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electronic cigarettes guidelines

Caroline Franck, Kristian B Filion, Mark J Eisenberg
Over 30% of the nearly 1 million North Americans hospitalized annually with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are smokers. Despite a substantially increased risk of morbidity and mortality, 2/3 of patients who quit smoking after ACS return to smoking within 1 year. To summarize the evidence of smoking cessation in patients hospitalized after ACS, we systematically reviewed all randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic and behavioral smoking cessation therapies in patients with ACS. In addition, we reviewed the clinical considerations surrounding the use of smoking cessation therapies, including their broad mechanisms of action and possible alternative treatments, including cardiac rehabilitation programs and electronic cigarettes...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Kabindra Regmi, Dinesh Kaphle, Sabina Timilsina, Nik Annie Afiqah Tuha
BACKGROUND: Economic evidence relating to tobacco control is generally derived from the cost effectiveness of smoking-cessation programs or the economic impact of tobacco-induced disease, based on revealed-preference data. However, empirical estimates from stated-preference data on tobacco users' preferences, smoking behaviour and smoking cessation aids using analytical techniques such as discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) could be important for policy decision making in tobacco control...
March 2018: PharmacoEconomics open
Alice Ordean, Suzanne Wong, Lisa Graves
OBJECTIVES: To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. OPTIONS: This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for the clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. OUTCOMES: Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation...
October 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Renan Magri, Mauro Masili, Fernanda Oliveira Duarte, Liliane Ventura
BACKGROUND: Sunglasses popularity skyrocketed since its advent. The ongoing trend led to the creation of standards to protect consumers from injuries and secondary hazards due to spectacles use. In Brazil, the corresponding standard is NBR ISO 12312-1:2015 and since there is no mandatory testing, evaluating sunglasses performance provides an insight into compliance with the standard. In a continuing revision of sunglasses standards requirements, resistance to ignition is one of the concerns, since sunglasses should be protected from burning into flames at a pre-determined temperature, which may protect user of getting their sunglasses into flames if some, cigarette sparks reaches the spectacles, as an example...
September 21, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
Nicola Lindson, Dan Richards-Doran, Laura Heath, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for tobacco cessation and prevention interventions. In 2016 TAG conducted a priority-setting, stakeholder engagement project to identify where further research is needed in the areas of tobacco control and smoking cessation. DESIGN: The project comprised two surveys and a workshop. A range of stakeholders participated, including members of the public (smokers and ex-smokers), clinicians, researchers, research funders, health-care commissioners and public health organizations...
December 2017: Addiction
Ahmad Besaratinia, Stella Tommasi
In response to the growing public health concern regarding the risks or benefits of electronic cigarettes (e-cig) use relative to smoking, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has recently introduced the first standardized- and well- characterized e-cig device to the research community (see, ). E-cig are promoted as safe alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes and/or as aides to smoking cessation. E-cig are highly popular among cigarette smokers who are unable/unwilling to quit but are willing to switch to putatively less-harmful tobacco substitutes...
October 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Skylar Klager, Jose Vallarino, Piers MacNaughton, David C Christiani, Quan Lu, Joseph G Allen
Regulations on e-cigarettes in the U.S. do not provide guidelines on the chemical content of e-cigarette liquids. We evaluated emissions of aldehydes and flavoring chemicals in e-cigarette vapor under typical usage conditions. We selected 24 e-cigarette flavors from the top selling disposable e-cigarette brands. E-cigarettes were connected to a pump drawing air for two second puffs with sixty-second intervals between puffs. The vapor was analyzed for the presence of aldehydes using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector and for the presence of flavoring chemicals with gas chromatography and an electron capture detector...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Venkatkiran Kanchustambham, Swetha Saladi, Jonathan Rodrigues, Hermina Fernandes, Setu Patolia, Sadhashiv Santosh
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver aerosolized nicotine. With easy access and over-the-counter availability, many patients consider using electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. Few studies have looked at long-term safety/efficacy and physician knowledge/attitudes toward e-cigarettes. Physicians have insufficient guidelines for advising their patients about e-cigarettes. Objective: 1) To identify knowledge and attitude of health care practitioners toward electronic cigarettes...
July 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Priyanga Jayakumar, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Rajashekar Reddy Yeruva, Steven Lippmann
Despite the known dangers of cigarette smoking, many smokers do not use effective means for cessation. Smoking-cessation guidelines recommend a variety of psychological and medicinal options that include nicotine-replacement products, pharmaceuticals, and electronic cigarettes. This article describes these smoking-cessation options and provides guidance for physicians.
