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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228027/an-insulin-resistance-associated-neural-correlate-of-impulsivity-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Kristen L Eckstrand, Nishit Mummareddy, Hakmook Kang, Ronald Cowan, Minchun Zhou, David Zald, Heidi J Silver, Kevin D Niswender, Malcolm J Avison
Central insulin resistance (IR) influences striatal dopamine (DA) tone, an important determinant of behavioral self-regulation. We hypothesized that an association exists between the degree of peripheral IR and impulse control, mediated by the impact of IR on brain circuits controlling the speed of executing "go" and/or "stop" responses. We measured brain activation and associated performance on a stop signal task (SST) in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age, 48.1 ± 6.9 yrs (mean ± SD); BMI, 36.5 ± 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227961/global-exponential-stability-and-lag-synchronization-for-delayed-memristive-fuzzy-cohen-grossberg-bam-neural-networks-with-impulses
#2
Wengui Yang, Wenwu Yu, Jinde Cao, Fuad E Alsaadi, Tasawar Hayat
This paper investigates the stability and lag synchronization for memristor-based fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with mixed delays (asynchronous time delays and continuously distributed delays) and impulses. By applying the inequality analysis technique, homeomorphism theory and some suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, some new sufficient conditions for the uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point are established. Furthermore, we obtain several sufficient criteria concerning globally exponential lag synchronization for the proposed system based on the framework of Filippov solution, differential inclusion theory and control theory...
November 23, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221791/online-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-prefrontal-metabolites-in-gambling-disorder
#3
Maya Dickler, Christophe Lenglos, Emmanuelle Renauld, Francine Ferland, Richard A Edden, Jean Leblond, Shirley Fecteau
Gambling disorder is characterized by persistent maladaptive gambling behaviors and is now considered among substance-related and addictive disorders. There is still unmet therapeutic need for these clinical populations, however recent advances indicate that interventions targeting the Glutamatergic/GABAergic system hold promise in reducing symptoms in substance-related and addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. There is some data indicating that transcranial direct current stimulation may hold clinical benefits in substance use disorders and modulate levels of brain metabolites including glutamate and GABA...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218616/noninvasive-assessment-of-hepatic-sinusoidal-obstructive-syndrome-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-elastography-imaging-a-proof-of-concept-study-in-rat-models
#4
So Hyun Park, Seung Soo Lee, Ji-Youn Sung, Kiyong Na, Hyoung Jung Kim, So Yeon Kim, Beom Jin Park, Jae Ho Byun
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the evaluation of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rat models. METHODS: Rat SOS models of various severities were created by monocrotaline gavage (n = 40) or by intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) (n = 16). Liver shear-wave velocity (SWV) was measured using ARFI elastography. Liver samples were analysed for the SOS score, steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis...
December 7, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218106/extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-effectively-protects-brain-against-chronic-cerebral-hypo-perfusion-induced-neuropathological-changes
#5
Han-Tan Chai, Kuan-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chih-Hung Chen, Pei-Hsun Sung, Yung-Lung Chen, Chun-Man Yuen, Pei-Lin Shao, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Ching-Jen Wang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip, Sheung-Fat Ko
This study tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) therapy could protect mouse brain from chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP)-induced neuropathological changes in a bilateral carotid arterial stenosis (CAS) model. Adult-male C57BL/6 (B6) mice (n=36) were randomized into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (CHP) and group 3 [CHP+ECSW (100 impulses at 0.15 mJ/mm2) on day 5, 10 and 15 after CHP induction]. By day 60 after CHP induction, the white matter lesion, protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/iNOS), oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/NOX-4/nitrotyrosine), angiogenesis (eNOS/CD31), apoptotic (Bax/caspase-3/PARP), fibrotic (Smad3/TGF-ß) and mitochondrial-damaged (cytosolic cytochrome-C) biomarkers were significantly higher in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3, and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1, whereas the protein expressions of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), anti-fibrotic (BMP-2/Smad1/5), and mitochondrial-integrity (mitochondrial cytochrome-C) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern to inflammation among the three groups (all P<0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217724/correlation-of-impulsivity-with-self-harm-and-suicidal-attempt-a-community-study-of-adolescents-in-taiwan
#6
Yu-Hsin Huang, Hui-Ching Liu, Fang-Ju Tsai, Fang-Ju Sun, Kuo-Yang Huang, Yu-Ching Chiu, Yen-Hsun Huang, Yo-Ping Huang, Shen-Ing Liu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate differences and similarities in risk factors for deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal attempt (SA), and the role of impulsivity among a group of community adolescents. SETTING: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at high schools in Northern Taiwan. DATA AND PARTICIPANTS: We recruited grade 1 students from 14 high schools. A total of 5879 participants (mean age 16.02 years, female adolescents: 57...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215777/atypical-anorexia-nervosa-is-not-related-to-brain-structural-changes-in-newly-diagnosed-adolescent-patients
