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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231672/-analysis-on-cancer-deaths-and-cause-eliminated-life-expectancy-among-residents-of-tianjin-2015
#1
Z L Xu, H Zhang, D Z Wang, G D Song, C F Shen, S Zhang, Y Zhang, G H Jiang
Objective: To explore the causes of cancer deaths and cause-eliminated-life-expectancy among residents of Tianjin. Methods: Data from the death registry system of Tianjin residents in 2015 were collected and cancers were grouped according to the classification of Global Burden of Disease. Specific cancer crude death rate and cause eliminated life expectancy (CELE) were calculated. Results: In 2015, 17 641 Tianjin residents died of cancer, with the crude death rate as 171.79 per 100 thousand and the standardized rate according to the Chinese population in 2000 as 86...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231662/-a-cohort-study-on-the-epidemiological-characteristics-of-hbeag-sero-clearance-in-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-jiangsu-province-from-2012-to-2014
#2
L G Zhu, J Jiang, C Song, Y Zou, J F Xu, H J Liu, H Peng, Z B Hu, F C Zhu, H B Shen, X J Zhai
Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and influencing factors related to HBeAg sero-clearance in chronic hepatitis B patients so as to provide evidence for regular management on chronic HBV patients. Methods: From 2012 to 2014, a cohort study was conducted among HBeAg positive chronic HBV patients in Jiangsu province. Association between the characteristics and incidence of HBeAg sero-clearance was analyzed by Cox regression method. The changing trend on HBV DNA between patients with HBeAg sero-clearance and those with persistent HBeAg positive status was compared by repeated measure data variance analysis method...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231613/genetic-determinism-vs-phenotypic-plasticity-in-protist-morphology
#3
Matthieu Mulot, Katarzyna Marcisz, Lara Grandgirard, Enrique Lara, Anush Kosakyan, Bjorn J M Robroek, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Richard J Payne, Edward A D Mitchell
Untangling the relationships between morphology and phylogeny is key to building a reliable taxonomy, but is especially challenging for protists, where the existence of cryptic or pseudocryptic species makes finding relevant discriminant traits difficult. Here we use Hyalosphenia papilio (a testate amoeba) as a model species to investigate the contribution of phylogeny and phenotypic plasticity in its morphology. We study the response of Hyalosphenia papilio morphology (shape and pores number) to environmental variables in 1) a manipulative experiment with controlled conditions (water level), 2) an observational study of a withinsite natural ecological gradient (water level), and 3) an observational study across 37 European peatlands (climate)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231324/a-framework-for-analyzing-contagion-in-assortative-banking-networks
#4
Thomas R Hurd, James P Gleeson, Sergey Melnik
We introduce a probabilistic framework that represents stylized banking networks with the aim of predicting the size of contagion events. Most previous work on random financial networks assumes independent connections between banks, whereas our framework explicitly allows for (dis)assortative edge probabilities (i.e., a tendency for small banks to link to large banks). We analyze default cascades triggered by shocking the network and find that the cascade can be understood as an explicit iterated mapping on a set of edge probabilities that converges to a fixed point...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231172/chemometrics-methods-for-specificity-authenticity-and-traceability-analysis-of-olive-oils-principles-classifications-and-applications
#5
REVIEW
Habib Messai, Muhammad Farman, Abir Sarraj-Laabidi, Asma Hammami-Semmar, Nabil Semmar
BACKGROUND: Olive oils (OOs) show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends' preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i) characterization by specific markers; (ii) authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii) monitoring by traceability analysis...
November 17, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230930/in-silico-design-of-optimal-dissolution-kinetics-of-fe-doped-zno-nanoparticles-results-in-cancer-specific-toxicity-in-a-preclinical-rodent-model
#6
Bella B Manshian, Suman Pokhrel, Uwe Himmelreich, Kaido Tämm, Lauri Sikk, Alberto Fernández, Robert Rallo, Tarmo Tamm, Lutz Mädler, Stefaan J Soenen
Cancer cells have unique but widely varying characteristics that have proven them difficult to be treated by classical therapeutics and calls for novel and selective treatment options. Nanomaterials (NMs) have been shown to display biological effects as a function of their chemical composition, and the extent and exact nature of these effects can vary between different biological environments. Here, ZnO NMs are doped with increasing levels of Fe, which allows to finely tune their dissolution rate resulting in significant differences in their biological behavior on cancer or normal cells...
