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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#1
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905625/-epidemiological-description-of-human-and-animal-hydatidosis-in-los-r%C3%A3-os-region-1999-2009
#2
Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Reinaldo Vargas, Santiago Ernst
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in humans and livestock in the Los Ríos region during the years 1999-2009. METHODS: A retrospective survey of all discharge records of patients undergoing removal of cysts produced by Echinococcus granulosus during the period 1999-2009 in the Hospital Clinico Regional of Valdivia was conducted. With the information provided incidence rate, mortality rate and fatality rate were calculated. Additionally, with the aim of determining prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock (i...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895274/disease-severity-prediction-by-spirometry-in-adults-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-from-minas-gerais-brazil
#3
Isabel A Maia, Frank S Bezerra, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque, Heitor F Andrade, Valdir S Amato
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is associated with interstitial pneumonitis according to histology and radiology reports. However, studies to address the functional impact on respiratory function in patients are lacking. We assessed pulmonary function using noninvasive spirometry in a cross-sectional study of hospitalized adult VL patients from Minas Gerais, Brazil, without unrelated lung conditions or acute infections. Lung conditions were graded as normal, restrictive, obstructive, or mixed patterns, according to Brazilian consensus standards for spirometry...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894755/dna-damage-induced-by-coal-dust-fly-and-bottom-ash-from-coal-combustion-evaluated-using-the-micronucleus-test-and-comet-assay-in-vitro
#4
Cristina Araujo Matzenbacher, Ana Letícia Hilario Garcia, Marcela Silva Dos Santos, Caroline Cardoso Nicolau, Suziane Premoli, Dione Silva Corrêa, Claudia Telles de Souza, Liana Niekraszewicz, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Tânia Valéria Delgado, Wolfgang Kalkreuth, Ivana Grivicich, Juliana da Silva
Coal mining and combustion generating huge amounts of bottom and fly ash are major causes of environmental pollution and health hazards due to the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. The Candiota coalfield in Rio Grande do Sul, is one of the largest open-cast coal mines in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic and mutagenic effects of coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples from Candiota with the comet assay (alkaline and modified version) and micronucleus test using the lung fibroblast cell line (V79)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894297/pulmonary-hypertension-and-vascular-remodeling-in-mice-exposed-to-crystalline-silica
#5
Igor N Zelko, Jianxin Zhu, Jeffrey D Ritzenthaler, Jesse Roman
BACKGROUND: Occupational and environmental exposure to crystalline silica may lead to the development of silicosis, which is characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. A substantial number of patients diagnosed with silicosis develop pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension associated with silicosis and with related restrictive lung diseases significantly reduces survival in affected subjects. An animal model of silicosis has been described previously however, the magnitude of vascular remodeling and hemodynamic effects of inhaled silica are largely unknown...
November 28, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890402/multi-elemental-analysis-of-human-lung-samples-using-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#6
Jackie Morton, Emma Tan, S Kim Suvarna
The aim of this study was to establish concentrations of a wide range of elements in human lung samples to allow better identification of potential exposures in subsequent cases. This study reports concentrations of 48 elements (Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, In, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rb, Re, Ru, Sb, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, V, W, Y, Zn and Zr) in fresh lung tissue samples from 54 hospital patients, of which 93% exhibited various forms of neoplasia...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879974/nivolumab-dose-selection-challenges-opportunities-and-lessons-learned-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
Shruti Agrawal, Yan Feng, Amit Roy, Georgia Kollia, Brian Lestini
BACKGROUND: Immuno-oncology (I-O) therapies target the host immune system, providing the potential to choose a uniform dose and schedule across tumor types. However, dose selection for I-O agents usually occurs early in clinical development and is typically based on tumor response, which may not fully represent the potential for improved overall survival. Here, we describe an integrated approach which incorporates clinical safety and efficacy data with data obtained from analyses of dose-/exposure-response (D-R/E-R) relationships, used to select a monotherapy dose for nivolumab, a programmed death-1 inhibitor, in clinical studies of different tumor types...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879416/occupational-pesticide-exposure-and-respiratory-health-a-large-scale-cross-sectional-study-in-three-commercial-farming-systems-in-ethiopia
#8
Beyene Negatu, Hans Kromhout, Yalemtshay Mekonnen, Roel Vermeulen
RATIONALE: In the last decade, due to expansion of greenhouses and irrigated farms, the use of pesticides in Ethiopia has increased 6-13-fold leading to potential health risks. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with respiratory health effects in farmers and farm workers from commercial farming systems. METHODS: We performed two cross-sectional surveys comprising different farming systems. In the first survey we studied respiratory symptoms among 1104 subjects of which 601 were occupationally exposed to pesticides (ie, 256 pesticide applicators, 345 re-entry workers) and 503 unexposed individuals...
