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Occupational Lung

Nedim Durmus, Gabriele Grunig
Detrimental effects of air pollution with fine dust (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, or PM2.5 ) on the systemic circulation and the left heart have been studied intensely during the past decade. In comparison, knowledge regarding the effects of exposure to air pollution with PM2.5 on the pulmonary vasculature and the right heart lags far behind. A report on severe lung disease and right heart failure in coal miners was published nearly 170 years ago. However, today, we still do not have a clear picture of how the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary circulation or the right heart should be viewed from a clinical, mechanistic biological, therapeutic, or economic angle...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Penny Nymark, Pekka Kohonen, Vesa Hongisto, Roland C Grafström
An immense variety of different types of engineered nanomaterials are currently being developed and increasingly applied to consumer products. Importantly, engineered nanomaterials may pose unexplored adverse health effects because of their small size. Particularly in occupational settings, the dustiness of certain engineered nanomaterials involves risk of inhalation and influences on lung function. These facts call for quick and cost-effective safety testing practices, such as that obtained through multiparametric high-throughput screening using cultured human lung cells...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Roger I Glass, Joshua P Rosenthal
The global burden of lung disease is substantial, accounting for an estimated 7.5 million deaths per year, approximately 14% of annual deaths worldwide. The prime illnesses include, in descending order, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, asthma, and interstitial lung fibrosis. Key risk factors include smoking, both indoor and outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposures. Although the distribution of both the diseases and the risk factors varies greatly by age, geography, and setting, the greatest burden falls on populations living in low- and middle-income countries...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Mehrdad Arjomandi, Siyang Zeng, Paul D Blanc, Warren M Gold
RATIONALE: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria require a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) to forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEV1 /FVC) of less than 0.70 for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, whereas other criteria emphasize a lower limit of normal approach. However, the use of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (or lower limit of normal) criteria may result in classification of many smokers with respiratory morbidities as not having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Shangya Chen, Guanqun Cui, Cheng Peng, Martin F Lavin, Xiaoying Sun, Enguo Zhang, Ye Yang, Yingjun Guan, Zhongjun Du, Hua Shao
BACKGROUND: Silicosis has been topping the list of high-incidence occupational diseases in developing countries and cannot be completely cured. Recent advances in stem cell research have made possible the treatment of various diseases including lung fibrosis. The application of stem cell therapy in occupational diseases, in particular the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in treatment of silicosis, has not yet been reported. The aim of the study is to explore the intervening effect of silica-induced lung fibrosis in rats...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Meili Shen, Jie Xing, Qianpeng Ji, Zhihui Li, Yanhua Wang, Hongwei Zhao, Qingrong Wang, Ting Wang, Liwei Yu, Xiuchuan Zhang, Yaxin Sun, Zhihu Zhang, Yong Niu, Huanqiang Wang, Wen Chen, Yufei Dai, Wenge Su, Huawei Duan
This study assesses the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants on inflammatory response and lung function. We selected 390 male coke oven workers with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 115 control workers. Pulmonary function tests were performed in all subjects. The average duration in the exposed group was 9.10 years. The total amount of PAHs was more enriched in PM2.5 which collected from the coke oven workshop compared with the control areas...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Danuta Dudek-Adamska, Teresa Lech, Tomasz Konopka, Paweł Kościelniak
Recently, considerable attention has been paid to the negative effects caused by the presence and constant increase in concentration of heavy metals in the environment, as well as to the determination of their content in human biological samples. In this paper, the concentration of chromium in samples of blood and internal organs collected at autopsy from 21 female and 39 male non-occupationally exposed subjects is presented. Elemental analysis was carried out by an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion...
April 17, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Markus Karjalainen, Anton Kontunen, Sampo Saari, Topi Rönkkö, Jukka Lekkala, Antti Roine, Niku Oksala
Electrosurgery produces surgical smoke. Different tissues produce different quantities and types of smoke, so we studied the particle characteristics of this surgical smoke in order to analyze the implications for the occupational health of the operation room personnel. We estimated the deposition of particulate matter (PM) from surgical smoke on the respiratory tract of operation room personnel using clinically relevant tissues from Finnish landrace porcine tissues including skeletal muscle, liver, subcutaneous fat, renal pelvis, renal cortex, lung, bronchus, cerebral gray and white matter, and skin...
2018: PloS One
Senthil B Girimurugan, Yuhang Liu, Pei-Yau Lung, Daniel L Vera, Jonathan H Dennis, Hank W Bass, Jinfeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Identification of functional elements of a genome often requires dividing a sequence of measurements along a genome into segments where adjacent segments have different properties, such as different mean values. Despite dozens of algorithms developed to address this problem in genomics research, methods with improved accuracy and speed are still needed to effectively tackle both existing and emerging genomic and epigenomic segmentation problems. RESULTS: We designed an efficient algorithm, called iSeg, for segmentation of genomic and epigenomic profiles...
April 11, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Mohan Rudrappa, Laxmi Kokatnur
In pulmonary medicine, identical pathogenesis due to varied etiological agents can present with indistinguishable clinical presentation, and produce similar laboratory and radiological changes. The importance of eliciting detailed occupational and social history from patients cannot be stressed enough when dealing with patients suffering from diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Hot Tub Lung(HTL) is a perplexing pulmonary disease attributed to the Mycobacterium Avium-intracellulare Complex (MAC). MAC is a ubiquitous atypical mycobacterium present in moist environment, and is not considered pathogenic, without the predisposing conditions like immunosuppression...
