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Occupational Lung

Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Chan Yeu Pu, Mohamed Rizwan Haroon Al Rasheed, Marin Sekosan, Vibhu Sharma
A 61-year-old man was evaluated for a 2 month history of cough and dyspnea without relevant exposures other than pyrethrin containing insecticidal sprays he used while grooming dogs almost daily. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of the chest demonstrated a Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. Pulmonary function testing revealed an isolated mildly reduced diffusion capacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results confirmed the presence of foamy histiocytes, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells consistent with ongoing exposure...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Bonnie Janzen, Chandima Karunanayake, Donna Rennie, William Pickett, Joshua Lawson, Shelley Kirychuk, Louise Hagel, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Niels Koehncke, James Dosman, Punam Pahwa
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the association of individual and contextual exposures with lung function by gender in rural-dwelling Canadians. METHODS: A cross-sectional mail survey obtained completed questionnaires on exposures from 8263 individuals; a sub-sample of 1609 individuals (762 men, 847 women) additionally participated in clinical lung function testing. The three dependent variables were forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio...
October 13, 2016: Lung
Jay Champlin, Rachael Edwards, Sudhakar Pipavath
Occupational lung diseases span a variety of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of dusts or chemical antigens in a vocational setting. Included in these are the classic mineral pneumoconioses of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related diseases as well as many immune-mediated and airway-centric diseases, and new and emerging disorders. Although some of these have characteristic imaging appearances, a multidisciplinary approach with focus on occupational exposure history is essential to proper diagnosis...
November 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Ubiratan Paula Santos, Maria Lúcia Siqueira Bueno Garcia, Alfésio Luís Ferreira Braga, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Chin An Lin, Paulo Afonso de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva de André, Julio da Motta Singer, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva
BACKGROUND: The effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function in adults are still controversial. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of exposure to different levels of traffic-generated PM2.5 on workers' lung functions in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: To cover a wide range of exposures, 101 non-smoking workers from three occupations (taxi drivers, traffic controllers, and forest rangers) were selected for the study. After clinical evaluation, the participants were scheduled to attend four consecutive weekly visits in which they received a 24-hour personal PM2...
2016: PloS One
Jeffrey H Mandel, Bruce H Alexander, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
BACKGROUND: Mining of gold, taconite, and talc may involve exposure to elongate mineral particles (EMP). The involved EMPs are typically non-asbestiform, include dimensions that regulatory definitions exclude, and have been less studied. METHODS: A review of the literature was undertaken for this exposure and occupational epidemiological studies that occur in gold, talc, and taconite mining. RESULTS: Quantitative EMP exposure information in these industries is incomplete...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Yasuhiko Koga, Takahiro Satoh, Kyoichi Kaira, Masashi Koka, Takeshi Hisada, Junko Hirato, Bolag Altan, Masakiyo Yatomi, Akihiro Ono, Yosuke Kamide, Yasuo Shimizu, Haruka Aoki-Saito, Hiroaki Tsurumaki, Kimihiro Shimizu, Akira Mogi, Tamotsu Ishizuka, Masanobu Yamada, Kunio Dobashi
OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that inhaled mine dust, such as asbestos, can be translocated to various organs including the lymph nodes. Recently, we have established a protocol that enables us to identify inhaled elements using paraffin embedded lung specimens by in-air microparticle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). However, little research has examined the concentration of these inhaled fibers in various organs or the mechanisms of their translocation. In this study, we compared the concentration of inhaled fibers in the lung parenchyma to the concentration in the hilar lymph node as well as to determine the elemental spatial distribution of the inhaled fibers in a patient with occupational asbestos exposure...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Sarah Jane O White, James P Shine
The rapid growth of new electronics and energy technologies requires the use of rare elements of the periodic table. For many of these elements, little is known about their environmental behavior or human health impacts. This is true for indium and gallium, two technology critical elements. Increased environmental concentrations of both indium and gallium create the potential for increased environmental exposure, though little is known about the extent of this exposure. Evidence is mounting that indium and gallium can have substantial toxicity, including in occupational settings where indium lung disease has been recognized as a potentially fatal disease caused by the inhalation of indium particles...
October 1, 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Seong-Min Park, Eun-Young Choi, Mingyun Bae, Sunshin Kim, Jong Bae Park, Heon Yoo, Jung Kyoon Choi, Youn-Jae Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee, In-Hoo Kim
Although several somatic single nucleotide variations in histone H3.3 have been investigated as cancer drivers, other types of aberration have not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of H3F3A, encoding H3.3, is associated with lung cancer progression and promotes lung cancer cell migration by activating metastasis-related genes. H3.3 globally activates gene expression through the occupation of intronic regions in lung cancer cells. Moreover, H3.3 binding regions show characteristics of regulatory DNA elements...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Shu-Jun Li, Yan-Xia Wu, Hua-Lin Chen, Mei-Lian Liu, Ai-Bing Wu, Zhi-Xiong Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation of CD4(+)CD29(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) with tumor recurrence and survival time in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with NSCLC treated with radical surgery were followed up for 5 years. Blood Treg cells were examined during the follow-up using flow cytometry (FCM). The sensitivity and specificity of Treg cells to predict recurrence of NSCLC were analyzed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and compared with those of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin21-1 (Cyfra21-1)...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Ndinomholo Hamatui, Rajen N Naidoo, Nnenesi Kgabi
BACKGROUND: Charcoal processing activities can increase the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine dose-response relationships between occupational exposure to charcoal dust, respiratory symptoms and lung function among charcoal-processing workers in Namibia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 307 workers from charcoal factories in Namibia. All respondents completed interviewer-administered questionnaires...