#7
Gaia Olivo, Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lyle Wiemerslage, Ingemar Swenne, Christina Zhukovsky, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Santino Gaudio, Samantha J Brooks, Helgi B Schiöth
OBJECTIVE: Patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) have many features overlapping with AN in terms of genetic risk, age of onset, psychopathology and prognosis of outcome, although the weight loss may not be a core factor. While brain structural alterations have been reported in AN, there are currently no data regarding atypical AN patients. METHOD: We investigated brain structure through a voxel-based morphometry analysis in 22 adolescent females newly-diagnosed with atypical AN, and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214948/measuring-self-soothing-ability-in-patients-with-childhood-trauma-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-self-soothing-scale-in-a-clinical-sample
#8
Thomas Beck, David Riedl, Anne Schöckel, Luise Reddemann, Silvia Exenberger, Astrid Lampe
OBJECTIVES: The regulation of strong emotions is an essential skill for traumatized patients. The present instrument was developed for the measurement of the self-soothing ability in traumatized patients. METHODS: The psychometric properties of the SBS were investigated in a clinical sample of patients with childhood trauma (N = 143). In addition, the study explored the factorial structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, convergent validity, and responsiveness of the instrument...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213505/planning-ability-impairments-in-probable-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-evidence-from-the-tower-of-london-test
#9
Corina Satler, Luiza Guimarães, Carlos Tomaz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with progressive impairment of higher-level cognitive abilities. Previous research suggests that early impairment of executive functions occurs during the course of the disease, but few studies have specifically investigated planning ability in an AD population. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine whether AD patients retain the ability to plan ahead, by analyzing specificities of their behavior in successfully achieving a pre-established goal...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210458/distribution-of-cardiac-sodium-channels-in-clusters-potentiates-ephaptic-interactions-in-the-intercalated-disc
#10
Echrak Hichri, Hugues Abriel, Jan P Kucera
It has been proposed that ephaptic interactions in intercalated discs, mediated by extracellular potentials, contribute to cardiac impulse propagation when gap junctional coupling is reduced. However, experiments demonstrating ephaptic effects on the cardiac Na+ current (INa ) are scarce. Furthermore, Na+ channels form clusters around gap junction plaques, but the electrophysiological significance of these clusters has never been investigated. In patch clamp experiments with HEK cells stably expressing human Nav 1...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210144/adolescent-impulsivity-as-a-sex-dependent-and-subtype-dependent-predictor-of-impulsivity-alcohol-drinking-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-expression-in-adult-rats
#11
Lindsey R Hammerslag, Amogh P Belagodu, Olubankole A Aladesuyi Arogundade, Angela G Karountzos, Qingrou Guo, Roberto Galvez, Brent W Roberts, Joshua M Gulley
Impulsivity is a personality trait associated with a heightened risk for drug use and other psychiatric conditions. Because impulsivity-related disorders typically emerge during adolescence, there has been interest in exploring methods for identifying adolescents that will be at risk to develop substance use disorders in adulthood. Here, we used a rodent model to assess inhibitory control (impulsive action) and impulsive decision making (impulsive choice) during adolescence (43-50 days old) or adulthood (93-100 days old) and then examined the impact of development on these impulsivity traits by re-testing rats 50 days later...
December 5, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207984/individualised-radial-extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-reswt-for-symptomatic-calcific-shoulder-tendinopathy-a-retrospective-clinical-study
#12
Nikolaos Malliaropoulos, Dawn Thompson, Maria Meke, Debasish Pyne, Dimosthenis Alaseirlis, Henry Atkinson, Vasileios Korakakis, Heinz Lohrer
BACKGROUND: A retrospective single centre cohort analysis was performed to evaluate an individualised radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) protocol for treatment of symptomatic calcific shoulder tendinopathy. METHODS: 67 patients (79 Shoulders) were identified with 76 shoulders included for analysis. rESWT treatment protocol was adapted according to individual response to treatment. Variables included number of sessions, shockwave impulses, pressure and frequency...
December 6, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205115/the-overlap-between-binge-eating-behaviors-and-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-an-etiological-integrative-model
#13
Chiara Paganini, Gregory Peterson, Vasilis Stavropoulos, Isabel Krug
Studies indicate that Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) features (e.g. insulin instability, food cravings, overproduction of androgens and menstrual irregularities) associate with increased appetite, impaired impulse control and feelings of body dissatisfaction. Counter intuitively, binge eating behaviors have been shown to reinforce PCOS symptomatology, precipitating concurrently body dissatisfaction, weight gain, insulin instability and overproduction of androgens. The present systematic literature review aspires to investigate the relationship between binge eating, in the broader context of eating disorder behaviors, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), taking into account shared characteristics between EDs (Eating Disorders) and PCOS...
