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Cognitive mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222523/anomalous-white-matter-structure-and-the-effect-of-age-in-down-syndrome-patients
#1
Raquel Fenoll, Jesus Pujol, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Susana de Sola, Núria Ribas-Vidal, Javier García-Alba, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, Mara Dierssen, Ramón Novell-Alsina, Rafael de la Torre
BACKGROUND: Neural tissue alterations in Down syndrome are fully expressed at relatively late developmental stages. In addition, there is an early presence of neurodegenerative changes in the late life stages. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were both to characterize white matter abnormalities in the brain of adult Down syndrome patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to investigate whether degenerative alterations in white matter structure are detectable before dementia is clinically evident...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219685/development-of-a-chronic-disease-management-program-for-stroke-survivors-using-intervention-mapping-the-stroke-coach
#2
Brodie M Sakakibara, Scott A Lear, Susan I Barr, Oscar Benavente, Charlie H Goldsmith, Noah D Silverberg, Jennifer Yao, Janice J Eng
OBJECTIVE: To describe the systematic development of the Stroke Coach, a theory- and evidence-based intervention to improve control of lifestyle behaviour risk factors in stroke patients. DESIGN: Intervention development. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals who have had a stroke. INTERVENTION: We used Intervention Mapping to guide the development of the Stroke Coach. Intervention Mapping is a systematic process used for intervention development and comprised of steps that progress from the integration of theory and evidence to the organization of realistic strategies to facilitate the development of a practical intervention supported by empirical evidence...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218020/stroke-rehabilitation-evidence-and-comorbidity-a-systematic-scoping-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Michelle L A Nelson, Kaileah A McKellar, Juliana Yi, Linda Kelloway, Sarah Munce, Cheryl Cott, Ruth Hall, Martin Fortin, Robert Teasell, Renee Lyons
BACKGROUND: Most strokes occur in the context of other medical diagnoses. Currently, stroke rehabilitation evidence reviews have not synthesized or presented evidence with a focus on comorbidities and correspondingly may not align with current patient population. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent and nature of randomized controlled trial stroke rehabilitation evidence that included patients with multimorbidity. METHODS: A systematic scoping review was conducted...
February 20, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216068/stages-of-dysfunctional-decision-making-in-addiction
#4
REVIEW
Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Trevor T-J Chong, Julie C Stout, Murat Yücel, Edythe D London
Drug use is a choice with immediate positive outcomes, but long-term negative consequences. Thus, the repeated use of drugs in the face of negative consequences suggests dysfunction in the cognitive mechanisms underpinning decision-making. This cognitive dysfunction can be mapped into three stages: the formation of preferences involving valuation of decision options; choice implementation including motivation, self-regulation and inhibitory processes; and feedback processing implicating reinforcement learning...
February 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212278/the-effect-of-the-human-peptide-ghk-on-gene-expression-relevant-to-nervous-system-function-and-cognitive-decline
#5
Loren Pickart, Jessica Michelle Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions...