August 15, 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Roel Vermeulen, Lützen Portengen
OBJECTIVES: Recently, diesel motor exhaust (DME) has been classified as a known human carcinogen. We used data from epidemiological studies of diesel exposures to perform a quantitative risk assessment to calculate DME exposure levels, expressed as elemental carbon (EC), corresponding to acceptable risk (AR) and maximum tolerable risk (MTR) levels of 4 to 10(-5) and 4 to 10(-3) for the lifetime excess probability of dying from lung cancer. METHODS: Previously published slope estimates (n=14) of the exposure-response curve (ERC) for EC exposure and lung cancer were used in life-table analyses to calculate EC exposure levels corresponding to the specified AR and MTR levels...
September 28, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Mirlande Présumé, Angélique Simon-Deckers, Céline Tomkiewicz-Raulet, Béatrice Le Grand, Jeanne Tran Van Nhieu, Gregory Beaune, Olivier Duruphty, Jean Doucet, Xavier Coumoul, Jean-Claude Pairon, Jorge Boczkowski, Sophie Lanone, Pascal Andujar
In spite of the great promises that the development of nanotechnologies can offer, concerns regarding potential adverse health effects of occupational exposure to nanoparticle (NP) is raised. We recently identified metal oxide NP in lung tissue sections of welders, located inside macrophages infiltrated in fibrous regions. This suggests a role of these NP in the lung alterations observed in welders. We therefore designed a study aimed to investigate the pulmonary effects, in mice, of repeated exposure to NP administered at occupationally relevant doses...
October 18, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Yufei Dai, Yong Niu, Huawei Duan, Bryan A Bassig, Meng Ye, Xiao Zhang, Tao Meng, Ping Bin, Xiaowei Jia, Meili Shen, Rong Zhang, Wei Hu, Xiaofa Yang, Roel Vermeulen, Debra Silverman, Nathaniel Rothman, Qing Lan, Shanfa Yu, Yuxin Zheng
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified carbon black (CB) as a possible (Group 2B) human carcinogen. Given that most CB manufacturing processes result in the emission of various types of chemicals, it is uncertain if the adverse health effects that have been observed in CB-exposed workers are related to CB specifically or are due to other exposures. To address this issue, we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China of 106 male factory workers who were occupationally exposed to pure CB and 112 unexposed male workers frequency-matched by age and smoking status from the same geographic region...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Nayana A Patil, W N Gade, Deepti D Deobagkar
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are promising candidates for numerous applications in consumer products. This will lead to increased human exposure, thus posing a threat to human health. Both these types of NPs have been studied for their cell toxicity, immunotoxicity, and genotoxicity. However, effects of these NPs on epigenetic modulations have not been studied. Epigenetics is an important link in the genotype and phenotype modulation and misregulation can often lead to lifestyle diseases...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Nan Liu, Ling Xue, Yi Guan, Qing Zhao Li, Fu Yuan Cao, Shu Lan Pang, Wei Jun Guan
Silicosis is one of the most serious occupational diseases in China and dates back to centuries ago. In this study, we successfully established a rat model of silicosis by intratracheal silica injection for 28 days and determined hydroxyproline levels to evaluate collagen metabolism in lung homogenates. Oxidative stress status was evaluated by detecting catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Expression levels of peroxiredoxins (Prx I and Prx VI) were detected by Western blotting. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) levels in rat serum and lung tissue were analyzed by ELISA, and SP-A and Prx expression levels in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry...
August 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
O O Olujimi, G R E E Ana, O O Ogunseye, V T Fabunmi
Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria...
2016: SpringerPlus
P Mozafari, M Rezazadeh Azari, Y Shokoohi, M Sayadi
BACKGROUND: Great concern about occupational exposure to chromium (Cr [VI]) has been reported due to escalated risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. Consequences of occupational exposure to Cr (VI) have been reported as oxidative stress and lung tissue damage. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of biological effect monitoring of chrome electroplaters through analysis of serum malondialdehyde (MDA). METHODS: 90 workers directly involved in chrome electroplating---categorized into three equal groups based on their job as near bath workers, degreaser, and washers---and 30 workers without exposure to Cr (VI), served as the control group, were studied...
October 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
T V Azizova, G V Zhuntova, Rge Haylock, M B Moseeva, E S Grigoryeva, M V Bannikova, Z D Belyaeva, E V Bragin
OBJECTIVES: This paper describes findings from the study of chronic bronchitis (CB) incidence after occupational exposure to ionising radiation among workers employed at Russian Mayak Production Association (PA) during 1948 and 1982 and followed up until 2008 based on 'Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008'. METHODS: Analyses were based on 2135 verified cases among 21 417 workers. Rate ratios (RR) were estimated by categorical analysis for non-radiation and radiation factors...
September 19, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
S Zhang, B Zhou, L Wang, P Li, B D Bennett, R Snyder, S Garantziotis, D C Fargo, A D Cox, L Chen, G Hu
Epigenetic regulators are attractive targets for the development of new cancer therapies. Among them, the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes control the chromatin architecture and have important roles in gene regulation. They are often found to be mutated and de-regulated in cancers, but how they influence the cancer gene expression program during cancer initiation and progression is not fully understood. Here we show that the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex is required for oncogenic transcription and tumor growth in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
September 19, 2016: Oncogene
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