, a proposition supported by recent neuroimaging evidence. The present paper argues that the same emotional mechanisms can be used to influence a gambler to cease gambling, by focusing their emotional decision-making on positive external and personally relevant factors, such as familial impact or longer term financial factors...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Reid Hoshide, Rahul Jandial
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Neurosurgery
Yin Sheng, Zhigang Zeng
This paper discusses impulsive synchronization of stochastic reaction-diffusion neural networks with Dirichlet boundary conditions and hybrid time delays. By virtue of inequality techniques, theories of stochastic analysis, linear matrix inequalities, and the contradiction method, sufficient criteria are proposed to ensure exponential synchronization of the addressed stochastic reaction-diffusion neural networks with mixed time delays via a designed impulsive controller. Compared with some recent studies, the neural network models herein are more general, some restrictions are relaxed, and the obtained conditions enhance and generalize some published ones...
March 29, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Valeria Giannunzio, Daniela Degortes, Elena Tenconi, Enrico Collantoni, Marco Solmi, Paolo Santonastaso, Angela Favaro
OBJECTIVE: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) often report difficulties in decision making, which may interfere with treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate decision making in a large sample of adolescent and adult patients with AN, by using the Iowa gambling task. METHOD: Participants were 611 female individuals (310 patients and 301 controls) who underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessment. RESULTS: Significantly poorer decision-making performance was observed in adult patients, whereas no difference emerged between affected and nonaffected adolescents...
April 17, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
April L McPherson, Nathanial A Bates, Nathan D Schilaty, Christopher V Nagelli, Aaron J Krych, Timothy E Hewett
Background: Limb asymmetries, as determined through in vivo biomechanical measures, are known risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Previous cadaveric studies have shown a lack of significant differences in ligament strain between contralateral lower extremities when identical kinematics were simulated on specimens. Recent methodological developments have applied in vivo knee kinetics to exert landing forces on cadaveric lower extremities to mimic ACL injury events, but it is unknown whether contralateral limbs fail in a consistent manner during impact simulator testing...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Mahtab Mojtahed Zadeh, Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Maryam Haghshomar, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are relatively frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), although it is still unclear whether an underlying pathological process plays a significant role in the development of ICD in PD apart from dopaminergic replacement therapy. In this study, we have investigated alterations of white matter tract in drug-naïve PD patients with ICDs via diffusion MRI connectometry. Our results showed that disrupted connectivity in the complex network of dynamic connections between cerebellum, basal ganglia, cortex, and its spinal projections serves as the underlying neuropathology of ICD in PD not interfered with the contribution of dopaminergic replacement therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jarrod M Ellingson, Marc N Potenza, Godfrey D Pearlson
There is a consistent but poorly understood finding that self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity are weakly correlated or uncorrelated. There are many possible explanations for this observation, including differences in how these instruments are administered and scored. The present study examined the utility of alternative scoring algorithms for self-report measures that aim to identify participants' peak impulsivity (or self-control), informed by estimates of item difficulty from Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses...
April 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Nilfer Sahin, Hatice Altun, Ergül Belge Kurutaş, Ebru Fındıklı
Estrogen has a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive and neuroendocrine function and exerts its effects through two classes of receptors, nuclear and membrane estrogen receptors (mERs). G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) is a member of mERs, and despite limited research on the levels of GPER in patients with psychiatric diseases, a role of GPER in such conditions has been suggested. Here we evaluated serum estrogen and GPER levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to their age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
April 16, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
L Bernetti, C Pellegrino, I Corbelli, S Caproni, P Eusebi, M Faralli, G Ricci, P Calabresi, P Sarchielli
OBJECTIVES: This observational study aimed to investigate the presence of potential vestibular system subclinical dysfunction among migraineurs without a history of vertigo and dizziness compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with episodic migraine with and without aura were enrolled. All patients and healthy controls underwent vestibular examination using the following conventional tests: sitting position, Pagnini-McClure's, Dix-Hallpike's, head hanging, video head impulse, subjective visual vertical, Romberg, Fukuda, and caloric vestibular stimulation by Fitzgerald-Hallpike's tests...
