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electronic cigarettes guidelines

Isabel Mr Hess, Kishen Lachireddy, Adam Capon
OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have recently become popular around the world, and their safety is being widely discussed in the scientific literature. Previous studies have examined the chemicals in e-liquids and vapour, and demonstrated that the aerosol from ECs can contain toxic chemicals that are harmful to health. However, little is known about the potential adverse health effects of passive exposure to EC vapour. The aim of this paper is to summarise and review all studies that have examined potential adverse health effects of passive exposure from inhaling EC vapour...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Ki-Hyun Kim, Ehsanul Kabir, Shamin Ara Jahan
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devised to deliver nicotine in a vapor rather than in smoke without tar. ECs are hence advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarette products as the chemical compounds inhaled in the former are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those of the latter. Hazardous chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde) are nonetheless found to be generated incidentally by contacting the heated wire (i.e., the oxidation of glycerol/glycol in e-liquid). Although the extent of their release varies by several variables (e...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Shikha Prasad, Tylor Liles, Luca Cucullo
It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes...
July 15, 2016: Toxicology
Antonietta De Clemente, Simona Frigerio, Marco Clari, Ilaria Bergese, Salvatore Lanzarone, Elena Ponticelli, Enrica Scavino
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette smoking is spreading among health care professionals. E-cigarette smoke effects on health are not known, especially long-term effects. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of electronic cigarettes as regards smoking habits, knowledge and opinions of health care professionals. METHODS: A multicentre cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by administering an online questionnaire to all the health care professionals employed in two hospitals...
2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
Barbara Silver, Carol Ripley-Moffitt, Jennifer Greyber, Adam O Goldstein
Although use of electronic nicotine delivery system devices, such as e-cigarettes and vapor pens, is on the rise, no treatment protocols exist to help such users quit. We report the case of a 24-year-old patient in a tobacco treatment program who successfully quit e-cigarette use by using nicotine replacement therapy.
April 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Amy Tomashefski
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a lack of research on perceived health effects of electronic cigarettes by adult users. Because more people are choosing electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in addition to, or instead of traditional cigarettes, it is important for the nurse practitioner (NP) to understand why. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using four scholarly databases. The search strategy utilized remained consistent. Qualitative, quantitative, observational studies and meta-analyses were considered for review...
September 2016: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Jason W Flora, Naren Meruva, Chorng B Huang, Celeste T Wilkinson, Regina Ballentine, Donna C Smith, Michael S Werley, Willie J McKinney
E-cigarettes are gaining popularity in the U.S. as well as in other global markets. Currently, limited published analytical data characterizing e-cigarette formulations (e-liquids) and aerosols exist. While FDA has not published a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) list for e-cigarettes, the HPHC list for currently regulated tobacco products may be useful to analytically characterize e-cigarette aerosols. For example, most e-cigarette formulations contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may produce aldehydes when heated...
February 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Robert J Norman
The time of our conception is when we are most vulnerable to survival and growing as a healthy human being. Genetic and environmental effects on gametes and the developing embryo can be literally life-and-death events with regard to the successful outcome of pregnancy. In the past decade, we have also understood that environmental factors under which the gametes grow and the embryo develops have lifelong implications with regard to developmental origins of health and disease. We now know that parenting begins before conception in that a compromised egg or sperm from either parent can alter the trajectory of development even if the embryo and intrauterine environment is optimal...
December 2015: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Lori Pbert, Harold Farber, Kimberly Horn, Harry A Lando, Myra Muramoto, Jennifer O'Loughlin, Susanne Tanski, Robert J Wellman, Jonathan P Winickoff, Jonathan D Klein
Tobacco use and tobacco smoke exposure are among the most important preventable causes of premature disease, disability, and death and therefore constitute a major pediatric health concern. The pediatric primary care setting offers excellent opportunities to prevent tobacco use in youth and to deliver cessation-related treatment to youth and parents who use tobacco. This report updates a "state-of-the-art" article published a decade ago on office-based interventions to address these issues. Since then there has been marked progress in understanding the nature, onset, and trajectories of tobacco use and nicotine addiction in youth with implications for clinical practice...
April 2015: Pediatrics
Christian Reinhardt, Stefan Andreas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Enrique Galve, Alberto Cordero, Vicente Bertomeu-Martínez, Lorenzo Fácila, Pilar Mazón, Eduardo Alegría, Jaime Fernández de Bobadilla, Esteban García-Porrero, Manuel Martínez-Sellés, José Ramón González-Juanatey
As in other fields, understanding of vascular risk and rehabilitation is constantly improving. The present review of recent epidemiological update shows how far we are from achieving good risk factor control: in diet and nutrition, where unhealthy and excessive societal consumption is clearly increasing the prevalence of obesity; in exercise, where it is difficult to find a balance between benefit and risk, despite systemization efforts; in smoking, where developments center on programs and policies, with the electronic cigarette seeming more like a problem than a solution; in lipids, where the transatlantic debate between guidelines is becoming a paradigm of the divergence of views in this extensively studied area; in hypertension, where a nonpharmacological alternative (renal denervation) has been undermined by the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 setback, forcing a deep reassessment; in diabetes mellitus, where the new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors and glucagon like peptide 1 analogues have contributed much new information and a glimpse of the future of diabetes treatment, and in cardiac rehabilitation, which continues to benefit from new information and communication technologies and where clinical benefit is not hindered by advanced diseases, such as heart failure...
