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IV Drugs

M Palaniappan, Padmini V Usha, P Balamurugan, Sree P Sanbaka, B Vetriveeran, Hrudya Venugopal, S Rajesh, M Gayathri, M Raveendran
We report a case of isolated native tricuspid valve infective endocarditis caused by Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus in a non-IV drug abuser without structural heart disease. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment saved the patient without surgical intervention. The recent trend of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) causing native valve endocarditis (NVE) is reviewed with literature.
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Wendong Huang, Yongfei Yang, Zhi Zeng, Meiling Su, Qi Gao, Banghao Zhu
Salvia miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine are traditional Chinese medicines that have been used in combination for treatment of cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease, cardiac angina and atherosclerosis in Asia, in particular, China. The present study aimed to determine the effect of S. miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine injection (SLI) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injuries via the Akt serine/threonine kinase (Akt)‑endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Tiemei Zhao, Liang-An Chen, Ping Wang, Guizhen Tian, Feng Ye, Huili Zhu, Bei He, Baiying Zhang, Changzhou Shao, Zhijun Jie, Xiwen Gao, Dongxia Wang, Weidong Song, Zhijie Pan, Jin Chen, Xingyi Zhang, Zhancheng Gao, Ping Chen, Youning Liu
BACKGROUND: To compare 5-day regimen of levofloxacin 750 mg IV daily with 7-14-day conventional regimen of levofloxacin 500 mg intravenous to oral (IV/PO) daily for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Chinese population. METHODS: This was a non-inferiority study to assess the difference of clinical efficacy at the end of treatment (EOT) between two regimens. Adult CAP patients with CURB-65 score 0-2 were enrolled from 17 hospitals in China from November 2012 to July 2014...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Céline Marban, Faezeh Forouzanfar, Amina Ait-Ammar, Faiza Fahmi, Hala El Mekdad, Fadoua Daouad, Olivier Rohr, Christian Schwartz
One of the top research priorities of the international AIDS society by the action "Towards an HIV Cure" is the purge or the decrease of the pool of all latently infected cells. This strategy is based on reactivation of latently reservoirs (the shock) followed by an intensifying combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to kill them (the kill). The central nervous system (CNS) has potential latently infected cells, i.e., perivascular macrophages, microglial cells, and astrocytes that will need to be eliminated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Barry J Maron, Ethan J Rowin, Martin S Maron, Eugene Braunwald
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was first recognized as a disease of obstruction to left ventricular outflow, hence its early names and acronyms such as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic obstruction. The nonobstructive subset of patients, incapable of developing mechanical impedance to left ventricular outflow at rest or with physiologic exercise, was initially recognized by the Braunwald group at the National Institutes of Health >50 years ago in the pre-imaging era and is now recognized as comprising about one-third of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
A Prica, F Baldassarre, L K Hicks, K Imrie, T Kouroukis, M Cheung
Rituximab is the first monoclonal antibody to be approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration in cancer. Its role in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), has evolved significantly. We aimed to systematically review and update the literature on rituximab in lymphoma and CLL, and provide evidence-based consensus guidelines for its rational use. Validated methodology from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-based Care was used. A comprehensive literature search was completed by a methodologist from the Hematology Disease Site Group of Cancer Care Ontario...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Natalia Yanguas-Casás, M Asunción Barreda-Manso, Sandra Pérez-Rial, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro, Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez
The bile acid conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a neuroprotective agent in various animal models of neuropathologies. We have previously shown the anti-inflammatory properties of TUDCA in an animal model of acute neuroinflammation. Here, we present a new anti-inflammatory mechanism of TUDCA through the regulation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected intravenously (iv) on TGFβ reporter mice (Smad-binding element (SBE)/Tk-Luc) to study in their brains the real-time activation profile of the TGFβ pathway in a non-invasive way...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
William F Weiss, John P Gabrielson, Wasfi Al-Azzam, Guodong Chen, Darryl L Davis, Tapan K Das, David B Hayes, Damian Houde, Satish K Singh
Characterization of the higher order structure (HOS) of protein-based biopharmaceutical products is an important aspect of their development. Opinions vary about how best to apply biophysical methods, in which contexts to use these methods, and how to use the resulting data to make technical decisions as drug candidates are commercialized [Gabrielson JP, Weiss WF IV. J Pharm Sci. 2015;104(4):1240-1245]. The aim of this commentary is to provide guidance for the development and implementation of a robust and comprehensive HOS characterization strategy...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Bethany L Stangl, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Molly R Zametkin, Megan E Cooke, Martin H Plawecki, Sean O'Connor, Vijay A Ramchandani
BACKGROUND: Self-administration is a hallmark of all addictive drugs, including alcohol. Human laboratory models of alcohol self-administration have characterized alcohol-seeking behavior, and served as surrogate measures of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders. Intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) is a novel method that assess alcohol exposure driven primarily by the pharmacological response to alcohol, and may have utility in characterizing unique behavioral and personality correlates of alcohol-seeking and consumption...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Arup K Ghose, Gregory R Ott, Robert L Hudkins
At the drug discovery stage, it is important to understand the design concepts of a CNS drug compared to a non-CNS drug. Previously we published on ideal CNS drug space and defined in detail the physicochemical property space distribution of CNS and non-CNS oral drugs, the application of radar charting (a graphical representation of multiple physicochemical properties used during CNS lead optimization) and a recursive partition classification tree to differentiate between CNS and non-CNS drugs. The objective of the present study was to further the understanding of differentiations between CNS and non-CNS oral drugs into the development and application of an effective CNS algorithm TEMPO (Technically Extended Multiparameter Optimization)...
