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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#1
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635140/noradrenergic-signaling-in-the-vta-modulates-cocaine-craving
#2
Wojciech Barnaba Solecki, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Kamil Pradel, Krystyna Kwiatkowska, Grzegorz Dobrzański, Ryszard Przewłocki
Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Conditional stimulus upregulates noradrenaline (NA) system activity, but the drug-seeking behavior depends particularly on phasic dopamine signaling downstream from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA dopamine-ergic activity is regulated via the signaling of alpha1 -adrenergic and alpha2 -adrenergic receptors (α1 -ARs and α2 -ARs); thus, the impact of the conditional stimulus on drug-seeking behavior might involve NAergic signaling in the VTA...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633023/the-insular-cortex
#3
Nadine Gogolla
Whether you see the person you are in love with, try to listen to your own heartbeat, suffer from a headache, or crave for a chocolate cookie, one part of your brain is sure to increase its activity strongly: the insular cortex. The insular cortex, or 'insula' for short, is part of the cerebral cortex. J.C. Reil, a German neurologist, first named this brain structure in the early 19(th) century. Subsequent research findings have implicated the insula in an overwhelming variety of functions ranging from sensory processing to representing feelings and emotions, autonomical and motor control, risk prediction and decision-making, bodily- and self-awareness, and complex social functions like empathy...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631527/buprenorphine-naloxone-versus-methadone-and-lofexidine-in-community-stabilisation-and-detoxification-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-low-dose-short-term-opiate-dependent-individuals
#4
Fergus D Law, Alison M Diaper, Jan K Melichar, Simon Coulton, David J Nutt, Judy S Myles
Buprenorphine/naloxone, methadone and lofexidine are medications with utility in the treatment of opiate withdrawal. We report the first randomised controlled trial to compare the effects of these two medications on withdrawal symptoms and outcome during opiate induction/stabilisation and detoxification. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in an outpatient satellite clinic of a specialist drug service. Eighty opiate dependent individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for opiate dependence, using ⩽ ½ g heroin smoked/chased or ¼ g heroin injected or ⩽ 30mg methadone, with ⩽ 3 years of opioid dependency, underwent a short-term opiate treatment programme involving induction/stabilisation on methadone 30mg or buprenorphine/naloxone 4mg/1mg, followed by detoxification (where the methadone group was assisted by lofexidine)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631421/impact-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-on-the-duration-of-opioid-related-withdrawal-and-craving-among-patients-of-addiction-clinics-in-kazakhstan-a-prospective-case-control-study
#5
Mariya Prilutskaya, Francesco Saverio Bersani, Ornella Corazza, Sergey Molchanov
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to prospectively assess whether regular use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) affects the duration of opioid-related withdrawal and craving symptoms in patients undergoing drug detoxification treatments. METHODS: Patients (n = 193) with opioid use disorder, among which 47 patients are regularly using SCs, underwent integrated drug detoxification therapies. The Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale and a specific visual analogue scale were used to assess opioid withdrawal and craving symptoms over time...
June 20, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627928/craving-and-acute-effects-of-alcohol-in-youths-daily-lives-associations-with-alcohol-use-disorder-severity
#6
Hayley Treloar, Robert Miranda
Identifying factors associated with the progression from recreational to pathological drinking in youth holds high clinical and theoretical importance. The present study tested cross-sectional associations of alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity with putative mechanisms of AUD progression among youth ages 15-24 years, namely acute subjective effects of alcohol and craving. Male (n = 44) and female (n = 42) youth completed ecological momentary assessments when not drinking, just before drinking, and while drinking in the natural environment via handheld wireless devices...
June 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627913/effect-of-attentional-retraining-on-cognition-craving-and-smoking-in-african-american-smokers
#7
Cendrine D Robinson, Christine Muench, Emily Brede, Romano Endrighi, Edwin H Szeto, Joanna R Sells, John P Lammers, Kolawole S Okuyemi, Andrew J Waters
African American cigarette smokers have lower rates of cessation than Whites and live in communities with a higher number of tobacco advertisements. Exposure to smoking cues may promote smoking and undermine cessation. It may be possible to reduce attention to smoking cues ("attentional bias"). In this study, we investigated the effect of attentional retraining (AR) on attentional bias and smoking in African American smokers. Nontreatment- seeking African American smokers (N = 64) were randomly assigned to an AR or control condition...
