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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092934/visceral-leishmaniasis-treatment-outcome-and-its-determinants-in-northwest-ethiopia
#1
Berihun Assefa Dachew, Getachew Mebrahtu Welay, Kefyalew Addis Alene
Background: Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for a high mortality rate in resource limited setting like Ethiopia. This study aimed at evaluating the magnitude and identifying determinants of poor VL treatment outcome in Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital based retrospective follow up study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013...
December 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092922/the-effectiveness-of-free-vascularized-fibular-flaps-in-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-and-neck-a-systematic-review
#2
Cassandra A Ligh, Jonas A Nelson, John P Fischer, Stephen J Kovach, L Scott Levin
Background Free vascularized fibular flaps (FVFFs) are accepted surgical options to treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head and neck (ONFHN) to prevent conversion to total hip replacement (THR), yet many studies are single institution cohorts, with little generalizability. Purpose The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review examining the comparative effectiveness of FVFF to treat ONFHN, particularly preventing conversion to a THR and improving hip function/symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases using femoral head, free fibula, and femoral neck keywords...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092859/n-2-arylmethylimino-ethyl-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine-derivatives-synthesized-by-thermal-and-ultrasonic-means-are-endowed-with-anti-zika-virus-activity
#3
Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Ligia S da Silveira Pinto, Carlos R Kaiser, James L Wardell, Caroline S De Freitas, Yasmine R Vieira, Andressa Marttorelli, José Cerbino Neto, Patrícia T Bozza, Solange M S V Wardell, Marcus V N de Souza, Thiago M L Souza
Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging Flavivirus, was recently associated with severe neurological complications and congenital diseases. Therefore, development of antiviral agents capable of inhibiting ZIKV replication is urgent. Chloroquine is a molecule with a confirmed safety history for use with pregnant women, and has been found to exhibit anti-ZIKV activity at concentrations around 10 μM. This suggests that modifications to the chloroquine structure could be promising for obtaining more effective anti-ZIKV agents...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092853/operative-vaginal-delivery-and-invasive-procedures-in-pregnancy-among-women-living-with-hiv
#4
Helen Peters, Kate Francis, Kate Harding, Pat A Tookey, Claire Thorne
OBJECTIVES: To describe the use and outcomes of operative delivery and invasive procedures in pregnancy amongst women living with HIV. STUDY DESIGN: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) is a comprehensive population-based surveillance study in the UK and Ireland. The NSHPC has collected data on operative delivery since 2008, and invasive procedures in pregnancy (amniocentesis, cordocentesis, chorionic villus sampling) from 2012. Descriptive analyses were conducted on 278 pregnancies expected to deliver from 1 January 2008 with outcome reported to the NSHPC by 31 March 2016...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092848/the-initial-use-of-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-and-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-in-the-diagnosis-of-nonconvulsive-partial-status-epileptics
#5
Takafumi Shimogawa, Takato Morioka, Tetsuro Sayama, Sei Haga, Yuka Kanazawa, Kei Murao, Shuji Arakawa, Ayumi Sakata, Koji Iihara
BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), capture of ongoing ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings is the gold standard; however, this is practically difficult without continuous EEG monitoring facilities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion MRI with arterial spin labeling (ASL), have been applied mainly in emergency situations. Recent reports have described that ictal MRI findings, including ictal hyperperfusion on ASL and cortical hyperintensity of cytotoxic edema on DWI, can be obtained from epileptically activated cortex...
December 21, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092792/curiosity-improves-coping-efficacy-and-reduces-suicidal-ideation-severity-among-military-veterans-at-risk-for-suicide
#6
Lauren M Denneson, Derek J Smolenski, Nigel E Bush, Steven K Dobscha
Curiosity, the tendency to engage in novel and challenging opportunities, may be an important source of resilience for those at risk for suicide. We hypothesized that curiosity would have a buffering effect against risk conferred by multiple sources of distress, whereby curiosity would be associated with reduced suicidal ideation and increased coping efficacy. As part of a larger intervention trial designed to improve coping skills and reduce suicidal ideation, 117 military veterans with suicidal ideation completed measures of curiosity and distress (perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances) at baseline, and completed measures of suicidal ideation and coping efficacy (to stop negative thoughts, to enlist support from friends and family) at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 12-week follow up...