February 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203220/proof-of-concept-of-an-online-emg-based-decoding-of-hand-postures-and-individual-digit-forces-for-prosthetic-hand-control
#6
Alycia Gailey, Panagiotis Artemiadis, Marco Santello
INTRODUCTION: Options currently available to individuals with upper limb loss range from prosthetic hands that can perform many movements, but require more cognitive effort to control, to simpler terminal devices with limited functional abilities. We attempted to address this issue by designing a myoelectric control system to modulate prosthetic hand posture and digit force distribution. METHODS: We recorded surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from five forearm muscles in eight able-bodied subjects while they modulated hand posture and the flexion force distribution of individual fingers...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203146/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-at-the-crossroads-of-brain-development-and-aging
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Wrigley, Donia Arafa, Daniela Tropea
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a polypeptide hormone structurally similar to insulin. It is central to the somatotropic axis, acting downstream of growth hormone (GH). It activates both the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and PI3K signaling pathways, acting in almost every tissue in the body to promote tissue growth and maturation through upregulation of anabolic processes. Overall GH and IGF1 signaling falls with age, suggesting that it is this reduced IGF1 activity that leads to age-related changes in organisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197092/bci-control-of-heuristic-search-algorithms
#8
Marc Cavazza, Gabor Aranyi, Fred Charles
The ability to develop Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) to Intelligent Systems would offer new perspectives in terms of human supervision of complex Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems, as well as supporting new types of applications. In this article, we introduce a basic mechanism for the control of heuristic search through fNIRS-based BCI. The rationale is that heuristic search is not only a basic AI mechanism but also one still at the heart of many different AI systems. We investigate how users' mental disposition can be harnessed to influence the performance of heuristic search algorithm through a mechanism of precision-complexity exchange...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195583/longitudinal-test-retest-neuroimaging-data-from-healthy-young-adults-in-southwest-china
#9
Wei Liu, Dongtao Wei, Qunlin Chen, Wenjing Yang, Jie Meng, Guorong Wu, Taiyong Bi, Qinglin Zhang, Xi-Nian Zuo, Jiang Qiu
Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) has been widely used to map the structure and function of the human brain, as well as its behavioral associations. However, to date, a large sample with a long-term longitudinal design and a narrow age-span has been lacking for the assessment of test-retest reliability and reproducibility of brain-behavior correlations, as well as the development of novel causal insights into these correlational findings. Here we describe the SLIM dataset, which includes brain and behavioral data across a long-term retest-duration within three and a half years, mMRI scans provided a set of structural, diffusion and resting-state functional MRI images, along with rich samples of behavioral assessments addressed-demographic, cognitive and emotional information...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188857/sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-and-translational-studies-of-anxiety-disorders
#10
Marco Battaglia
Heightened concentrations of CO2 in inhaled air provoke temporary acidification of the brain, followed by compensatory hyperventilation and increased arousal/anxiety. These responses are likely to map a basic, latent general alarm/avoidance system that is largely shared across mammals, and are sources of individual differences. By showing paroxysmal respiratory and emotional responses to CO2 challenges, humans with panic and separation anxiety disorders lie at one extreme of the distribution for CO2 sensitivity...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188401/-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-psychiatric-research-as-applied-cognitive-neuroscience
#11
H Walter
BACKGROUND: Just before the official launch of the DSM-5 in 2013, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of the National Institute of Mental Health was made public and is becoming increasingly more important in psychiatric research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to clarify the conceptual approach of RDoC, to systematically discuss limitations, to present exemplary RDoC-based studies and to consider the relevance of the RDoC concepts for clinicians and scientists...
February 10, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187264/development-of-a-combined-mr-fingerprinting-and-diffusion-examination-for-prostate-cancer
#12
Alice C Yu, Chaitra Badve, Lee E Ponsky, Shivani Pahwa, Sara Dastmalchian, Matthew Rogers, Yun Jiang, Seunghee Margevicius, Mark Schluchter, William Tabayoyong, Robert Abouassaly, Debra McGivney, Mark A Griswold, Vikas Gulani
Purpose To develop and evaluate an examination consisting of magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting-based T1, T2, and standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping for multiparametric characterization of prostate disease. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study of prospectively collected data included 140 patients suspected of having prostate cancer. T1 and T2 mapping was performed with fast imaging with steady-state precession-based MR fingerprinting with ADC mapping...
February 10, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186421/effects-of-cognitive-load-on-driving-performance
#13
Johan Engström, Gustav Markkula, Trent Victor, Natasha Merat
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to outline an explanatory framework for understanding effects of cognitive load on driving performance and to review the existing experimental literature in the light of this framework. BACKGROUND: Although there is general consensus that taking the eyes off the forward roadway significantly impairs most aspects of driving, the effects of primarily cognitively loading tasks on driving performance are not well understood...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185950/can-responses-to-basic-non-numerical-visual-features-explain-neural-numerosity-responses
#14
Ben M Harvey, Serge O Dumoulin
Humans and many animals can distinguish between stimuli that differ in numerosity, the number of objects in a set. Human and macaque parietal lobes contain neurons that respond to changes in stimulus numerosity. However, basic non-numerical visual features can affect neural responses to and perception of numerosity, and visual features often co-vary with numerosity. Therefore, it is debated whether numerosity or co-varying low-level visual features underlie neural and behavioral responses to numerosity. To test the hypothesis that non-numerical visual features underlie neural numerosity responses in a human parietal numerosity map, we analyze responses to a group of numerosity stimulus configurations that have the same numerosity progression but vary considerably in their non-numerical visual features...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183374/experiences-of-codeine-use-misuse-and-dependence-application-of-liese-and-franz-s-cognitive-developmental-model-of-substance-abuse
#15
Marie Claire Van Hout, Ian Norman, Eileen Rich, Michael Bergin
BACKGROUND: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging public health issue. AIMS: We present the application of Liese and Franz's (1996) cognitive developmental model of substance abuse to the trajectory from legitimate codeine use for pain, towards that of therapeutic and other forms of misuse, and physical and psychological dependence. It illustrates a cognitive behavioural analysis of the experiences of codeine misusers - which 'surfaces' the specific beliefs, thoughts, emotions and behaviours of this group of hidden codeine dependent individuals, who are distinct and unique from other opioid-dependent cohorts...
