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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340569/associations-of-the-top-20-alzheimer-disease-risk-variants-with-brain-amyloidosis
#1
Liana G Apostolova, Shannon L Risacher, Tugce Duran, Eddie C Stage, Naira Goukasian, John D West, Triet M Do, Jonathan Grotts, Holly Wilhalme, Kwangsik Nho, Meredith Phillips, David Elashoff, Andrew J Saykin
Importance: Late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 20 AD risk genes. The precise mechanism through which many of these genes are associated with AD remains unknown. Objective: To investigate the association of the top 20 AD risk variants with brain amyloidosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study analyzed the genetic and florbetapir F 18 data from 322 cognitively normal control individuals, 496 individuals with mild cognitive impairment, and 159 individuals with AD dementia who had genome-wide association studies and 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomographic data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), a prospective, observational, multisite tertiary center clinical and biomarker study...
January 16, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333688/infant-brain-responses-to-felt-and-observed-touch-of-hands-and-feet-an-meg-study
#2
Andrew N Meltzoff, Rey R Ramírez, Joni N Saby, Eric Larson, Samu Taulu, Peter J Marshall
There is growing interest concerning the ways in which the human body, both one's own and that of others, is represented in the developing human brain. In two experiments with 7-month-old infants, we employed advances in infant magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging to address novel questions concerning body representations in early development. Experiment 1 evaluated the spatiotemporal organization of infants' brain responses to being touched. A punctate touch to infants' hands and feet produced significant activation in the hand and foot areas of contralateral primary somatosensory cortex as well as in other parietal and frontal areas...
January 14, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331549/is-sequence-awareness-mandatory-for-perceptual-sequence-learning-an-assessment-using-a-pure-perceptual-sequence-learning-design
#3
Natacha Deroost, Daphné Coomans
We examined the role of sequence awareness in a pure perceptual sequence learning design. Participants had to react to the target's colour that changed according to a perceptual sequence. By varying the mapping of the target's colour onto the response keys, motor responses changed randomly. The effect of sequence awareness on perceptual sequence learning was determined by manipulating the learning instructions (explicit versus implicit) and assessing the amount of sequence awareness after the experiment. In the explicit instruction condition (n = 15), participants were instructed to intentionally search for the colour sequence, whereas in the implicit instruction condition (n = 15), they were left uninformed about the sequenced nature of the task...
January 10, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325780/longitudinal-atlas-for-normative-human-brain-development-and-aging-over-the-lifespan-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#4
Yuyao Zhang, Hongjiang Wei, Matthew J Cronin, Naying He, Fuhua Yan, Chunlei Liu
Longitudinal brain atlases play an important role in the study of human brain development and cognition. Existing atlases are mainly based on anatomical features derived from T1-and T2-weighted MRI. A 4D developmental quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) atlas may facilitate the estimation of age-related iron changes in deep gray matter nuclei and myelin changes in white matter. To this end, group-wise co-registered QSM templates were generated over various age intervals from age 1-83 years old. Registration was achieved by combining both T1-weighted and QSM images...
January 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323751/-18-f-av-1451-clustering-of-entorhinal-and-cortical-uptake-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Jennifer L Whitwell, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Stephen D Weigand, Mary Machulda, Matthew L Senjem, Christopher G Schwarz, Anthony J Spychalla, David T Jones, Daniel A Drubach, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Ronald C Petersen, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs
OBJECTIVE: To use a cluster analysis of [18 F]AV-1451 tau-PET data to determine how subjects with Alzheimer's disease vary in the relative involvement of the entorhinal cortex and neocortex, and determine whether relative involvement of these two regions can help explain variability in age and clinical phenotype in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We calculated [18 F]AV-1451 uptake in entorhinal cortex and neocortex in 62 amyloid-positive Alzheimer's disease patients (39 typical and 23 atypical presentation)...
January 11, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322586/functional-connectivity-predicts-gender-evidence-for-gender-differences-in-resting-brain-connectivity
#6
Chao Zhang, Chase C Dougherty, Stefi A Baum, Tonya White, Andrew M Michael
Prevalence of certain forms of psychopathology, such as autism and depression, differs between genders and understanding gender differences of the neurotypical brain may provide insights into risk and protective factors. In recent research, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) is widely used to map the inherent functional networks of the brain. Although previous studies have reported gender differences in rfMRI, the robustness of gender differences is not well characterized. In this study, we use a large data set to test whether rfMRI functional connectivity (FC) can be used to predict gender and identify FC features that are most predictive of gender...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317593/loneliness-5-years-ante-mortem-is-associated-with-disease-related-differential-gene-expression-in-postmortem-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#7
Turhan Canli, Lei Yu, Xiaoqing Yu, Hongyu Zhao, Debra Fleischman, Robert S Wilson, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
Subjective social isolation, loneliness, is associated with poor mental and physical health, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed loneliness data collected on average 5 years ante-mortem and RNA gene expression at death in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 181 participants in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP), a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of common chronic conditions of aging. Our analytic protocol controlled for biographical variables (age, sex, education), psychological and health variables (depressive symptoms, interval between assessment and autopsy, slope of cognitive decline, AD pathology, presence of infarcts) and RNA integrity...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317306/double-dissociation-of-structure-function-relationships-in-memory-and-fluid-intelligence-observed-with-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#8
Curtis L Johnson, Hillary Schwarb, Kevin M Horecka, Matthew D J McGarry, Charles H Hillman, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Aron K Barbey
Brain tissue mechanical properties, measured in vivo with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), have proven to be sensitive metrics of neural tissue integrity. Recently, our group has reported on the positive relationship between viscoelasticity of the hippocampus and performance on a relational memory task in healthy young adults, which highlighted the potential of sensitive MRE measures for studying brain health and its relation to cognitive function; however, structure-function relationships outside of the hippocampus have not yet been explored...