June 19, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626785/blunted-amygdala-functional-connectivity-during-a-stress-task-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#8
Natasha E Wade, Claudia B Padula, Robert M Anthenelli, Erik Nelson, James Eliassen, Krista M Lisdahl
BACKGROUND: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625002/changes-in-dietary-intake-and-eating-behavior-in-adolescents-after-bariatric-surgery-an-ancillary-study-to-the-teen-labs-consortium
#9
David B Sarwer, Rebecca J Dilks, Jacqueline C Spitzer, Robert I Berkowitz, Thomas A Wadden, Renee H Moore, Jesse L Chittams, Mary L Brandt, Mike K Chen, Anita P Courcoulas, Carroll M Harmon, Michael A Helmrath, Marc P Michalsky, Stavra A Xanthakos, Meg H Zeller, Todd M Jenkins, Thomas H Inge
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies suggest that bariatric surgery is safe and effective for adolescents with severe obesity. However, surprisingly little is known about changes in dietary intake and eating behavior of adolescents who undergo bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE: Investigate changes in dietary intake and eating behavior of adolescents with obesity who underwent bariatric surgery (n = 119) or lifestyle modification (LM) (n = 169). SETTING: University-based health systems METHODS: A prospective investigation of 288 participants (219 female and 69 male) prior to bariatric surgery or LM and again 6, 12, and 24 months (surgery patients only) after treatment...
June 17, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622616/treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-effects-on-patients-with-higher-or-lower-levels-of-ptsd-symptoms
#10
Carol E M Wieferink, Hein A de Haan, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Martine Fledderus, Tim Kok
While guidelines advise integrated treatment of patients with substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), recent studies and reviews find no convincing evidence of different outcomes following treatment between non-trauma focused integrated programs and SUD treatment alone. In this study, we analyzed whether SUD patients with higher levels of PTSD symptoms receiving standard, non-integrated SUD treatment (N=145) differed in outcomes compared to patients with lower levels of PTSD symptoms (N=152)...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618284/differences-in-biomarkers-of-crack-cocaine-adolescent-users-before-after-abstinence
#11
Thiago Gatti Pianca, Ronaldo Lopes Rosa, Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér, Bianca Wollenhaupt de Aguiar, Rafaela Carvalho de Abrahão, Patrícia Mafra Lazzari, Flávio Kapczinski, Flávio Pechansky, Luis Augusto Rohde, Cláudia Maciel Szobot
AIMS: To measure the variation in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and interleukin (IL) levels in crack-cocaine dependent adolescents after 21days of abstinence, comparing to levels found in a group of healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nested on a short follow-up study. SETTING: Two inpatient treatment units for adolescents, and a low-income neighborhood. PARTICIPANTS: 90 adolescents, of both genders, with diagnosis of crack cocaine dependence, and 81 healthy adolescents...
June 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618170/frequency-of-consuming-foods-predicts-changes-in-cravings-for-those-foods-during-weight-loss-the-pounds-lost-study
#12
John W Apolzan, Candice A Myers, Catherine M Champagne, Robbie A Beyl, Hollie A Raynor, Stephen A Anton, Donald A Williamson, Frank M Sacks, George A Bray, Corby K Martin
OBJECTIVE: Food cravings are thought to be the result of conditioning or pairing hunger with consumption of certain foods. METHODS: In a 2-year weight loss trial, subjects were randomized to one of four diets that varied in macronutrient content. The Food Craving Inventory (FCI) was used to measure cravings at baseline and at 6 and 24 months. Food intake was also measured at those time points. To measure free-living consumption of food items measured in the FCI, items on the FCI were matched to the foods consumed from the food intake assessments...
