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Daniel Esler, Brenda E Ballachey, Lizabeth Bowen, A Keith Miles, Rian D Dickson, John D Henderson
The authors quantified hepatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 2011, 2013, and 2014 (22 to 25 years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill). EROD activity was compared between birds from areas oiled by the spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. This work replicated studies conducted from 1998 to 2009 that demonstrated harlequin ducks using areas that were oiled in 1989 had elevated EROD activity, indicative of oil exposure, up to 2 decades post-spill...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
John S Sperry, Martin D Venturas, William R L Anderegg, Maurizio Mencuccini, D Scott Mackay, Yujie Wang, David M Love
Stomatal regulation presumably evolved to optimize CO2 for H2 O exchange in response to changing conditions. If the optimization criterion can be readily measured or calculated, then stomatal responses can be efficiently modeled without recourse to empirical models or underlying mechanism. Previous efforts have been challenged by the lack of a transparent index for the cost of losing water. Yet it is accepted that stomata control water loss to avoid excessive loss of hydraulic conductance from cavitation and soil drying...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Marta Crous-Bou, Laura B Harrington, Christopher Kabrhel
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors contributes to VTE risk. Within environmental risk factors, some are provoking (e.g., cancer, surgery, trauma or fracture, immobilization, pregnancy and the postpartum period, long-distance travel, hospitalization, catheterization, and acute infection) and others are nonprovoking (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index and obesity, oral contraceptive or hormone therapy use, corticosteroid use, statin use, diet, physical activity, sedentary time, and air pollution)...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
O Guntinas-Lichius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Huazhen Shen, Cheng-Mou Tsai, Chung-Shin Yuan, Yi-Hsiu Jen, Iau-Ren Ie
This study firstly investigated the species, concentration variation, and emission factors of mercury emitted from the burning of incenses and joss papers in an Asian temple. Both indoor and outdoor speciated mercury (GEM, GOM, and PHg) were sampled by manual samplers, while ambient GEM at an indoor site was in-situ monitored by a continuous GEM monitor. Field measurement results showed that the total atmospheric mercury (TAM) concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments were in the range of 8.03-35.72 and 6...
October 17, 2016: Chemosphere
Hailong Li, Jiye Li, Gang Cheng, Jianning Zhang, Xuezhen Li
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the potential association between IDH mutation and O(6)-methyl-guanine methyl transferase (MGMT) gene promoter methylation and pseudoprogression disease (psPD) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients after concurrent temozolomide (TMZ)-based chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: A total of 157 GBM patients who received concurrent TMZ-based chemoradiotherapy were included in this retrospective study. The association between psPD and a number of demographic and genetic factors, including IDH mutation and MGMT promoter methylation, were analyzed based on logistic regression, Cox regression, and multivariate analysis...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Yadira Ansoar-Rodríguez, Cintya A Christofoletti, Jorge E Correia, Raphael B de Souza, Cristina Moreira-de-Sousa, Ana Claudia de Castro Marcato, Odair C Bueno, Osmar Malaspina, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Carmem S Fontanetti
Liver is very sensitive to environmental contaminants such as pesticides, it being the first target of toxicity of a substance. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible effects of the insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) on the liver of Oreochromis niloticus according concentrations used for growing sugarcane. A semi-quantitative analysis of histopathological alterations of IMI on liver was performed by light microscopy and cellular labeling of heat shock proteins (HSP70) by immunohistochemistry...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Christopher Didigwu Nwani, Peace Onas Somdare, Juliana Adimonye Ukonze, Vincent Chikwendu Ejere, Alfreda O Nwadinigwe, Jacinta Chinedu Nwani, Gregory Ejike Odo, Ogechi Nnabuchi Ugbor
In this study, African Catfish (also known as Sharptooth Catfish) Clarias gariepinus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of fenthion of 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg/L for 21 d and allowed to recover for 7 d to investigate the potential for hematological changes. Whole blood was sampled on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 postexposure and after a 7-d recovery period. During exposure, fenthion caused a reduction in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume. There was an increase in white blood cell counts but no significant difference in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Lu Wang, Xiang-Yong Liang, Li-Sheng Ding, Sheng Zhang, Bang-Jing Li
A new type of chiral magnetic nano-particles was prepared via covalently linked magnetic nano-particles (Fe3O4) and heptakis (6-O-triisopropylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin (6-TIPS-β-CD). The resulting selectors (TIPS-β-CD-MNPs) combined the high magnetic property Fe3O4 and efficient chiral recognition ability of 6-TIPS-β-CD. The enantioselectivity of TIPS-β-CD-MNPs towards 1-(1-naphthyl) ethylamine was six times higher than that of parent β-CD modified Fe3O4 particles.
October 20, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
K Kasarełło, A Szczepankowska, B Kwiatkowska-Patzer, A W Lipkowski, R Gadamski, D Sulejczak, M Łachwa, M Biały, J Bardowski
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a human autoimmune neurodegenerative disease with an unknown etiology. Despite various therapies, there is no effective cure for MS. Since the mechanism of the disease is based on autoreactive T-cell responses directed against myelin antigens, oral tolerance is a promising approach for the MS treatment. Here, the experiments were performed to assess the impact of oral administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis producing encephalogenic fragments of three myelin proteins: myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, on neuroimmunological changes in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) - an animal model of MS...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
H Jęśko, R P Strosznajder
Sirtuins (SIRT1 to -7) are unique histone deacetylases (HDACs) whose activity depends on NAD+, thus making them capable of sensing the cellular metabolic status. Sirtuins orchestrate the stress response and damage repair, and are able to modulate the course of ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite their classification as HDACs, sirtuins deacetylate a vast number of targets in many cellular compartments, and some display additional enzymatic activities including mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation. SIRTs interact with multiple signalling proteins, transcription factors and enzymes including p53, FOXOs (forkhead box subgroup O), PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), NF-B, and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase)...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Lasse Kjær, Sabrina Cordua, Morten O Holmström, Mads Thomassen, Torben A Kruse, Niels Pallisgaard, Thomas S Larsen, Karin de Stricker, Vibe Skov, Hans C Hasselbalch
Discovery of somatic mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) has identified a subgroup of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) with separate haematological characteristics and prognosis. CALR mutations serve as novel markers both of diagnostic value and as targets for monitoring molecular responses during therapy. Interferon-α (IFN) selectively targets the malignant clone in a subset of MPN patients and can induce both haematological and molecular remissions in CALR mutated essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients...