January 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317247/development-of-stereotaxic-recording-system-for-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#9
Masahiro Wakabayashi, Daisuke Koketsu, Hideki Kondo, Shigeki Sato, Kiichi Ohara, Zlata Polyakova, Satomi Chiken, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu
The common marmoset has been proposed as a potential alternative to macaque monkey as a primate model for neuroscience and medical research. Here, we have newly developed a stereotaxic neuronal recording system for awake marmosets under the head-fixed condition by modifying that for macaque monkeys. Using this system, we recorded neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex of awake marmosets and successfully identified the primary motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation. Neuronal activities of deep brain structures, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum, in awake marmosets were also successfully recorded referring to magnetic resonance images...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315714/brain-abnormalities-in-cognition-anxiety-and-depression-regulatory-regions-in-adolescents-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#10
Nancy A Pike, Bhaswati Roy, Ritika Gupta, Sadhana Singh, Mary A Woo, Nancy J Halnon, Alan B Lewis, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) adolescents show cognitive impairments and anxiety and depressive symptoms, indicating the possibility of brain injury in regions that control these functions. However, brain tissue integrity in cognition, anxiety, and depression regulatory sites in SVHD remains unclear. We examined brain tissue changes in SVHD compared to controls using T2-relaxometry procedures, which measure free water content and show tissue injury. METHODS: Proton-density and T2-weighted images, using a 3...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311139/retrosplenial-cortex-indexes-stability-beyond-the-spatial-domain
#11
Stephen D Auger, Eleanor A Maguire
Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is highly responsive to landmarks in the environment which remain fixed in a permanent location, and this has been linked with its known involvement in scene and spatial processing. However, it is unclear if RSC representations of permanence are a purely spatial phenomenon or whether they extend into behavioural and conceptual domains. To test this, during functional MRI (fMRI) scanning we had people (males and females) read three different types of sentence which described either something permanent or transient...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307670/validity-and-comprehensibility-of-outcome-measures-in-children-with-shoulder-and-elbow-disorders-creation-of-a-new-pediatric-and-adolescent-shoulder-and-elbow-survey-pedi-ases
#12
Benton Heyworth, Lara Cohen, Johan von Heideken, Mininder S Kocher, Maura Daly Iversen
BACKGROUND: Valid patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for the shoulder and elbow do not exist for children. We assessed children's comprehension of the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) standardized shoulder assessment form, identified response errors, and modified items to create a new pediatric shoulder and elbow PRO. METHODS: We recruited 50 children (aged 10-18 years) with shoulder or elbow disorders from a children's hospital-based orthopedic clinic for this qualitative study...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307494/the-dynamic-landscape-of-open-chromatin-during-human-cortical-neurogenesis
#13
Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jason L Stein, Hyejung Won, Carli K Opland, Dan Liang, Daning Lu, Daniel H Geschwind
Non-coding regions comprise most of the human genome and harbor a significant fraction of risk alleles for neuropsychiatric diseases, yet their functions remain poorly defined. We created a high-resolution map of non-coding elements involved in human cortical neurogenesis by contrasting chromatin accessibility and gene expression in the germinal zone and cortical plate of the developing cerebral cortex. We link distal regulatory elements (DREs) to their cognate gene(s) together with chromatin interaction data and show that target genes of human-gained enhancers (HGEs) regulate cortical neurogenesis and are enriched in outer radial glia, a cell type linked to human cortical evolution...