February 10, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182963/over-facilitation-of-unadapted-cognitive-processes-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-as-assessed-with-the-computerized-mirror-pointing-task
#16
Guillaume Dulude, Kieron O'Connor, Jean-Sebastien Audet, Marc-André Bedard
Response inhibition has been suggested to be dysfunctional in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, this process involves intentional cognitive control, which does not correspond to the automatic emergence of stereotyped thoughts and behaviours usually reported by patients with OCD. In the present study, the excessive facilitation of unintentional processes was assessed in OCD by using the Computerized Mirror Pointing Task (CMPT). Seventy-six volunteers participated in this study, including 39 patients with OCD and 37 healthy controls...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180077/multicenter-stability-of-resting-state-fmri-in-the-detection-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-amnestic-mci
#17
Stefan J Teipel, Alexandra Wohlert, Coraline Metzger, Timo Grimmer, Christian Sorg, Michael Ewers, Eva Meisenzahl, Stefan Klöppel, Viola Borchardt, Michel J Grothe, Martin Walter, Martin Dyrba
BACKGROUND: In monocentric studies, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia exhibited alterations of functional cortical connectivity in resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) analyses. Multicenter studies provide access to large sample sizes, but rs-fMRI may be particularly sensitive to multiscanner effects. METHODS: We used data from five centers of the "German resting-state initiative for diagnostic biomarkers" (psymri...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179469/lesion-localization-of-speech-comprehension-deficits-in-chronic-aphasia
#18
Sara B Pillay, Jeffrey R Binder, Colin Humphries, William L Gross, Diane S Book
OBJECTIVE: Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to localize impairments specific to multiword (phrase and sentence) spoken language comprehension. METHODS: Participants were 51 right-handed patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. They performed an auditory description naming (ADN) task requiring comprehension of a verbal description, an auditory sentence comprehension (ASC) task, and a picture naming (PN) task. Lesions were mapped using high-resolution MRI...
February 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178858/technology-based-tools-and-services-for-people-with-dementia-and-carers-mapping-technology-onto-the-dementia-care-pathway
#19
Klara Lorenz, Paul P Freddolino, Adelina Comas-Herrera, Martin Knapp, Jacqueline Damant
The extent to which technology may be able to support people with dementia and their carers along the care pathway and in different care settings is of interest to policy makers and governments. In this paper we provide an overview of the role of technology in dementia care, treatment and support by mapping existing technologies - by function, target user and disease progression. Technologies identified are classified into seven functions: memory support, treatment, safety and security, training, care delivery, social interaction and other...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176828/cognitive-impairment-categorized-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-with-and-without-dementia-using-in-home-sensors-that-recognise-activities-of-daily-living
#20
Prabitha Urwyler, Reto Stucki, Luca Rampa, René Müri, Urs P Mosimann, Tobias Nef
Cognitive impairment due to dementia decreases functionality in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Its assessment is useful to identify care needs, risks and monitor disease progression. This study investigates differences in ADL pattern-performance between dementia patients and healthy controls using unobtrusive sensors. Around 9,600 person-hours of activity data were collected from the home of ten dementia patients and ten healthy controls using a wireless-unobtrusive sensors and analysed to detect ADL. Recognised ADL were visualized using activity maps, the heterogeneity and accuracy to discriminate patients from healthy were analysed...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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