June 8, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annamaria Buschini, Mirca Lazzaretti, Laura Marchi, Vladimiro Cardenia, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Maura Lodovici, Caterina Cipriani, Antonello Lorenzini, Eleonora Croco, Silvia Marchionni, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Vincenzo Longo, Clara Maria Della Croce, Andrea Vornoli, Annamaria Colacci, Monica Vaccari, Andrea Sapone, Moreno Paolini
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are devices designed to deliver nicotine in a vaping solution rather than smoke and without tobacco combustion. Perceived as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, e-cigs are aggressively marketed as lifestyle-choice consumables, thanks to few restrictions and a lack of regulatory guidelines. E-cigs have also gained popularity among never-smokers and teenagers, becoming an emergent public health issue. Despite the burgeoning worldwide consumption of e-cigs, their safety remains largely unproven and it is unknown whether these devices cause in vivo toxicological effects that could contribute to cancer...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pauline Vabre, Nicolas Gatimel, Jessika Moreau, Véronique Gayrard, Nicole Picard-Hagen, Jean Parinaud, Roger D Leandri
BACKGROUND: Because only 25% of cases of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) have a known etiology, the aim of this review was to summarize the associations and mechanisms of the impact of the environment on this pathology. Eligible studies were selected from an electronic literature search from the PUBMED database from January 2000 to February 2016 and associated references in published studies. Search terms included ovary, follicle, oocyte, endocrine disruptor, environmental exposure, occupational exposure, environmental contaminant, pesticide, polyaromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl PCB, phenol, bisphenol, flame retardant, phthalate, dioxin, phytoestrogen, tobacco, smoke, cigarette, cosmetic, xenobiotic...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Jinsong Chen, Chris Bullen, Kim Dirks
Background: Although some studies have identified hazardous substances in electronic cigarette (EC) liquids and emissions, there is limited information about the health risks of using ECs. Methods: In this study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health risk assessment model and findings of a literature review were used to determine and profile hazards. Focus was put on the toxicants reported in the literature on conventional cigarette (CC) smoke that most strongly associated with adverse health effects...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ana C N Marques Gomes, Shereen Nabhani-Gebara, Reem Kayyali, Federico Buonocore, Gianpiero Calabrese
OBJECTIVES: To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. SETTING: A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. CONTEXT: E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK...
November 10, 2016: BMJ Open
Amy Guzik, Cheryl Bushnell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Death from stroke has decreased over the past decade, with stroke now the fifth leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, the incidence of new and recurrent stroke is declining, likely because of the increased use of specific prevention medications, such as statins and antihypertensives. Despite these positive trends in incidence and mortality, many strokes remain preventable. The major modifiable risk factors are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco smoking, and hyperlipidemia, as well as lifestyle factors, such as obesity, poor diet/nutrition, and physical inactivity...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Albert Park, Shu-Hong Zhu, Mike Conway
BACKGROUND: The popularity and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased across all demographic groups in recent years. However, little is currently known about the readability of health information and advice aimed at the general public regarding the use of e-cigarettes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to examine the readability of publicly available health information as well as advice on e-cigarettes. We compared information and advice available from US government agencies, nongovernment organizations, English speaking government agencies outside the United States, and for-profit entities...
January 6, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Isabel Mr Hess, Kishen Lachireddy, Adam Capon
OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have recently become popular around the world, and their safety is being widely discussed in the scientific literature. Previous studies have examined the chemicals in e-liquids and vapour, and demonstrated that the aerosol from ECs can contain toxic chemicals that are harmful to health. However, little is known about the potential adverse health effects of passive exposure to EC vapour. The aim of this paper is to summarise and review all studies that have examined potential adverse health effects of passive exposure from inhaling EC vapour...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Ki-Hyun Kim, Ehsanul Kabir, Shamin Ara Jahan
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devised to deliver nicotine in a vapor rather than in smoke without tar. ECs are hence advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarette products as the chemical compounds inhaled in the former are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those of the latter. Hazardous chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde) are nonetheless found to be generated incidentally by contacting the heated wire (i.e., the oxidation of glycerol/glycol in e-liquid). Although the extent of their release varies by several variables (e...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Shikha Prasad, Tylor Liles, Luca Cucullo
It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes...
July 15, 2016: Toxicology
Antonietta De Clemente, Simona Frigerio, Marco Clari, Ilaria Bergese, Salvatore Lanzarone, Elena Ponticelli, Enrica Scavino
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette smoking is spreading among health care professionals. E-cigarette smoke effects on health are not known, especially long-term effects. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of electronic cigarettes as regards smoking habits, knowledge and opinions of health care professionals. METHODS: A multicentre cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by administering an online questionnaire to all the health care professionals employed in two hospitals...
2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
Barbara Silver, Carol Ripley-Moffitt, Jennifer Greyber, Adam O Goldstein
Although use of electronic nicotine delivery system devices, such as e-cigarettes and vapor pens, is on the rise, no treatment protocols exist to help such users quit. We report the case of a 24-year-old patient in a tobacco treatment program who successfully quit e-cigarette use by using nicotine replacement therapy.
April 2016: Clinical Case Reports
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