February 23, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230918/single-crystal-flexible-electronics-enabled-by-3d-spalling
#7
Ning Li, Stephen Bedell, Huan Hu, Shu-Jen Han, Xiao Hu Liu, Katherine Saenger, Devendra Sadana
Flexible and stretchable electronics are becoming increasingly important in many emerging applications. Due to the outstanding electrical properties of single crystal semiconductors, there is great interest in releasing single crystal thin films and fabricating flexible electronics with these conventionally rigid materials. In this study the authors report a universal single crystal layer release process, called "3D spalling," extending beyond prior art. In contrast to the conventional way of removing blanket layers from their substrates, the new process reported here enables 3D control over the shape and thickness of the removed regions, allowing direct formation of arbitrarily shaped structures of released film and locally specified thickness for each region...
February 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230750/targeting%C3%A2-mdm4%C3%A2-splicing%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-cancers
#8
REVIEW
Boris Bardot, Franck Toledo
MDM4, an essential negative regulator of the P53 tumor suppressor, is frequently overexpressed in cancer cells that harbor a wild-type P53. By a mechanism based on alternative splicing, the MDM4 gene generates two mutually exclusive isoforms: MDM4-FL, which encodes the full-length MDM4 protein, and a shorter splice variant called MDM4-S. Previous results suggested that the MDM4-S isoform could be an important driver of tumor development. In this short review, we discuss a recent set of data indicating that MDM4-S is more likely a passenger isoform during tumorigenesis and that targeting MDM4 splicing to prevent MDM4-FL protein expression appears as a promising strategy to reactivate p53 in cancer cells...
February 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230696/the-call-to-service-is-personal-from-vietnam-to-red-cross-volunteer
#9
Robert J Hassmiller
Updated several times a week with posts by a wide variety of authors, AJN's blog Off the Charts allows us to provide more timely-and often more personal-perspectives on professional, policy, and clinical issues. Best of the Blog will be a regular column to bring AJN readers recent posts that we think deserve a wider audience. To read more, please visit: www.ajnoffthecharts.com.
March 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230539/polyenergetic-known-component-ct-reconstruction-with-unknown-material-compositions-and-unknown-x-ray-spectra
#10
Shiyu Xu, Ali Uneri, Akhil Khanna, Jeffrey Siewerdsen, Joseph Webster Stayman
Metal artifacts can cause substantial image quality issues in computed tomography. This is particularly true in interventional imaging where surgical tools or metal implants are in the field-of-view. Moreover, the region-of-interest is often near such devices which is exactly where image quality degradations are largest. Previous work on known-component reconstruction (KCR) has shown the incorporation of a physical model (e.g. shape, material composition, etc.) of the metal component into the reconstruction algorithm can significantly reduce artifacts even near the edge of a metal component...
February 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230297/spectroscopic-observation-of-a-hydrogenated-co-dimer-intermediate-during-co-reduction-on-cu-100-electrodes
#11
Elena Pérez-Gallent, Marta C Figueiredo, Federico Calle-Vallejo, Marc T M Koper
Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide can be electrochemically reduced to useful products such as ethylene and ethanol on copper electrocatalysts. The process is yet to be optimized and the exact mechanism and the corresponding reaction intermediates are under debate or unknown. In particular, it has been hypothesized that the C-C bond formation proceeds via CO dimerization and further hydrogenation. Although computational support for this hypothesis exists, direct experimental evidence has been elusive. In this work, we detect a hydrogenated dimer intermediate (OCCOH) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at low overpotentials in LiOH solutions...
February 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230246/functional-and-evolutionary-consequences-of-cranial-fenestration-in-birds
#12
Sander W S Gussekloo, Michael A Berthaume, Daniel R Pulaski, Irene Westbroek, Jan H Waarsing, Robin Heinen, Ian R Grosse, Elizabeth R Dumont
Ostrich-like birds (Palaeognathae) show very little taxonomic diversity while their sister taxon (Neognathae) contains roughly 10000 species. The main anatomical differences between the two taxa are in the crania. Palaeognaths lack an element in the bill called the lateral bar that is present in both ancestral theropods and modern neognaths, have thin zones in the bones of the bill, and robust bony elements on the ventral surface of their crania. Here we use a combination of modelling and developmental experiments to investigate the processes that might have led to these differences...