September 2017: Ghana Medical Journal
Andreas M Neophytou, Sally Picciotto, Daniel M Brown, Lisa E Gallagher, Harvey Checkoway, Ellen A Eisen, Sadie Costello
Exposure to silica has been linked to excess risk of lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease mortality. In this study we estimated risk for both these outcomes in relation to occupational silica exposure as well as the reduction in risk that would result from hypothetical interventions on exposure in a cohort of exposed workers. Analyses were carried out in an all-male study population consisting of 2342 California diatomaceous earth workers regularly exposed to crystalline silica, followed between 1942 and 2011...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
G I Walters, A S Robertson, P S Bhomra, P S Burge
A diagnosis of asbestosis, which is a long-latency, fibrotic lung disease, has implications for the patient in terms of prognosis, treatment and compensation. Identifying and quantifying asbestos exposure is difficult without a detailed occupational history, and the threshold dose of asbestos required to cause asbestosis is not well understood. We reviewed all cases of asbestosis diagnosed between 2001 and 2016 at the Birmingham Regional NHS Occupational Lung Disease Service to determine the industries and occupations most frequently implicated in causation, in order to help clinicians identify where asbestosis might enter the differential diagnosis for a patient with chronic respiratory symptoms...
April 3, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Tarik Ghailan, Mustapha El Ftouh
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation places lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The fishermen are one of the most important consumers of tobacco, which remains the main risk factor for lung cancer. However, there are no epidemiological data on the role of other causes, particularly occupational ones, in genesis of this disease. The objective of our work is to expose medical and occupational data of 3 fishermen with lung cancer and discuss a possible occupational origin of their pathology...
2018: International Maritime Health
Meirui Li, Salem Alowami, Miranda Schell, Clive Davis, Asghar Naqvi
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder in which defects in alveolar macrophage maturation or function lead to the accumulation of proteinaceous surfactant in alveolar space, resulting in impaired gas exchange and hypoxemia. PAP is categorized into three types: hereditary, autoimmune, and secondary. We report a case of secondary PAP in a 47-year-old man, whose risk factors include occupational exposure to inhaled toxins, especially aluminum dust, the use of anabolic steroids, and alcohol abuse, which in mice leads to alveolar macrophage dysfunction through a zinc-dependent mechanism that inhibits granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor signalling...
2018: Case Reports in Pulmonology
Koustav Ganguly, Bettina Levänen, Lena Palmberg, Agneta Åkesson, Anders Lindén
Cadmium in tobacco smoke may contribute to the development of pulmonary emphysema. However, there is poor understanding of the mechanisms behind the pathogenic role of cadmium in this and other smoking-related lung diseases. The traditional focus on the total body burden of cadmium, estimated through analysis of urine, may not fully reflect the local burden of cadmium, since it is inhaled by smokers. Thus, assessing the local accumulation of cadmium in the lungs appears more relevant, given that there is tissue-specific retention of cadmium...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
T P Chao, E F Sperandio, T L V P Ostolin, V R Almeida, M Romiti, A R T Gagliardi, R L Arantes, V Z Dourado
Spirometry has been used as the main strategy for assessing ventilatory changes related to occupational exposure to particulate matter (OEPM). However, in some cases, as one of its limitations, it may not be sensitive enough to show abnormalities before extensive damage, as seen in restrictive lung diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) may be better than spirometry to detect early ventilatory impairment caused by OEPM. We selected 135 male workers with at least one year of exposure...
March 26, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Ashley A Weaver, Samantha L Schoell, Jennifer W Talton, Ryan T Barnard, Joel D Stitzel, Mark R Zonfrillo
OBJECTIVE: To develop a disability metric for motor vehicle crash (MVC) thoracic injuries and compare functional outcomes between pediatric and adult populations. METHODS: Disability risk (DR) was quantified using Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores within the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) for the top 95% most frequently occurring AIS 2, 3, 4, and 5 thoracic injuries in NASS-CDS 2000-2011. The NTDB contains a truncated form of the FIM score, including three items (self-feed, locomotion, and verbal expression), each graded from full functional dependence to full functional independence...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Robert M Burkes, Amanda J Gassett, Agathe S Ceppe, Wayne Anderson, Wanda K O'Neal, Prescott G Woodruff, Jerry A Krishnan, R Graham Barr, MeiLan K Han, Fernando J Martinez, Alejandro P Comellas, Allison A Lambert, Joel D Kaufman, Mark T Dransfield, J Michael Wells, Richard E Kanner, Robert Paine, Eugene R Bleecker, Laura M Paulin, Nadia N Hansel, M Bradley Drummond
RATIONALE: Rural residence is associated with poor outcomes in several chronic diseases. The association between rural residence and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the independent association between rural residence and COPD-related outcomes including COPD exacerbations, airflow obstruction and symptom burden. METHODS: A total of 1684 Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) participants with FEV1/FVC<0...
March 27, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
S Bau, R Payet, A Toussaint, O Witschger, A M Todea, C Monz, C Asbach
Because nanomaterials have been increasingly developed and used in many technology and industry sectors over the last 20 years, increasing numbers of workers are likely to be exposed to airborne nanoparticles. In addition, the question of the nanomaterial characteristics that should be assessed in epidemiological studies remains open. Thus, assessing occupational exposure to airborne nanoparticles shall not only rely on mass concentration and chemical composition; key parameters, such as particle size, have to be included in measurement strategies...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
A Singh, R Kamal, I Ahamed, M Wagh, V Bihari, B Sathian, C N Kesavachandran
Background: Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been shown to be associated with lung cancer in various epidemiological studies in industries such as aluminium reduction/smelting, coal gasification, coke production, iron/steel foundries, coal/coke and related products and carbon/graphite electrodes production. Aims: To update data on the association between PAH exposure and morbidity and mortality due to lung cancer among workers in different occupations, including smoking data...
March 20, 2018: Occupational Medicine
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