April 16, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
V E Pashkovskiy, D V Antonova, G A Prokopovich, A Yu Egorov
AIM: To determine с psychosocial characteristics of alcohol-dependent patients committed self-poisoning suicide attempt. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Individuals, who were admitted to the toxicology department after the self-poisoning suicidal attempt, were studied. The socio-demographic, personal history data together with experimental psychological methods (V.P. Dvorschenko Personality Accentuation Test, AUDIT, Beck Hopelessness and Suicide Intention Scales, Barratt Impulsivity Scale) were used...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Mehdi Yaghubi, Fatemeh Zargar, Hossein Akbari
Background: Impulsivity is one of the causes of relapse that can affect treatment outcomes. Studies have shown that addiction treatments can reduce impulsivity in drug-dependent individuals. Studies also have suggested that mindfulness is associated with impulsivity. However, no study has investigated the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based intervention on impulsivity in opioid-dependent individuals. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) with treatment as usual (TAU) in terms of impulsivity and relapse for methadone-treated patients...
July 2017: Addiction & Health
Marcelo Miranda C, Lorena Hudson A
The main adverse effects of dopaminergic drugs used in Parkinson's disease are hypotension, somnolence, hallucinations and impulse control disorder. Less common is leg edema. We report on a 68-year-old male receiving levodopa and pramipexole consulting for severe leg edema lasting two years, whose etiology was not ascertained with multiple lab tests. This edema subsided substantially when pramipexole was discontinued and the dose of levodopa was increased to treat motor symptoms.
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Georgios Tsimploulis, Gérard Niveau, Ariel Eytan, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Othman Sentissi
The significant progress of psychiatry in the 20th century provided a sophisticated theoretical framework to analyze the complex relationships between crime and mental illness. Schizophrenia has been traditionally associated with severe cognitive and affective deficits that heavily influence empathy, judgment capacities, but also control of impulsiveness. Although there is an association between psychotic disorders and absence or decrease of legal responsibility, their relationship is also determined by sociodemographic, developmental, and clinical factors...
May 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Hirofumi Nakayama, Ines Ibañez-Tallon, Nathaniel Heintz
Behavioral flexibility and impulse control are necessary for successful execution of adaptive behavior. They are impaired in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in some clinically important conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been investigated as a critical structure for behavioral flexibility and impulse control, the contribution of the underlying pyramidal neuron cell types in the mPFC remained to be understood. Here we show that interneuron-mediated local inactivation of pyramidal neurons in the mPFC of male and female mice induces both premature responses and choice bias, and establish that these impulsive and compulsive responses are modulated independently...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Taryn L Mayes, Betsy D Kennard, Michael Killian, Thomas Carmody, Bruce D Grannemann, A John Rush, Manish K Jha, Jennifer Hughes, Graham J Emslie, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Several self-report rating scales have been developed to assess suicidal ideation, yet few examine other factors related to increased suicidal risk, and even fewer have been validated in both adolescents and adults. We evaluate the 14-item Concise Health Risk Tracking - Self Report (CHRT-SR), a measure previously validated in adults, in a sample of adolescents at risk for suicide. METHOD: Data are from a retrospective chart review of adolescents treated in an intensive outpatient program for youth with severe suicidality...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Aslı Beşirli
There are opinions regarding that impulsivity may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and panic disorder (PD) in the patient group, to compare impulsivity and affective temperamental traits between patients and healthy controls and to investigate whether there is a relationship between impulsivity and affective temperamental traits. Participants comprised 70 patients with PD and 58 healthy volunteers. The Panic Agoraphobia Scale (PAS), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) were applied...
March 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Rony Cohen, Ayelet Halevy, Sharon Aharon, Avinoam Shuper
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine if the MOXO visual- and vocal-distractors-based continuous performance test distinguishes patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) from those without NF1. METHODS: Thirty-five patients (16 males; mean age 9.91 years) attending a multidisciplinary NF1 clinic completed the MOXO test. The findings were compared to 532 healthy age-matched standardized control subjects (285 males) without ADHD...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
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