February 2015: Revista Española de Cardiología
Carrie Printz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2014: Cancer
Barbara Davis, Michael Dang, Jisoo Kim, Prue Talbot
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the accuracy of nicotine concentration labeling on electronic cigarette refill products. METHODS: The nicotine concentration of 71 electronic cigarette refill fluid products and 1 related do-it-yourself (DIY) product was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Quantified data were compared with manufacturers labeled concentrations. Duplicate refill fluid products purchased at different times were evaluated by visual comparison of fluid coloration and quantified nicotine concentration...
February 2015: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
K Michael Cummings, Carolyn M Dresler, John K Field, Jesme Fox, Ellen R Gritz, Nasser H Hanna, Norihiko Ikeda, Jacek Jassem, James L Mulshine, Matthew J Peters, Nise H Yamaguchi, Graham Warren, Caicun Zhou
The increasing popularity and availability of electronic cigarettes (i.e., e-cigarettes) in many countries have promoted debate among health professionals as to what to recommend to their patients who might be struggling to stop smoking or asking about e-cigarettes. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines for using e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, some health professionals have urged caution about recommending them due to the limited evidence of their safety and efficacy, while others have argued that e-cigarettes are obviously a better alternative to continued cigarette smoking and should be encouraged...
April 2014: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Lisa D Levine, Jitsen Chang, Irwin R Merkatz, Peter S Bernstein
OBJECTIVE: Smoking cessation during pregnancy is a modifiable intervention that can improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Encouraging smoking cessation is an assessed measure of the Meaningful Use incentives to ensure best practices with the increased use of the electronic medical record (EMR). Physician EMR prompts have been used shown to be successful with preventive care but there is a paucity of data evaluating prompts within obstetrics. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of enhanced smoking cessation prompts in a prenatal EMR...
December 1, 2013: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
John B Reiss, Dawn Crowder, Brittany McCabe, Marisa DeFeo, Marta Rifin, Meghan Talbot
FDA transparency effort continued, including the Secretary's adopting eight measures to improve access to Agency information and activities. A continuing problem was shortages of prescription drugs, which probably was enhanced by increased manufacturing recalls. FDA issued more device Guidances for regulatory clarity. Enforcement involving drugs and devices increased, including GMP and GLP enforcement and surveillance of internet claims. The Supreme Court decided generic drug manufacturers may cause the FDA to revise incorrectly listed use codes, and pharmaceutical detailers may not receive overtime payments...
2013: Food and Drug Law Journal
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Hassan Ziaaddini, Ali Mirzazadeh, Ahad Ashrafi-Asgarabad, Ali Akbar Haghdoost
BACKGROUND: There are numerous studies and documents regarding the prevalence of smoking in Iran. Thus, to provide suitable information for decision-making and policy-making in this regard, the prevalence of smoking in Iran was evaluated using the meta-analysis of the results of the existing researches. METHODS: Data were collected by searching the keywords cigarette, smoking, tobacco, and nicotine in English databases, searching their Persian equivalents in Persian Databases, and in non-electronic resources...
July 2013: Addiction & Health
Martine Stead, Crawford Moodie, Kathryn Angus, Linda Bauld, Ann McNeill, James Thomas, Gerard Hastings, Kate Hinds, Alison O'Mara-Eves, Irene Kwan, Richard I Purves, Stuart L Bryce
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm...
2013: PloS One
Lamberto Manzoli, Carlo La Vecchia, Maria Elena Flacco, Lorenzo Capasso, Valentina Simonetti, Stefania Boccia, Angela Di Baldassarre, Paolo Villari, Andrea Mezzetti, Giancarlo Cicolini
BACKGROUND: While electronic cigarettes are forbidden in several countries, their sales are exploding in many others. Although e-cigarettes have been proposed as long-term substitutes for traditional smoking or as a tool for smoking cessation, very scarce data are available on their efficacy and safety.We describe the protocol of a 5-year multicentric prospective study aimed to evaluate short- and long-term adherence to e-cigarette smoking and the efficacy of e-cigarettes in reducing and/or quitting traditional cigarette smoking...
2013: BMC Public Health
Robert A Wild, Enrico Carmina, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, Anuja Dokras, Hector F Escobar-Morreale, Walter Futterweit, Rogerio Lobo, Robert J Norman, Evelyn Talbott, Daniel A Dumesic
OBJECTIVE: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often have cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS) Society created a panel to provide evidence-based reviews of studies assessing PCOS-CVD risk relationships and to develop guidelines for preventing CVD. PARTICIPANTS: An expert panel in PCOS and CVD reviewed literature and presented recommendations. EVIDENCE: Only studies comparing PCOS with control patients were included...
May 2010: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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