December 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203153/focused-ultrasound-subthalamotomy-in-patients-with-asymmetric-parkinson-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#14
Raul Martínez-Fernández, Rafael Rodríguez-Rojas, Marta Del Álamo, Frida Hernández-Fernández, Jose A Pineda-Pardo, Michele Dileone, Fernando Alonso-Frech, Guglielmo Foffani, Ignacio Obeso, Carmen Gasca-Salas, Esther de Luis-Pastor, Lydia Vela, José A Obeso
BACKGROUND: Ablative neurosurgery has been used to treat Parkinson's disease for many decades. MRI-guided focused ultrasound allows focal lesions to be made in deep brain structures without skull incision. We investigated the safety and preliminary efficacy of unilateral subthalamotomy by focused ultrasound in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This prospective, open-label pilot study was done at CINAC (Centro Integral de Neurociencias), University Hospital HM Puerta del Sur in Madrid, Spain...
December 1, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202280/no-evidence-for-common-processes-of-cognitive-control-and-self-control
#15
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Anna-Maria Holfert, Denis O'Hora, Maja Dshemuchadse
Cognitive control and self-control are often used as interchangeable terms. Both terms refer to the ability to pursue long-term goals, but the types of controlled behavior that are typically associated with these terms differ, at least superficially. Cognitive control is observed in the control of attention and the overcoming of habitual responses, while self-control is observed in resistance to short-term impulses and temptations. Evidence from clinical studies and neuroimaging studies suggests that below these superficial differences, common control process (e...
December 1, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201554/linking-y-chromosomal-short-tandem-repeat-loci-to-human-male-impulsive-aggression
#16
Chun Yang, Huajie Ba, Yin Cao, Guoying Dong, Shuyou Zhang, Zhiqin Gao, Hanqing Zhao, Xianju Zhou
Introduction: Men are more susceptible to impulsive behavior than women. Epidemiological studies revealed that the impulsive aggressive behavior is affected by genetic factors, and the male-specific Y chromosome plays an important role in this behavior. In this study, we investigated the association between the impulsive aggressive behavior and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) loci. Methods: The collected biologic samples from 271 offenders with impulsive aggressive behavior and 492 healthy individuals without impulsive aggressive behavior were amplified by PowerPlexRY23 PCR System and the resultant products were separated by electrophoresis and further genotyped...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200467/examination-of-the-validity-and-reliability-of-the-french-version-of-the-brief-self-control-scale
#17
Damien Brevers, Jennifer Foucart, Paul Verbanck, Ofir Turel
This study aims to develop and to validate a French version of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney et al., 2004). This instrument is usually applied as a unidimensional self-report measure for assessing trait self-control, which captures one's dispositional ability to resist short-term temptation in order to reach more valuable long-term goals. Data were collected from two independent samples of French-speaking individuals (n1 = 287; n2 = 160). Results indicated that the French version of the BSCS can be treated as unidimensional, like the original questionnaire...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199955/a-selective-role-for-ventromedial-subthalamic-nucleus-in-inhibitory-control
#18
Robert S Turner, Benjamin Pasquereau
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is hypothesized to play a central role in the rapid stopping of movement in reaction to a stop signal. Single-unit recording evidence for such a role is sparse, however, and it remains uncertain how that role relates to the disparate functions described for anatomic subdivisions of the STN. Here we address that gap in knowledge using non-human primates and a task that distinguishes reactive and proactive action inhibition, switching and skeletomotor functions. We found that specific subsets of STN neurons have activity consistent with causal roles in reactive action stopping or switching...
December 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198499/markers-of-impaired-motor-and-cognitive-volition-in-parkinson-s-disease-correlates-of-dopamine-dysregulation-syndrome-impulse-control-disorder-and-dyskinesias
#19
Jared T Hinkle, Kate Perepezko, Liana S Rosenthal, Kelly A Mills, Alexander Pantelyat, Zoltan Mari, Laura Tochen, Jee Yun Bang, Medha Gudavalli, Nadine Yoritomo, Ankur Butala, Catherine C Bakker, Vanessa Johnson, Emile Moukheiber, Ted M Dawson, Gregory M Pontone
INTRODUCTION: Dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be associated with both motoric (e.g., dyskinesias) and neuropsychiatric adverse effects. Examples of the latter include Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome (DDS) and impulse control disorder (ICD), which are separate but related behavioral/psychiatric complications of treatment in PD. Dysregulation of volition characterizes both dyskinesias and DDS/ICD; thus, we analyzed potential disease-related correlates in a large PD cohort...
November 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197402/manual-physical-balance-assistance-of-therapists-during-gait-training-of-stroke-survivors-characteristics-and-predicting-the-timing
#20
Juliet A M Haarman, Erik Maartens, Herman van der Kooij, Jaap H Buurke, Jasper Reenalda, Johan S Rietman
BACKGROUND: During gait training, physical therapists continuously supervise stroke survivors and provide physical support to their pelvis when they judge that the patient is unable to keep his balance. This paper is the first in providing quantitative data about the corrective forces that therapists use during gait training. It is assumed that changes in the acceleration of a patient's COM are a good predictor for therapeutic balance assistance during the training sessions Therefore, this paper provides a method that predicts the timing of therapeutic balance assistance, based on acceleration data of the sacrum...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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