January 2, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304099/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-differences-in-brain-activation-in-response-to-thermal-stimuli-in-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#14
Juan Li, Wanying Zhang, Xia Wang, Tangmi Yuan, Peiyao Liu, Tao Wang, Le Shen, Yuguang Huang, Naishi Li, Hui You, Tixian Xiao, Feng Feng, Chao Ma
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The aim of this study was to explore the changes in brain activity in response to thermal stimuli in diabetic patients with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: A total of 36 right-handed volunteers were enrolled: eight patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus and DPN, 13 patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus lacking DPN (NDPN patients), and 15 healthy volunteers (HV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299616/increased-variability-of-watershed-areas-in-patients-with-high-grade-carotid-stenosis
#15
Stephan Kaczmarz, Vanessa Griese, Christine Preibisch, Michael Kallmayer, Michael Helle, Isabel Wustrow, Esben Thade Petersen, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Claus Zimmer, Christian Sorg, Jens Göttler
PURPOSE: Watershed areas (WSAs) of the brain are most susceptible to acute hypoperfusion due to their peripheral location between vascular territories. Additionally, chronic WSA-related vascular processes underlie cognitive decline especially in patients with cerebral hemodynamic compromise. Despite of high relevance for both clinical diagnostics and research, individual in vivo WSA definition is fairly limited to date. Thus, this study proposes a standardized segmentation approach to delineate individual WSAs by use of time-to-peak (TTP) maps and investigates spatial variability of individual WSAs...
January 3, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297155/brain-iron-deposition-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-and-without-mild-cognitive-impairment-an-in-vivo-susceptibility-mapping-study
#16
Qifang Yang, Lina Zhou, Chen Liu, Daihong Liu, Yang Zhang, Chang Li, Yongning Shang, Xin Wei, Chuanming Li, Jian Wang
This study was performed to investigate iron deposition in the brain of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and the associated cognitive impairments. Sixty patients diagnosed with T2DM were subjected to neuropsychological tests to determine their cognitive status, and the results were used to subdivide the patients into a T2DM without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group (n = 30) and a T2DM with MCI group (n = 30). All patients underwent high-resolution susceptibility-weighted imaging, and data processing was performed using SMART (Susceptibility Mapping and Phase Artifacts Removal Toolbox) software...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296476/optical-mapping-of-brain-activation-during-the-english-to-chinese-and-chinese-to-english-sight-translation
#17
Yan He, Meng-Yun Wang, Defeng Li, Zhen Yuan
Translating from Chinese into another language or vice versa is becoming a widespread phenomenon. However, current neuroimaging studies are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism underlying translation asymmetry during Chinese/English sight translation. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to extract the brain activation patterns associated with Chinese/English sight translation. Eleven unbalanced Chinese (L1)/English (L2) bilinguals participated in this study based on an intra-group experimental design, in which two translation and two reading aloud tasks were administered: forward translation (from L1 to L2), backward translation (from L2 to L1), L1 reading, and L2 reading...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287217/association-of-white-matter-diffusion-characteristics-and-cognitive-deficits-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Raúl Rodríguez-Cruces, Leticia Velázquez-Pérez, Ildefonso Rodríguez-Leyva, Ana Luisa Velasco, David Trejo-Martínez, Héctor Manuel Barragán-Campos, Vicente Camacho-Téllez, Luis Concha
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between cognitive performance and white matter (WM) integrity in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). METHODS: We included 26 patients with TLE (10 right, 16 left onset) as well as 24 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and years of education. In addition to quantitative hippocampal volume and transverse relaxation (T2) evaluation, whole-brain WM was analyzed using fractional anisotropy (FA) maps, derived from the diffusion tensor model...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285575/alteration-of-gray-matter-texture-features-over-the-whole-brain-in-medication-overuse-headache-using-a-3-dimentional-texture-analysis
#19
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhiqiang Chen, Mengqi Liu, Huiguang He, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Imaging studies have provided valuable information in understanding the headache neuromechanism for medication-overuse headache (MOH), and the aim of this study is to investigate altered texture features of MR structural images over the whole brain in MOH using a 3-dimentional texture analysis. METHODS: Brain three-dimensional T1-weighted structural images were obtained from 44 MOH patients and 32 normal controls (NC). The imaging processing included two steps: gray matter (gray images) segment and a 3-dimensional texture features mapping...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285346/subject-specific-multi-poroelastic-model-for-exploring-the-risk-factors-associated-with-the-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Liwei Guo, John C Vardakis, Toni Lassila, Micaela Mitolo, Nishant Ravikumar, Dean Chou, Matthias Lange, Ali Sarrami-Foroushani, Brett J Tully, Zeike A Taylor, Susheel Varma, Annalena Venneri, Alejandro F Frangi, Yiannis Ventikos
There is emerging evidence suggesting that Alzheimer's disease is a vascular disorder, caused by impaired cerebral perfusion, which may be promoted by cardiovascular risk factors that are strongly influenced by lifestyle. In order to develop an understanding of the exact nature of such a hypothesis, a biomechanical understanding of the influence of lifestyle factors is pursued. An extended poroelastic model of perfused parenchymal tissue coupled with separate workflows concerning subject-specific meshes, permeability tensor maps and cerebral blood flow variability is used...
February 6, 2018: Interface Focus
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