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Ashley N Dowd, Courtney A Motschman, Stephen T Tiffany
Introduction: Craving may represent core motivational processes in tobacco dependence, but there is no psychometrically evaluated measure of craving for e-cigarettes (vaping craving). This research developed and validated a brief measure of vaping craving. Methods: The measure was evaluated in two studies. In Study 1, a 42-item questionnaire assessing a wide range of vaping craving content was administered to 209 current e-cigarette users. In Study 2, a 10-item questionnaire derived from Study 1 results was administered to 224 current e-cigarette users...
March 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Igam Bagra, Vijay Krishnan, Ravindra Rao, Alok Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: Use of various psychoactive substances can influence outcomes of patients on opioid agonist treatment (OAT). While use of alcohol and cocaine has shown to adversely affect OAT results, associated cannabis use shows mixed results. This study aimed to assess the pattern of cannabis use among opioid-dependent patients maintained on buprenorphine. Additionally, the study compared the dose of buprenorphine, opioid-related craving and withdrawals, productivity, and also quality of life between those with and without recent (past 90-day) cannabis use...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Paulomi M Sudhir
Cognitive behaviour therapy is a structured, time limited, psychological intervention that has is empirically supported across a wide variety of psychological disorders. CBT for addictive behaviours can be traced back to the application of learning theories in understanding addiction and subsequently to social cognitive theories. The focus of CBT is manifold and the focus is on targeting maintaining factors of addictive behaviours and preventing relapse. Relapse prevention programmes are based on social cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Seung Hee Choi, Roxane R Chan, Rebecca H Lehto
BACKGROUND: While much research and practice resources have addressed smoking cessation among cancer patients, less emphasis has been placed on personal psychological and environment factors associated with smoking at the time of diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, optimism, and perceptions of the health environment/illness experience based on smoking status in patients with current, former, and no smoking history with newly diagnosed suspected or actual lung cancer...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Gene-Jack Wang, Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri Kojori, Ruiliang Wang, Corinde E Wiers, Elisabeth C Caparelli, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: The control of food intake in environments with easy access to highly rewarding foods is challenging to most modern societies. The combination of sustained release (SR) naltrexone and SR bupropion (NB32) has been used in weight-loss and obesity management. However, the effects of NB32 on the brain circuits implicated in the regulation of food intake are unknown. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to evaluate the effects of NB32 on resting brain FC. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy women underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after 4-week treatment with NB32 (n = 16) or with placebo (n = 20)...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yasmin Mashhoon, Jennifer Betts, Stacey L Farmer, Scott E Lukas
Adolescence is a period during which a number of critical neuromaturation processes occur and the vulnerability for developing nicotine dependence is extremely high. Thus, early-onset (EO; age < 16 years old), relative to late-onset (LO; age ≥ 16 years old), tobacco smoking may be uniquely deleterious for developmentally immature systems that regulate neural signaling reactivity. This study investigated how age of tobacco smoking onset affects neurophysiological measures of smoking cue reactivity and reported craving in adult smokers...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research
Gareth Roderique-Davies, Robert M Heirene, Stephen Mellalieu, David A Shearer
Conceptual similarities have been identified between experiences of extreme sports athletes and those with drug and behavioral addictions. Evidence suggests rock climbers experience craving and other withdrawal-like states when abstinent from their sport. However, no studies have attempted to quantitatively measure the craving experienced by participants of any extreme sports. Such a measure could allow a greater understanding of the craving experienced by extreme sports athletes and a comparison of these across sports (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Julia McQuoid, Johannes Thrul, Pamela Ling
Tobacco use is increasingly concentrated within marginalized groups, including LGBTQ+ young adults. Developing tailored interventions to reduce tobacco-related health disparities requires understanding the mechanisms linking individual and contextual factors associated with tobacco use to behavior. This paper presents an in-depth exploration of three cases from a novel mixed method study designed to identify the situational factors and place-based practices of substance use among high-risk individuals. We combined geographically explicit ecological momentary assessment (GEMA) with an adapted travel diary-interview method...
February 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Adrian Meule, Anna Richard, Frank H Wilhelm
Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to paradoxical enhancements of these thoughts and this effect might be more pronounced in individuals with frequent chocolate cravings. In the current study, neural and cognitive correlates of chocolate thought suppression were investigated as a function of trait chocolate craving. Specifically, 20 high and 20 low trait chocolate cravers followed suppression vs...