October 14, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Yongcai Chen, Zhuo Chen, Shuo Cui, Zhiyang Li, Zhengjiang Yuan
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic drug widely used to reduce blood loss during joint replacements, including total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, there is no final consensus regarding the composition of an optimal administration of TXA regime between topical and systemic (intravenous). The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of topical and intravenous (IV) regimen of TXA during TKA and THA. METHODS: Five relevant electronic online databases, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical Database were systematically searched in November 2015...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
I Sedláková, J Laco, J Tošner, J Špaček
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to compare the expression of PgP (P-glycoprotein), MRP1 (multidrug related protein), and MRP3 in ovarian cancer patients, patients with benign ovarian tumors, and healthy women, and to evaluate the correlation between the expression of ATP-binding cassette proteins Pgp, MRP1, and MRP3 with stage, grade, and histological type. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue specimens from 212 women who underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at University Hospital Hradec Králové were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for Pgp, MRP1, and MRP3...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
H Móciková, J Marková, Ľ Gahérová, Z Král, A Sýkorová, D Belada, V Procházka, L Martinková, T Papajík, T Kozák
High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation remains the current standard of treatment for young patients with Hodgkin lymphoma in first relapse or in those who are refractory to first-line treatment. The most important prognostic factors in relapses are clinical stage IV, poor performance status, bulky mass, and less than partial remission after salvage chemotherapy. Standard salvage chemotherapy in relapse before autologous transplantation has not been defined; however, DHAP and ICE are most frequently used in this setting...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Midori Nakagaki, Michael Barras, Cameron Curley, Jason P Butler, Glen A Kennedy
PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of olanzapine, palonosetron and ondansetron infusion (standard of care) for the treatment of breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHOD: It was a randomized open-label prospective study. Sixty-two patients were randomized to receive either ondansetron 32-mg infusion over 24 h, or olanzapine wafer 10 mg once daily in addition to ondansetron 8 mg IV three times a day or a single dose of palonosetron 0...
October 13, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Emilio Fernández-Varón, Carlos Cárceles-García, Juan Manuel Serrano-Rodríguez, Carlos M Cárceles-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonia in goats is usually caused by Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Another important infection disease in lactating goats is intramammary infection producing mastitis, usually associated with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. However, treatment of bacterial pneumonia in goats not affected by mastitis problems should be restricted to antimicrobials with scant penetration to milk in order to avoid long withdrawal times. Ceftiofur is a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial with activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria encountered by domestic animals...
October 13, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Zhigang Wang, Zoufeng Xu, Guangyu Zhu
DNA damage response plays a key role not only in maintaining genome integrity but also in mediating the antitumor efficacy of DNA-damaging antineoplastic drugs. Herein, we report the rational design and evaluation of a Pt(IV) anticancer prodrug inhibiting nucleotide excision repair (NER), one of the most pivotal processes after the formation of cisplatin-induced DNA damage that deactivates the drug and leads to drug resistance in the clinic. This dual-action prodrug enters cells efficiently and causes DNA damage while simultaneously inhibiting NER to promote apoptotic response...
October 13, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
S Monini, C M Iacolucci, M Di Traglia, A I Lazzarino, M Barbara
The treatment of Bell's palsy (BP), based on steroids and/or antiviral drugs, may still leave a certain percentage of affected subjects with disfiguring sequelae due to incomplete recovery. The different procedures of physical rehabilitation have not been demonstrated to play a favourable role in this disorder. The aim of the present study was to compare functional outcomes in severe cases of Bell's palsy when treated by steroids alone or by steroids accompanied by Kabat physical rehabilitation. This prospective study included 94 subjects who showed sudden facial nerve (FN) palsy with House-Brackmann grade IV or V and who were divided into two groups on the basis of the therapeutic approach: one group (a) was treated by steroids, and the other (b) received steroids in combination with physical rehabilitation...
August 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Francesco Brigo, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi, Raffaele Nardone, Eugen Trinka
BACKGROUND: Some guidelines or expert consensus indicate that intravenous (IV) lorazepam (LZP) is preferable to IV diazepam (DZP) for initial treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (SE). We aimed to critically assess all the available data on efficacy and tolerability of IV LZP compared with IV DZP as first-line treatment of convulsive SE. METHODS: Systematic search of the literature (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV LZP versus IV DZP used as first-line treatment for convulsive SE (generalized or focal)...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Humera Khatoon, Rahela Najam, Talat Mirza, Bushra Sikandar
Potential roles of natural products have been identified for preventing or treating various diseases. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of camel milk in an animal model of Parkinson's disease and compare it with standard treatment (levodopa + carbidopa combination). 40 Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gram were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I was kept on water and served as normal control, group II served as negative control, treated with chlorpromazine (5mg/kg i.p.), group III was given camel milk (33ml/kg p...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Brenna N Burkett, John M Thomason, Holly M Hurdle, Robert W Wills, Robin L Fontenot
OBJECTIVE: Determine the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on platelet function and thromboxane synthesis immediately after drug administration and following 5 days of NSAID administration in healthy horses. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized cross-over study. ANIMALS: Healthy adult horses (n=9; 6 geldings and 3 mares). METHODS: Horses received either flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV every 12 hours), phenylbutazone (2...
October 12, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
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