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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749519/atomic-scale-computational-design-of-hydrophobic-re-surface-doped-al2o3-and-tio2
#1
Kamil Czelej, Marcin Roland Zemła, Piotr Spiewak, Tomasz Wejrzanowski, Krzysztof Jan Kurzydłowski
Intrinsically hydrophobic rare-earth oxides (REOs) have emerged as a robust class of ceramics for a variety of applications. Recently, the hydrophobicity of REOs has been observed experimentally and subsequently scrutinized using electronic structure density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In this work, we applied the DFT method to analyze the possibility of tuning the wettability of commonly used hydrophilic Al2O3 and TiO2 by surface doping with Ce. The calculations indicate that Ce can preferentially segregate to the surface of Al2O3 and TiO2 and form a Ce-rich oxide layer, which is stable under a wide range of oxygen chemical potentials...
July 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748383/is-ambient-heat-exposure-levels-associated-with-miscarriage-or-stillbirths-in-hot-regions-a-cross-sectional-study-using-survey-data-from-the-ghana-maternal-health-survey-2007
#2
Benedict Asamoah, Tord Kjellstrom, Per-Olof Östergren
It is well established that high ambient heat could cause congenital abnormalities resulting in miscarriage or stillbirth among certain species of mammals. However, this has not been systematically studied in real field settings among humans, despite the potential value of such knowledge for estimating the impact of global warming on the human species. This study sought to test the hypothesis that maternal heat exposure during pregnancy in hot regions is associated with increased prevalence of spontaneous abortions or stillbirths and to develop an analytical strategy to use existing data from maternal health surveys and existing data on historical heat levels at a geographic grid cell level...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748084/mechanical-damage-to-green-and-red-lentil-seeds
#3
Feizollah Shahbazi, Saman Valizade, Ali Dowlatshah
In this research, the breakage susceptibility of two classes of lentil (green and red) was evaluated as affected by impact energy and seed moisture content. The experiments were conducted at impact energies of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 J, and moisture contents of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20 and 25% (wet basis). Results showed that red lentil seeds had more breakage than green seeds and the difference in breakage percentage between green and red lentil seeds was significant at 0.01% level according to analysis of variance (p < ...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747281/transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-in-children-with-monosymptomatic-nocturnal-enuresis-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#4
Cecilie Siggaard Jørgensen, Konstantinos Kamperis, Luise Borch, Britt Borg, Søren Rittig
PURPOSE: In a third of all children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis their condition is refractory to first line treatments. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation has been documented to be efficacious in children with daytime incontinence. We investigated the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (3 or more wet nights per week) and no nocturnal polyuria were randomized to treatment with active or sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation involving 1-hour sessions twice daily for 10 weeks in a double-blind design...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747222/prevalence-and-seasonal-transmission-of-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-among-school-aged-children-in-kaedi-town-southern-mauritania
#5
N'Guessan G C Gbalégba, Kigbafori D Silué, Ousmane Ba, Hampâté Ba, Nathan T Y Tian-Bi, Grégoire Y Yapi, Aboudramane Kaba, Brama Koné, Jürg Utzinger, Benjamin G Koudou
BACKGROUND: Mauritania is at the fringe of transmission of human schistosomiasis, which mainly occurs in the southern and southeastern parts of the country. This study aimed to assess the influence of rainfall seasonality on the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school-aged children in Kaedi, southern Mauritania. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys (i.e. parasitological, malacological and observations on water-related human activities) were carried out in Kaedi between September 2014 and May 2015, during both the wet and dry seasons...
July 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747168/the-biobank-for-the-molecular-classification-of-kidney-disease-research-translation-and-precision-medicine-in-nephrology
#6
Daniel A Muruve, Michelle C Mann, Kevin Chapman, Josee F Wong, Pietro Ravani, Stacey A Page, Hallgrimur Benediktsson
BACKGROUND: Advances in technology and the ability to interrogate disease pathogenesis using systems biology approaches are exploding. As exemplified by the substantial progress in the personalized diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the application of systems biology to enable precision medicine in other disciplines such as Nephrology is well underway. Infrastructure that permits the integration of clinical data, patient biospecimens and advanced technologies is required for institutions to contribute to, and benefit from research in molecular disease classification and to devise specific and patient-oriented treatments...
July 26, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746622/holocene-history-of-a-lake-filling-and-vegetation-dynamics-of-the-serra-sul-dos-caraj%C3%A3-s-southeast-amazonia
#7
José T F Guimarães, Prafulla K Sahoo, Pedro W M Souza-Filho, Mariana M J Costa DE Figueiredo, Luiza S Reis, Marcio S DA Silva, Tarcísio M Rodrigues
Down-core changes in sedimentary facies, elemental geochemistry, pollen, spore, δ13C, δ15N and radiocarbon records from a filled lake, named R4, of the Serra Sul dos Carajás were used to study the relationship between the paleomorphological and paleoecological processes and their significance for Holocene paleoclimatology of the southeast Amazonia. The sediment deposition of the R4 lake started around 9500 cal yr BP. Increase of detrital components from 9500 to 7000 cal yr BP suggests high weathering of surrounding catchment rocks and soils, and deposition into the lake basin under mudflows...