June 15, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616995/the-hippocampus-and-the-regulation-of-human-food-intake
#13
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis
Human and animal data suggest that the hippocampus plays certain roles in regulating food intake. However, its actual role may be far broader than currently envisaged, a claim suggested by the centrality of the hippocampus to so many aspects of human/animal cognition. Understanding these ingestion-related functions is especially significant. This is because some degree of hippocampal impairment may be quite common, resulting for example from a Western-style diet, insomnia, diabetes, and depression-among many other causes...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616412/assessing-the-presence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-genome-in-pregnant-women-with-spontaneous-abortion-using-polymerase-chain-reaction-method-in-yasuj-first-report-from-southwest-of-iran
#14
Alborz Jahangiri Sisakht, Navid Omidifar, Nahid Mohamadkhani, Maryam Karimpoorfard, Mohammad Kargar, Mansoureh Shokripour
CONTEXT: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent factors of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide, which causes abortion, premature rupture of membrane, uterine cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, and ectopic pregnancy. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. trachomatis genome in pregnant women with abortion in Yasuj, Iran. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is a descriptive-analytical study in Shahid Mofateh Gyneco-obstetrics clinic and Emam sajjad Hospital...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614299/homeostatic-circuits-selectively-gate-food-cue-responses-in-insular-cortex
#15
Yoav Livneh, Rohan N Ramesh, Christian R Burgess, Kirsten M Levandowski, Joseph C Madara, Henning Fenselau, Glenn J Goldey, Veronica E Diaz, Nick Jikomes, Jon M Resch, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
Physiological needs bias perception and attention to relevant sensory cues. This process is 'hijacked' by drug addiction, causing cue-induced cravings and relapse. Similarly, its dysregulation contributes to failed diets, obesity, and eating disorders. Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated insular cortex in these phenomena. However, it remains unclear how 'cognitive' cortical representations of motivationally relevant cues are biased by subcortical circuits that drive specific motivational states. Here we develop a microprism-based cellular imaging approach to monitor visual cue responses in the insular cortex of behaving mice across hunger states...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611698/improving-assessment-of-the-spectrum-of-reward-related-eating-the-red-13
#16
Ashley E Mason, Uku Vainik, Michael Acree, A Janet Tomiyama, Alain Dagher, Elissa S Epel, Frederick M Hecht
A diversity of scales capture facets of reward-related eating (RRE). These scales assess food cravings, uncontrolled eating, addictive behavior, restrained eating, binge eating, and other eating behaviors. However, these scales differ in terms of the severity of RRE they capture. We sought to incorporate the items from existing scales to broaden the 9-item Reward-based Eating Drive scale (RED-9; Epel et al., 2014), which assesses three dimensions of RRE (lack of satiety, preoccupation with food, and lack of control over eating), in order to more comprehensively assess the entire spectrum of RRE...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611692/development-of-a-mobile-phone-addiction-craving-scale-and-its-validation-in-a-spanish-adult-population
#17
José De-Sola, Hernán Talledo, Gabriel Rubio, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607934/opioid-addiction-social-problems-associated-and-implications-of-both-current-and-possible-future-treatments-including-polymeric-therapeutics-for-giving-up-the-habit-of-opioid-consumption
#18
REVIEW
M Cristina Benéitez, M Esther Gil-Alegre
BACKGROUND: Detoxification programmes seek to implement the most secure and compassionate ways of withdrawing from opiates so that the inevitable withdrawal symptoms and other complications are minimized. Once detoxification has been achieved, the next stage is to enable the patient to overcome his or her drug addiction by ensuring consumption is permanently and completely abandoned, only after which can the subject be regarded as fully recovered. METHODS: A systematic search on the common databases of relevant papers published until 2016 inclusive...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602145/neural-correlate-of-internet-use-in-patients-undergoing-psychological-treatment-for-internet-addiction
#19
Carlo Lai, Daniela Altavilla, Marianna Mazza, Silvia Scappaticci, Renata Tambelli, Paola Aceto, Massimiliano Luciani, Stefano Corvino, David Martinelli, Flaminia Alimonti, Federico Tonioni
BACKGROUND: The new version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5th) proposed the Internet Gaming Disorder for the diagnosis of Internet addiction (IA) considering the neurobiological evidence of the craving. AIMS: The aim was to test the neural correlate in response to the Internet cue in patients with IA. METHODS: Sixteen males with IA diagnosis (clinical group) and 14 healthy male (control group) were recruited for an experimental visual task composed of Internet images and emotional images...
June 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600734/effects-of-varenicline-on-alcohol-cue-reactivity-in-heavy-drinkers
#20
Walter Roberts, Emily L R Harrison, Sherry A McKee
RATIONALE: Clinical trials and human laboratory studies have established that varenicline can reduce rates of alcohol use among heavy drinkers. Less is known about the mechanisms by which varenicline has this effect on drinking behavior. Reactivity to alcohol cues is often cited as the primary cause of relapse among those being treated for alcohol use disorder, and several front-line treatments for alcohol use disorder work, at least in part, by minimizing cue-induced alcohol craving...
June 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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