February 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230209/direct-observation-of-the-dynamics-of-single-metal-ions-at-the-interface-with-solids-in-aqueous-solutions
#13
Maria Ricci, William Trewby, Clodomiro Cafolla, Kislon Voïtchovsky
The dynamics of ions adsorbed at the surface of immersed charged solids plays a central role in countless natural and industrial processes such as crystal growth, heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry, or biological function. Electrokinetic measurements typically distinguish between a so-called Stern layer of ions and water molecules directly adsorbed on to the solid's surface, and a diffuse layer of ions further away from the surface. Dynamics within the Stern layer remain poorly understood, largely owing to a lack of in-situ atomic-level insights...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229590/impacts-of-crosslinkers-on-biological-effects-of-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#14
Yi-Ping Chen, Si-Han Wu, I-Chih Chen, Chien-Tsu Chen
Chemically synthesized crosslinkers play decisive roles in variable cargos attached to nanoparticles (NPs). Previous studies reported that surface properties, such as the size, charge, and surface chemistry, are particularly important determinants influencing the biological fate and actions of NPs and cells. Recent studies also focused on the relationship of serum proteins with the surface properties of NPs (also called the protein corona), which is recognized as a key factor in determining the cytotoxicity and biodistribution...
February 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229466/insight-into-calculated-risk-an-application-to-the-prioritization-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-for-blood-transfusion-safety
#15
R E J Neslo, W Oei, M P Janssen
Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229267/prevalence-of-incorrect-body-posture-in-children-and-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity
#16
Katarzyna Maciałczyk-Paprocka, Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Tomasz Kotwicki, Anna Sowińska, Alicja Krzyżaniak, Jarosław Walkowiak, Małgorzata Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska
: The ever increasing epidemics of overweight and obesity in school children may be one of the reasons of the growing numbers of children with incorrect body posture. The purpose of the study was the assessment of the prevalence of incorrect body posture in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity in Poznań, Poland. The population subject to study consisted of 2732 boys and girls aged 3-18 with obesity, overweight, and standard body mass. The assessment of body mass was performed based on BMI, adopting Cole's cutoff values...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229199/-coronary-artery-disease-interventional-and-operative-therapeutic-options-after-cardiac-arrest
#17
M Behnes, K Mashayekhi, M Borggrefe, I Akin
Coronary artery disease (CAD) represents a common structural cause for developing cardiac arrest in older patients, whereas in young adults cardiac arrest is more often caused by cardiomyopathies and cardiac channelopathies. A structural heart disease is known in almost 50% of patients prior to cardiac arrest. The present review outlines current interventional and operative therapeutic options for patients surviving cardiac arrest. The focus is on associations between epidemiological data on the incidence of malignant arrhythmias causing cardiac arrest depending on the presence or absence of CAD...
February 22, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229109/interaction-between-circadian-rhythms-and-stress
#18
REVIEW
C E Koch, B Leinweber, B C Drengberg, C Blaum, H Oster
Life on earth has adapted to the day-night cycle by evolution of internal, so-called circadian clocks that adjust behavior and physiology to the recurring changes in environmental conditions. In mammals, a master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus receives environmental light information and synchronizes peripheral tissues and central non-SCN clocks to geophysical time. Regulatory systems such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both being important for the regulation of stress responses, receive strong circadian input...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228754/proofreading-of-peptide-mhc-complexes-through-dynamic-multivalent-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Christoph Thomas, Robert Tampé
The adaptive immune system is able to detect and destroy cells that are malignantly transformed or infected by intracellular pathogens. Specific immune responses against these cells are elicited by antigenic peptides that are presented on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules and recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes at the cell surface. Since these MHC I-presented peptides are generated in the cytosol by proteasomal protein degradation, they can be metaphorically described as a window providing immune cells with insights into the state of the cellular proteome...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228739/touchscreen-tablets-coordinating-action-and-perception-for-mathematical-cognition
#20
Carolien A C G Duijzer, Shakila Shayan, Arthur Bakker, Marieke F Van der Schaaf, Dor Abrahamson
Proportional reasoning is important and yet difficult for many students, who often use additive strategies, where multiplicative strategies are better suited. In our research we explore the potential of an interactive touchscreen tablet application to promote proportional reasoning by creating conditions that steer students toward multiplicative strategies. The design of this application (Mathematical Imagery Trainer) was inspired by arguments from embodied-cognition theory that mathematical understanding is grounded in sensorimotor schemes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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