January 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092777/controlling-the-3d-architecture-of-self-lifting-auto-generated-tissue-equivalents-slates-for-optimized-corneal-graft-composition-and-stability
#7
Ricardo M Gouveia, Elena González-Andrades, Juan C Cardona, Carmen González-Gallardo, Ana M Ionescu, Ingrid Garzon, Miguel Alaminos, Miguel González-Andrades, Che J Connon
Ideally, biomaterials designed to play specific physical and physiological roles in vivo should comprise components and microarchitectures analogous to those of the native tissues they intend to replace. For that, implantable biomaterials need to be carefully designed to have the correct structural and compositional properties, which consequently impart their bio-function. In this study, we showed that the control of such properties can be defined from the bottom-up, using smart surface templates to modulate the structure, composition, and bio-mechanics of human transplantable tissues...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092760/serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-stability-of-depressive-symptoms-in-coronary-heart-disease-patients-a-prospective-study
#8
Stella L Kuhlmann, Mira Tschorn, Volker Arolt, Katja Beer, Julia Brandt, Laura Grosse, Wilhelm Haverkamp, Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Nina Rieckmann, Johannes Waltenberger, Katharina Warnke, Rainer Hellweg, Andreas Ströhle
OBJECTIVE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and promotes the survival of various cell types in the brain and the coronary system. Moreover, BDNF is associated with both coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression. The current study aims to investigate whether serum BDNF levels are associated with the course of depressive symptoms in CHD patients. METHODS: At baseline, N=225 CHD patients were enrolled while hospitalized...
December 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092756/effects-of-assisted-outpatient-treatment-and-health-care-services-on-psychotic-symptoms
#9
Andres R Schneeberger, Christian G Huber, Undine E Lang, Kristina H Muenzenmaier, Dorothy Castille, Matthias Jaeger, Azizi Seixas, Julia Sowislo, Bruce G Link
RATIONALE: An ongoing debate concerns acceptability, benefits, and shortcomings of coercive treatment such as assisted outpatient treatment (AOT). The hypothesis that involuntary commitment to outpatient treatment may lead to a better clinical outcome for a subgroup of persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is controversial. Nonetheless, positive effects of AOT may be mediated by an increased availability of healthcare resources or increased service use. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the course of delusions, hallucinations, and negative symptoms among patients with SMI receiving AOT compared to patients receiving non-compulsory treatment (NCT)...
January 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092703/enantioselective-three-component-amination-of-enecarbamates-enables-the-synthesis-of-structurally-complex-small-molecules
#10
Audrey Dumoulin, Guillaume Bernadat, Géraldine Masson
The control of asymmetric synthesis tools represents a major challenge, especially when it comes to the synthesis of bioactive molecules. In this context, the asymmetric synthesis of 1,2-diamines through amination of enecarbamates has appeared to us as a highly efficient and tunable approach. Indeed, reactivity of the latter species could be exploited to realize a double functionalization via an electrophilic amination followed by nucleophilic trapping. Herein, we describe a chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed electrophilic amination of enecarbamates with dibenzylazodicarboxylate and oxygenated or thiol-containing nucleophiles affording stable precursors of α-hydrazinoimines in high yields and with almost complete enantioselectivities (up to >99%)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092699/infection-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells-by-invasive-bacteria-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-increases-icam-1-expression-through-nod1
#11
Woon Geon Shin, Bum Joon Park, Sung Joong Lee, Jae Gyu Kim
Background/Aims: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is required for primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to respond to natural mucopeptides secreted by gram-negative bacteria. Infection of human IECs with invasive bacteria up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. However, the role of NOD family members in host defense has been largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a functional role for NOD1 in the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression in invasive bacteria-infected IECs...
January 16, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092649/new-onset-depression-following-stable-slow-and-rapid-rate-of-prescription-opioid-dose-escalation
#12
Joanne Salas, Jeffrey F Scherrer, Frank David Schneider, Mark D Sullivan, Kathleen K Bucholz, Thomas Burroughs, Laurel A Copeland, Brian K Ahmedani, Patrick J Lustman
Recent studies suggest that longer durations of opioid use, independent of maximum morphine equivalent dose (MED) achieved, is associated with increased risk of new-onset depression (NOD). Conversely, other studies, not accounting for duration, found that higher MED increased probability of depressive symptoms. To determine whether rate of MED increase is associated with NOD, a retrospective cohort analysis of Veterans Health Administration data (2000-2012) was conducted. Eligible patients were new, chronic (>90 days) opioid users, aged 18 to 80, and without depression diagnoses for 2 years before start of follow-up (n = 7051)...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092614/the-distribution-of-different-virulence-grass-carp-reovirus-strains-in-some-neglected-tissues
#13
H R Liang, X Z Fu, N Q Li, L H Liu, Q Lin, Y G Li, Y A Peng, Z B Huang, S Q Wu