July 24, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746322/approximation-of-height-of-an-individual-using-somatometry-of-human-male-skull
#8
J Acharya, B S K Shetty, R Shrestha, T Kanchan
INTRODUCTION: Numerous population specific studies conducted on skeletal remains have aimed to standardize the identification process. Known for ethnic and sexual variations, skull bone can also assist the identification process by estimating stature of the individual. The present study focuses on estimation of stature from skull bone using uni-variate and multi-variate regression models in south Indian population. METHODS: Stature and maximum cranial length, maximum cranial breadth, bi-pterion breadth, parietal cord and upper facial breadth were measured in wet skulls of 113 males, autopsied at Government Hospital of Kudla, Karnataka...
April 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746228/randomized-noninferiority-study-between-video-versus-hand-ultrasound-with-wet-foam-dressing-materials-to-simulate-b-lines-in-lung-ultrasound-a-consort-compliant-article
#9
Eun Jung Park, Young Tak Yoon, Chong Kun Hong, Young Rock Ha, Jung Hwan Ahn
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the efficacy of a teaching method using simulated B-lines of hand ultrasound with a wet foam dressing material. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, noninferiority study was conducted on emergency medical technician students without any relevant training in ultrasound. Following a lecture including simulated (SG) or real video clips (RG) of B-lines, a posttest was conducted and a retention test was performed after 2 months. The test consisted of questions about B-lines in 40 randomly mixed video clips (20 simulated and 20 real videos) with 4 answer scores (R-1 [the correct answer score for the real video clips] vs S-1 [the correct answer score for the simulated video clips] in the posttest, R-2 [the correct answer score for the real video clips] vs S-2 [the correct answer score for the simulated video clips] in the retention test)...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745925/clinical-care-of-children-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#10
Jane S Lucas, Mikkel Christian Alanin, Samuel Collins, Amanda Harris, Helle Krogh Johansen, Kim G Nielsen, Jean Francois Papon, Phil Robinson, Woolf T Walker
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare heterogeneous disorder, usually inherited as an autosomal recessive condition but X-linked inheritance is also described. Abnormal ciliary function in childhood leads to neonatal respiratory distress in term infants, persistent wet cough, bronchiectasis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and hearing impairment; approximately 50% of patients have situs inversus. There is a paucity of evidence for treating PCD, hence consensus guidelines are predominantly influenced by knowledge from cystic fibrosis (CF)...
July 26, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745913/a-dry-method-for-preserving-tear-protein-samples
#11
Weiwei Qin, Chan Zhao, Linpei Zhang, Ting Wang, Youhe Gao
Tears covering the ocular surface are important biofluids containing thousands of molecules, including proteins, lipids, metabolites, nucleic acids, and electrolytes. Tears are valuable resources for biomarker research of ocular and even systemic diseases. For application in biomarker studies, tear samples should ideally be stored using a simple, lowcost, and efficient method along with the patient's medical records. For this purpose, we developed a novel Schirmer's strip-based dry method that allows for storage of tear samples in vacuum bags at room temperature...
July 26, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745738/edges-of-graphene-and-carbon-nanotubes-with-high-catalytic-performance-for-the-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#12
Zhanwei Xu, Xiaoli Fan, Hejun Li, Hao Fu, Woon Ming Lau, Xueni Zhao
We invented a practical and simple wet-grinding method to break conventional graphene sheets and CNTs for the production of new graphene/CNTs with adequate edge density (about 25 000 atoms per graphene-fragment of about 1 μm(2) in size) and no detectable changes in intrinsic defects, extrinsic impurities, and even surface-area. Measurements using the standard cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk electrode and rotating ring-disk electrode techniques all confirm that such mildly fragmented graphene, as well as carbon-nanotubes treated similarly using this wet-grinding method, can facilitate the fast 4-electron oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) pathway...
July 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745613/scalable-transfer-of-vertical-graphene-nanosheets-for-flexible-supercapacitor-applications
#13
Gopinath Sahoo, Subrata Ghosh, S R Polaki, Tom Mathews, M Kamruddin
Vertical graphene nanosheets (VGN) are the material of choice for application in next-generation electronic devices. The growing demand for VGN based flexible devices in electronic industry brings in restriction on VGN growth temperature. The difficulty associated with direct growth of VGN on flexible substrates can be overcome by adopting an effective strategy of transferring the well grown VGN onto arbitrary flexible substrates through soft chemistry route. In the present study we report an inexpensive and scalable technique for the polymer-free transfer of VGN onto arbitrary substrates without disrupting its morphology, structure and properties...