November 22, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876671/relevance-of-the-rat-lung-tumor-response-to-particle-overload-for-human-risk-assessment-update-and-interpretation-of-new-data-since-ilsi-2000
#9
REVIEW
D B Warheit, R Kreiling, L S Levy
The relevance of particle-overload related lung tumors in rats for human risk assessment following chronic inhalation exposures to poorly soluble particulates (PSP) has been a controversial issue for more than three decades. In 1998, an ILSI (International Life Sciences) Working Group of health scientists was convened to address this issue of applicability of experimental study findings of lung neoplasms in rats for lifetime-exposed production workers to PSPs. A full consensus view was not reached by the Workshop participants, although it was generally acknowledged that the findings of lung tumors in rats following chronic inhalation, particle-overload PSP exposures occurred only in rats and no other tested species; and that there was an absence of lung cancers in PSP-exposed production workers...
November 19, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875341/occupational-asthma-diagnostic-challenges-and-management-dilemmas
#10
Vrinda Trivedi, Dinesh R Apala, Vivek N Iyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work-related asthma encompasses both sensitizer-induced and irritant-induced occupational asthma as well as work-exacerbated asthma. This review summarizes current diagnostic and management strategies for occupational asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Occupational asthma is the most common occupational lung disease in the industrialized world. Over 400 agents have been described to cause occupational asthma. Specific inhalation challenge is often considered the reference method for diagnosis of occupational asthma but specific inhalation challenge as well as other diagnostic tests all generate false positive or false negative results...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869239/polish-mother-and-child-cohort-study-repro_pl-methodology-of-the-follow-up-of-the-children-at-the-age-of-7
#11
REVIEW
Kinga Polańska, Wojciech Hanke, Anna Król, Adrianna Potocka, Małgorzata Waszkowska, Aleksandra Jacukowicz, Jolanta Gromadzińska, Wojciech Wąsowicz, Joanna Jerzyńska, Włodzimierz Stelmach, Iwona Stelmach
Effects of environmental exposures in utero and in the first years of life on early life health and development is a growing research area with major public health implications. The main aim of this work has been to provide an overview of the next step of the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) covering exposure, health and neurodevelopment assessments of children at 7 years of age. Details regarding methodology of the follow-up of the children are crucial for cross-cohort collaboration and a full understanding of the future research questions...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867578/relationships-between-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-lung-cancer-biological-insights
#12
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro, Víctor Bustamante, Víctor Curull, Joaquim Gea, José Luis López-Campos, Xavier Muñoz
Lung cancer (LC) has become one of the leading causes of preventable death in the last few decades. Cigarette smoking (CS) stays as the main etiologic factor of LC despite that many other causes such as occupational exposures, air pollution, asbestos, or radiation have also been implicated. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which also represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, exhibit a significantly greater risk of LC. The study of the underlying biological mechanisms that may predispose patients with chronic respiratory diseases to a higher incidence of LC has also gained much attention in the last few years...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867559/impact-of-anticancer-drugs-price-cut-on-physician-s-prescription-choices-on-first-line-chemotherapy-regimens-and-health-expenditure-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-china
#13
Bei Li, Mei-Ying Li, Luan-Luan Sun, Jian Wang, Yan-Qing Zheng, Jing Hao
BACKGROUND: Increases in insurance coverage and price cut of drugs are two important measures to make health care more accessible and affordable. As far as we know, this was the first study to explore the impact of anticancer drug price cut on health expenses and oncologist's prescription decisions in China. METHODS: The 511 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were recruited from Qilu Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2010...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866544/-effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-monochloroacetic-acid-on-the-lung-function-and-lymphocyte-subsets-in-occupational-exposed-workers
#14
T Meng, J Jia, P P Miao, M L Shen, Y Niu, Y F Dai