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative agent of hemorrhagic disease in infected grass carp. During an outbreak, a mortality rate of up to 85% can be experienced, thus leading to substantial economic losses. The current understanding of disease pathogenesis is limited, with the distribution and dynamics of replication amongst different GCRV strains in vivo largely unknown. We determined distribution of different GCRV strains in infected grass carp, especially in some neglected tissues, such as the gill, brain, blood and so on...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092557/single-image-super-resolution-using-global-regression-based-on-multiple-local-linear-mappings
#14
Jae-Seok Choi, Munchurl Kim
Super-resolution (SR) has become more vital, because of its capability to generate high-quality ultra-high definition (UHD) high-resolution (HR) images from low-resolution (LR) input images. Conventional SR methods entail high computational complexity, which makes them difficult to be implemented for up-scaling of full-high-definition (FHD) input images into UHD-resolution images. Nevertheless, our previous super-interpolation (SI) method showed a good compromise between PSNR performances and computational complexity...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092523/longitudinal-study-of-automatic-face-recognition
#15
Lacey Best-Rowden, Anil K Jain
The two underlying premises of automatic face recognition are uniqueness and permanence. This paper investigates the permanence property by addressing the following: Does face recognition ability of state-of-the-art systems degrade with elapsed time between enrolled and query face images? If so, what is the rate of decline w.r.t. the elapsed time? While previous studies have reported degradations in accuracy, no formal statistical analysis of large-scale longitudinal data has been conducted. We conduct such an analysis on two mugshot databases, which are the largest facial aging databases studied to date in terms of number of subjects, images per subject, and elapsed times...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092416/persistence-of-antibody-to-hepatitis-a-virus-20-years-after-receipt-of-hepatitis-a-vaccine-in-alaska
#16
Ian D Plumb, Lisa R Bulkow, Michael G Bruce, Thomas W Hennessy, Julie Morris, Karen Rudolph, Philip Spradling, Mary Snowball, Brian J McMahon
Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for children ≥1 year old to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However the duration of vaccine-induced immunity is unknown. We evaluated a cohort of Alaska Native persons 20 years after HAV vaccination. Children aged 3-6 years had been previously randomized to receive 3 doses of HAV vaccine (360 ELISA units/dose) at: A) 0,1,2 months; B) 0,1,6 months; and C) 0,1,12 months. We measured anti-HAV antibody concentrations every 2-3 years; described geometric mean concentrations (GMC) and the proportion with protective antibody (≥20 mIU mL-1) over time; and modelled change in GMC using fractional polynomial regression...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092409/quantification-of-brown-and-white-adipose-tissue-based-on-gaussian-mixture-model-using-water-fat-and-t2-mri-in-adolescents
#17
Steve C N Hui, Jacky K L Ko, Teng Zhang, Lin Shi, David K W Yeung, Defeng Wang, Queenie Chan, Winnie C W Chu
PURPOSE: To develop a technique for the separation and quantification of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) using fat fraction and T2* intensity based on the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical-shift water-fat and T2* images were acquired at the neck, supraclavicular, interscapular, and paravertebral regions in 24 volunteers (Obese: n = 12, female/male = 6/6, body mass index [BMI] = 31.3 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) , age = 16...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092399/association-of-dietary-patterns-with-global-and-domain-specific-cognitive-decline-in-chinese-elderly
#18
Yen-Ching Chen, Chien-Cheng Jung, Jen-Hau Chen, Jeng-Min Chiou, Ta-Fu Chen, Ya-Fang Chen, Sung-Chun Tang, Shin-Joe Yeh, Meei-Shyuan Lee
BACKGROUND: Significant differences exist between eastern and western diets, and the way in which Chinese dietary intake relates to specific cognitive domains remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between dietary patterns (DPs) and cognitive decline in Chinese elderly. SETTING: Participants were recruited from the elderly health checkup program of a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 475 elders (age ≥65) were included in this prospective cohort study...
January 16, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092397/update-on-orthokeratology-in-managing-progressive-myopia-in-children-efficacy-mechanisms-and-concerns
#19
Xintong Li, Ilana B Friedman, Norman B Medow, Cheng Zhang
Myopia is an important public health issue, and high myopia may lead to severe complications if left untreated. Orthokeratology lenses, worn overnight to reshape the cornea, are one of many recent modalities used to slow down the progression of myopia in children. This treatment has been proven successful, as evidenced by decreased spherical refractive error and axial length relative to the control at interval follow-up ranging from 6 months to 5 years. In this systematic review, the authors collected published controlled studies that analyzed the efficacy of orthokeratology lens wear and calculated longitudinal relative changes in axial length, revealing a weighted average of -45...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092393/surgical-treatment-of-adult-onset-esotropia-characteristics-and-outcomes
#20
Sara F Grace, Kara M Cavuoto, Wei Shi, Hilda Capo
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of the strabismus, surgical management, and outcomes of patients who underwent surgery for adult-onset esotropia. METHODS: This was a retrospective case study of patients at an academic tertiary referral center who underwent surgical treatment of esotropia acquired at or after age 18 years. Primary outcome measures were resolution of diplopia in primary position and a deviation of 10 prism diopters or less in primary gaze...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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