July 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744677/light-absorption-by-water-soluble-organic-carbon-in-atmospheric-fine-particles-in-the-central-tibetan-plateau
#14
YanGe Zhang, JianZhong Xu, JinSen Shi, CongHui Xie, XinLei Ge, JunFeng Wang, ShiChang Kang, Qi Zhang
Brown carbon (BrC) has recently received much attention because of its light absorption features. The chemical compositions, optical properties, and sources of fine aerosol at a high-elevation mountain observatory (4730 m a.s.l.) in the central Tibetan Plateau were measured between 31 May and 1 July 2015. A low flow-rate sampler was used to collect 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) filter samples. Water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and light absorption by water-soluble BrC were determined for 26 filter samples...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744125/a-top-down-technique-to-improve-the-solubility-and-bioavailability-of-aceclofenac-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#15
Reema Narayan, Abhyuday Pednekar, Dipshikha Bhuyan, Chaitra Gowda, K B Koteshwara, Usha Yogendra Nayak
The aim of the present work was to tackle the solubility issue of a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS)-II drug, aceclofenac. Although a number of attempts to increase the aqueous solubility have been made, none of the methods were taken up for scale-up. Hence size reduction technique by a top-down approach using wet milling process was utilized to improve the solubility and, consequently, the dissolution velocity of aceclofenac. The quality of the final product was ensured by Quality by Design approach wherein the effects of critical material attributes and critical process parameters were assessed on the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of nanocrystals...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743873/origin-of-clay-minerals-in-early-eocene-volcanic-paleosols-on-king-george-island-maritime-antarctica
#16
Diogo Noses Spinola, Teresa Pi-Puig, Elizabeth Solleiro-Rebolledo, Markus Egli, Masafumi Sudo, Sergey Sedov, Peter Kühn
The paleoclimate during the Early Eocene in Maritime Antarctica is characterized by cool conditions without a pronounced dry season. Soils formed on volcanic material under such climate conditions in modern analogue environments are usually Andosols rich in nanocrystalline minerals without pedogenic smectite. The paleosols formed on volcanic material on King Georges Island are covered by basalts, dated by 6 new (40)Ar/(39)Ar datings to 51-48 Ma, and are rich in smectite. A pedogenic origin of the smectites would suggest a semi-arid rather than a wet non-seasonal humid paleoclimate...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743335/-regulation-of-paxillin-tyrosine-phosphorylation-via-inhibition-of-c-abl-kinase-to-protect-ventilator-induce-lung-injury-in-vivo-in-rats
#17
Rong Zhong, Jun Xiao, Chunguang Dai, Zhihui Yu
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the inhibition of paxillin tyrosine residues 31 and tyrosine residues 118 (Pxn Y31 and Pxn Y118) phosphorylation via inhibition of c-Abl kinase will effectively block its downstream effector molecules vessel endothelium-cadherin (VE-cad), and whether Rho/Rho kinase activation which will induce the vascular barrier dysfunction. METHODS: Ninety healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into nine groups (each n =10)...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742415/air-and-dust-borne-fungi-in-indoor-and-outdoor-home-of-allergic-patients-in-a-dust-storm-affected-area
#18
Elham Shabankarehfard, Afshin Ostovar, Shokrollah Farrokhi, Behrouz Naeimi, Sasan Zaeri, Shahrokh Nazmara, Mozhgan Keshtkar, Farzaneh Sadeghzadeh, Sina Dobaradaran
Despite the recent increases in fungi-induced allergic diseases, there is no report yet in the region of the Persian Gulf on concentration levels of fungi in relationship with health state. Therefore, our aim was to measure fungi prevalence as well as to evaluate the relationships between air- and dust-borne fungal genera and allergic diseases. A matched case-control study was carried out including 45 allergic cases and 45 age- and gender-matched controls for each individual. Indoor and outdoor dust and indoor air samples were collected from participant homes during May to October 2015...
July 25, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742340/structure-and-electrical-transport-relations-in-ba-zr-pr-o3-%C3%AE-perovskites
#19
Isabel Antunes, Ulises Amador, Adriana Alves, Maria Rosário Correia, Clemens Ritter, Jorge Ribeiro Frade, Domingo Pérez-Coll, Glenn C Mather, Duncan Paul Fagg
Members of the perovskite solid solution BaZr1-xPrxO3-δ (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) with potential high-temperature electrochemical applications were synthesized via mechanical activation and high-temperature annealing at 1250 °C. Structural properties were examined by Rietveld analysis of neutron powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature, indicating rhombohedral symmetry (space group R3̅c) for members x = 0.2 and 0.4 and orthorhombic symmetry (Imma) for x = 0.6 and 0.8. The sequence of phase transitions for the complete solid solution from BaZrO3 to BaPrO3 is Pm3̅m → R3̅c → Imma → Pnma...
July 25, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741960/retention-of-viability-of-salmonella-in-sucrose-as-affected-by-type-of-inoculum-water-activity-and-storage-temperature
#20
Larry R Beuchat, David A Mann, Christine A Kelly, Ynes R Ortega
Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with consumption of high-sugar, low-water activity (aw) foods. The study reported here was focused on determining the effect of storage temperature (5 and 25°C) on survival of initially high and low levels of Salmonella in dry-inoculated sucrose (aw 0.26 ± 0.01 to 0.54 ± 0.01) and wet-inoculated sucrose (aw 0.24 ± 0.01 to 0.44 ± 0.04) over a 52-week period. With the exception of dry-inoculated sucrose at aw 0.26, Salmonella survived for 52 weeks in dry- and wet-inoculated sucrose stored at 5 and 25°C...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
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