Objective: To investigate the effects of chronic exposure to monochloroacetic acid on the lung function and whole blood counts in occupational exposed workers, and provide new markers for occupational health surveillance. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 121 workers who were occupationally exposed to monochloroacetic acid and 69 unexposed workers frequency-matched by age and smoking status from the same geographic region. The lung function was measured by portable lung function instrument, and the lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866540/-the-study-of-the-eosinophil-cd34-progenitor-cells-differentiation-mechanism-of-model-rats-with-occupational-asthma-and-the-intervention-of-warm-and-tonifying-kidney-yang-decoction
#15
Z Y Hu, Y M Jia, S J Wang, J Y Han, T Yu
Objective: To investigate the mechanism of CD34(+) progenitor cell differentiation in rat by observing the change relations between the eosinophils (EOS) and the content of Eotaxin and IL-5 in blood and the CD34(+)/CCR3(+), CD34(+)/IL-5Rα+ in bone marrow after occupational asthma (OA) model rats are simulated, and to observe the effect of WTKYD Trraitional Chinese Medicine intervention. Methods: A total of 40 healthy male SD model rats (200~250 g weight) were randomly divided into model contrast Group, prednisone acetate intervention Group, WTKYD+1/2 prednisone acetate intervention Group and WTKYD intervention Group, 10 in each group, and set a Group for blank contrast...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865850/biopersistence-and-translocation-to-extrapulmonary-organs-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-after-subacute-inhalation-exposure-to-aerosol-in-adult-and-elderly-rats
#16
Laurent Gaté, Clémence Disdier, Frédéric Cosnier, François Gagnaire, Jérôme Devoy, Wadad Saba, Emilie Brun, Monique Chalansonnet, Aloise Mabondzo
The increasing industrial use of nanoparticles (NPs) has raised concerns about their impact on human health. Since aging and exposure to environmental factors are linked to the risk for developing pathologies, we address the question of TiO2 NPs toxicokinetics in the context of a realistic occupational exposure. We report the biodistribution of titanium in healthy young adults (12-13-week-old) and in elderly rats (19-month-old) exposed to 10mg/m(3) of a TiO2 nanostructured aerosol 6h/day, 5days/week for 4 weeks...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856631/11c-er176-a-radioligand-for-18-kda-translocator-protein-tspo-has-adequate-sensitivity-to-robustly-image-all-three-affinity-genotypes-in-human-brain
#17
Masamichi Ikawa, Talakad G Lohith, Stal Shrestha, Sanjay Telu, Sami S Zoghbi, Sabrina Castellano, Sabrina Taliani, Federico Da Settimo, Masahiro Fujita, Victor W Pike, Robert B Innis
: For positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker of neuroinflammation, most second-generation radioligands are sensitive to the single nucleotide polymorphism rs6971; however this is probably not the case for the prototypical agent (11)C-PK 11195, which has a relatively lower signal-to-noise ratio. We recently found that (11)C-ER176, a new analog of (11)C-(R)-PK 11195, showed little sensitivity to rs6971 when tested in vitro and had high specific binding in monkey brain...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853040/an-epidemiological-profile-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-community-based-study-in-delhi
#18
B Sinha, R Singla, R Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. METHODOLOGY: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832243/evaluation-of-the-feasibility-of-screening-patients-for-early-signs-of-lung-carcinoma-in-web-search-logs
#19
Ryen W White, Eric Horvitz
Importance: A statistical model that predicts the appearance of strong evidence of a lung carcinoma diagnosis via analysis of large-scale anonymized logs of web search queries from millions of people across the United States. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of screening patients at risk of lung carcinoma via analysis of signals from online search activity. Design, Setting, and Participants: We identified people who issue special queries that provide strong evidence of a recent diagnosis of lung carcinoma...
November 10, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832236/evaluation-of-pulmonary-function-and-respiratory-symptoms-in-pyrochlore-mine-workers
#20
Ritta de Cássia Canedo Oliveira Borges, José Cerqueira Barros, Fabrício Borges Oliveira, Marisa Andrade Brunherotti, Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo
Objective: To identify respiratory symptoms and evaluate lung function in mine workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving production sector workers of a pyrochlore mining company. The subjects completed the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, which is designed to evaluate respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure factors, and smoking status. In addition, they underwent pulmonary function tests with a portable spirometer...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
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