2016: PloS One
Saura R Silva, Yani C A Diaz, Helen Alves Penha, Daniel G Pinheiro, Camila C Fernandes, Vitor F O Miranda, Todd P Michael, Alessandro M Varani
Lentibulariaceae is the richest family of carnivorous plants spanning three genera including Pinguicula, Genlisea, and Utricularia. Utricularia is globally distributed, and, unlike Pinguicula and Genlisea, has both aquatic and terrestrial forms. In this study we present the analysis of the chloroplast (cp) genome of the terrestrial Utricularia reniformis. U. reniformis has a standard cp genome of 139,725bp, encoding a gene repertoire similar to essentially all photosynthetic organisms. However, an exclusive combination of losses and pseudogenization of the plastid NAD(P)H-dehydrogenase (ndh) gene complex were observed...
2016: PloS One
Hosana G Rodrigues, Marco A R Vinolo, Fabio T Sato, Juliana Magdalon, Carolina M C Kuhl, Ana S Yamagata, Ana Flávia M Pessoa, Gabriella Malheiros, Marinilce F Dos Santos, Camila Lima, Sandra H Farsky, Niels O S Camara, Maria R Williner, Claudio A Bernal, Philip C Calder, Rui Curi
INTRODUCTION: Impaired wound healing has been widely reported in diabetes. Linoleic acid (LA) accelerates the skin wound healing process in non-diabetic rats. However, LA has not been tested in diabetic animals. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether oral administration of pure LA improves wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Dorsal wounds were induced in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic rats treated or not with LA (0...
2016: PloS One
D Schneidereit, H Vass, B Reischl, R J Allen, O Friedrich
The fluorescent Ca2+ sensitive dyes Fura Red (ratiometric) and Fluo-4 (non-ratiometric) are widely utilized for the optical assessment of Ca2+ fluctuations in vitro as well as in situ. The fluorescent behavior of these dyes is strongly depends on temperature, pH, ionic strength and pressure. It is crucial to understand the response of these dyes to pressure when applying calcium imaging technologies in the field of high pressure bioscience. Therefore, we use an optically accessible pressure vessel to pressurize physiological Ca2+-buffered solutions at different fixed concentrations of free Ca2+ (1 nM to 25...
2016: PloS One
Xiao Gao, Xiao Deng, Xin Wen, Ying She, Petra Corianne Vinke, Hong Chen
Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20...
2016: PloS One
J L NDiaye, B Cissé, E H Ba, J F Gomis, C T Ndour, J F Molez, F B Fall, C Sokhna, B Faye, E Kouevijdin, F K Niane, M Cairns, J F Trape, C Rogier, O Gaye, B M Greenwood, P J M Milligan
BACKGROUND: It is recommended that children aged 3 months to five years of age living in areas of seasonal transmission in the sub-Sahel should receive Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SPAQ) during the malaria transmission season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of SMC with SPAQ in children when delivered by community health workers in three districts in Senegal where SMC was introduced over three years, in children from 3 months of age to five years of age in the first year, then in children up to 10 years of age...
2016: PloS One
Susan O Griffin, Liang Wei, Barbara F Gooch, Katherine Weno, Lorena Espinoza
BACKGROUND: Tooth decay is one of the greatest unmet treatment needs among children. Pain and suffering associated with untreated dental disease can lead to problems with eating, speaking, and learning. School-based dental sealant programs (SBSP) deliver a highly effective intervention to prevent tooth decay in children who might not receive regular dental care. SBSPs benefits exceed their costs when they target children at high risk for tooth decay. METHODS: CDC used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 to estimate current prevalences of sealant use and untreated tooth decay among low-income (≤185% of federal poverty level) and higher-income children aged 6-11 years and compared these estimates with 1999-2004 NHANES data...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Rafael O Alvim, Andréa R V R Horimoto, Camila M Oliveira, Luiz A Bortolotto, José E Krieger, Alexandre C Pereira
BACKGROUND: Increased arterial stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, it has been recognized that arterial stiffness has familial aggregation; however, there are no studies involving Brazilian families. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heritability of arterial stiffness in a Brazilian population. METHODS: In this study, 1675 eligible individuals (both sexes and aged 18-102 years) were distributed in 125 families resident in the municipality of Baependi, a city located in the southeast of Brazil...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Colleen Braun, David O Kessler, Marc Auerbach, Renuka Mehta, Anthony J Scalzo, James M Gerard
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to provide validity evidence for infant lumbar puncture (ILP) checklist and global rating scale (GRS) instruments when used by residents to assess simulated ILP performances and to compare these metrics to previously obtained attending rater data. METHODS: In 2009, the International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Innovation, Research, and Education (INSPIRE) developed checklist and GRS scoring instruments, which were previously validated among attending raters when used to assess simulated ILP performances...
October 18, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
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