March 5, 2018: Appetite
Eric D Claus, Benjamin C Moeller, Darlene Harbour, Philip J Kuehl, Michael McGuire, Juan C Vivar, Megan J Schroeder
Objectives: To examine factors important to cigar smoking and subsequent nicotine exposure, we evaluated the impact of cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and inhalation behaviors on nicotine dependence, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure in current exclusive cigar smokers. Methods: Adult, exclusive cigar smokers (N = 77) were recruited based on cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and self-reported inhalation behaviors. Participants smoked their own brand product ad libitum for up to one hour; dependence symptoms, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure were assessed...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Edward F Domino, Mika Hirasawa-Fujita
Introduction: The effects of smoking denicotinized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) tobacco cigarettes were studied on brain mu opioid receptor binding by positron emission tomography with 11C carfentanil. The results indicated the importance of physiological and psychological effects induced by denic smoking. Methods: Regional mu opioid binding potential (non-displaceable binding potential, BPND) was measured in 20 adult male overnight abstinent chronic tobacco smokers...
March 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Robert D Ashford, Kevin Lynch, Brenda Curtis
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder research and practice have not yet taken advantage of emerging changes in communication patterns. While internet and social media use is widespread in the general population, little is known about how these mediums are used in substance use disorder treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper were to provide data on patients' with substance use disorders mobile phone ownership rates, usage patterns on multiple digital platforms (social media, internet, computer, and mobile apps), and their interest in the use of these platforms to monitor personal recovery...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Nerilee Hing, Alex M T Russell, En Li, Peter Vitartas
Background and aims Marketing inducements for addictive products, such as wagering, can prompt impulse purchasing by triggering consumption reminders, urges, and cravings. Wagering inducements incentivize betting by providing bonus bets, money-back guarantees, deposits into betting accounts, and discounts. Their promotion during sporting events, push marketing efforts directed at consumers, and ease of uptake at the point-of-sale, may trigger betting on impulse. This study examined whether the uptake of wagering inducements predicted impulse betting on sport...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Alyssa T Brooks, Michael Krumlauf, Kenneth H Beck, Craig S Fryer, Li Yang, Vijay A Ramchandani, Gwenyth R Wallen
Sleep disturbances can accompany alcohol use disorders during various phases of the disease. This analysis utilized a mixed methods approach to assess whether sleep-related beliefs and/or behavior of individuals who are alcohol dependent were associated with sleep quality both pre- and postdischarge from a clinical research facility providing inpatient alcohol rehabilitation treatment. Individuals with higher self-efficacy for sleep (SE-S) reported better sleep quality at both time points. Individuals with fewer dysfunctional beliefs about sleep had poorer sleep quality at both time points...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
N A Gillespie, S H Aggen, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, R F Krueger, S C South, N Czajkowski, R Nesvåg, E Ystrom, K S Kendler, T Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individual differences in DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased prevalence of substance use disorders. Our aims were to determine which combination of PDs trait scores best predict cannabis use (CU) and cannabis use disorder (CUD), and to estimate the size and significance of genetic and environmental risks in PD traits shared with CU and CUD. DESIGN: Linear mixed effects models were used to identify PD traits for inclusion in twin analyses to explore the genetic and environmental associations between the traits and cannabis use...
March 3, 2018: Addiction
Leon G Coleman, Fulton T Crews
Innate immune signaling is an important feature in the pathology of alcohol use disorders. Alcohol abuse causes persistent innate immune activation in the brain. This is seen in postmortem human alcoholic brain specimens, as well as in primate and rodent models of alcohol consumption. Further, in vitro models of alcohol exposure in neurons and glia also demonstrate innate immune activation. The activation of the innate immune system seems to be important in the development of alcohol use pathology, as anti-immune therapies reduce pathology and ethanol self-administration in rodent models...
March 3, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Neill B Baskerville, Laura L Struik, Darly Dash
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence supports the use of smartphone apps for smoking cessation, especially in young adults given their high smoking rates and high smartphone ownership rates. Although evaluative evidence is encouraging for supporting smoking cessation, there remains a paucity of research describing the design and development processes of mobile health (mHealth) interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to describe the process of developing Crush the Crave (CTC), an evidence-informed app to support smoking cessation in young adults, and the results of a formative evaluation of app usage behavior, as part of a broader program of research that seeks to establish the effectiveness of the CTC app...
March 2, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Christy K Scott, Michael L Dennis, David H Gustafson
BACKGROUND: A key component of relapse prevention is to self-monitor the internal (feelings or cravings) and external (people, places, activities) factors associated with relapse. Smartphones can deliver ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to help individuals self-monitor. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop a model for predicting an individual's risk of future substance use after each EMA and validate it using a multi-level model controlling for repeated measures on persons...
February 23, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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