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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351639/call-to-action-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-africa
#1
Peyton Wilson, Jonathan B Parr, Ravi Jhaveri, Steve R Meshnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue that has not been adequately addressed, especially in the high-prevalence region of Africa. Despite the incorporation of HBV vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), children continue to be infected with HBV through maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT). The addition of a birth dose of HBV vaccine would be a cost-effective method to reduce MTCT. Birth-dose HBV vaccine policies have been adopted in the Western Pacific region but have yet to be implemented in the African region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351626/neuroendovascular-fellowship-training-self-assessment-of-a-program-accredited-by-the-committee-on-advanced-subspecialty-training
#2
Hakeem J Shakir, Hussain Shallwani, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Amade Bregy, Jason M Davies, Ashish Sonig, Christopher S Ogilvy, Kenneth V Snyder, L Nelson Hopkins, Adnan H Siddiqui, Elad I Levy
The University at Buffalo's neuroendovascular fellowship is one of the longest running fellowship programs in North America. The burgeoning neurointerventional workforce and the rapid growth in the neurointerventional space on the heels of groundbreaking clinical trials prompted us to assess the fellowship's academic impact and its graduates' perceptions and productivity. An anonymized web-based survey was sent to all former neuroendovascular fellows with specific questions pertaining to current practice, research and funding, and perceptions about the fellowship's impact on their skills, competitiveness, and compensation...
January 17, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351568/habits-and-beliefs-related-to-food-supplements-results-of-a-survey-among-italian-students-of-different-education-fields-and-levels
#3
Felice Sirico, Salvatore Miressi, Clotilde Castaldo, Rocco Spera, Stefania Montagnani, Franca Di Meglio, Daria Nurzynska
The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351452/the-role-of-intracellular-angiotensin-ii
#4
Richard N Re
It has become clear that the vasoactive peptide angiotensin II, like other so-called intracrines, can act in the intracellular space. Evidence has accumulated indicating that such angiotensin II activity can be upregulated in disease states and cause pathology. Indeed, other intracrines appear to be involved in disease pathogenesis as well. At the same time nitric oxide, potentially a cell protective factor, has been shown to be upregulated by intracellular angiotensin II. Recently data has been developed indicating that other potentially protective factors are directly upregulated at neuronal nuclei by angiotensin II...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351403/project-on-the-good-physician-further-evidence-for-the-validity-of-a-moral-intuitionist-model-of-virtuous-caring
#5
G Michael Leffel, Ross A Oakes Mueller, Sandra A Ham, Kyle E Karches, Farr A Curlin, John D Yoon
THEORY: In the Project on the Good Physician, the authors propose a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that places the virtues of Mindfulness, Empathic Compassion, and Generosity at the heart of medical character education. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1a: The virtues of Mindfulness, Empathic Compassion, and Generosity will be positively associated with one another (convergent validity). Hypothesis 1b: The virtues of Mindfulness and Empathic Compassion will explain variance in the action-related virtue of Generosity beyond that predicted by Big Five personality traits alone (discriminant validity)...
January 19, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351374/fast-dynamic-docking-guided-by-adaptive-electrostatic-bias-the-md-binding-approach
#6
Andrea Spitaleri, Sergio Decherchi, Andrea Cavalli, Walter Rocchia
Engineering chemical entities to modify how pharmaceutical targets function, as it is done in drug design, requires a good understanding of molecular recognition and binding. In this context, the limitations of statically describing bimolecular recognition, as done in docking/scoring, call for insightful and efficient dynamical investigations. On the experimental side, the characterization of dynamical binding processes is still in its infancy. Thus, computer simulations, particularly molecular dynamics (MD), are compelled to play a prominent role, allowing a deeper comprehension of the binding process and its causes and thus a more informed compound selection, making more significant the computational contribution to drug discovery1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351329/radiocarbon-dating-uncertainty-and-the-reliability-of-the-pewma-method-of-time-series-analysis-for-research-on-long-term-human-environment-interaction
#7
W Christopher Carleton, David Campbell, Mark Collard
Statistical time-series analysis has the potential to improve our understanding of human-environment interaction in deep time. However, radiocarbon dating-the most common chronometric technique in archaeological and palaeoenvironmental research-creates challenges for established statistical methods. The methods assume that observations in a time-series are precisely dated, but this assumption is often violated when calibrated radiocarbon dates are used because they usually have highly irregular uncertainties...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351311/the-quality-of-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-done-by-mid-level-workers-in-tshwane-district-south-africa-a-retrospective-analysis
#8
Sanele Ngcobo, Jacqueline Elizabeth Wolvaardt, Martin Bac, Elize Webb
BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in heterosexual men by up to 60%. One HIV infection is averted for every 5 to 15 VMMCs. To conduct VMMCs in large populations, large numbers of trained healthcare professionals are needed. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have a high burden of HIV and a shortage of healthcare professionals, creating a healthcare conundrum. To bridge this gap, South Africa launched a new cadre of mid-level medical worker called Clinical Associates (CA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351297/a-fast-combination-method-in-dsmt-and-its-application-to-recommender-system
#9
Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Yihai Liu
In many applications involving epistemic uncertainties usually modeled by belief functions, it is often necessary to approximate general (non-Bayesian) basic belief assignments (BBAs) to subjective probabilities (called Bayesian BBAs). This necessity occurs if one needs to embed the fusion result in a system based on the probabilistic framework and Bayesian inference (e.g. tracking systems), or if one needs to make a decision in the decision making problems. In this paper, we present a new fast combination method, called modified rigid coarsening (MRC), to obtain the final Bayesian BBAs based on hierarchical decomposition (coarsening) of the frame of discernment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351274/dna-polymerase-iv-primarily-operates-outside-of-dna-replication-forks-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Sarah S Henrikus, Elizabeth A Wood, John P McDonald, Michael M Cox, Roger Woodgate, Myron F Goodman, Antoine M van Oijen, Andrew Robinson
In Escherichia coli, damage to the chromosomal DNA induces the SOS response, setting in motion a series of different DNA repair and damage tolerance pathways. DNA polymerase IV (pol IV) is one of three specialised DNA polymerases called into action during the SOS response to help cells tolerate certain types of DNA damage. The canonical view in the field is that pol IV primarily acts at replisomes that have stalled on the damaged DNA template. However, the results of several studies indicate that pol IV also acts on other substrates, including single-stranded DNA gaps left behind replisomes that re-initiate replication downstream of a lesion, stalled transcription complexes and recombination intermediates...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351240/machine-learning-and-infrared-thermography-for-fiber-orientation-assessment-on-randomly-oriented-strands-parts
#11
Henrique Fernandes, Hai Zhang, Alisson Figueiredo, Fernando Malheiros, Luis Henrique Ignacio, Stefano Sfarra, Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo, Gilmar Guimaraes, Xavier Maldague
The use of fiber reinforced materials such as randomly-oriented strands has grown in recent years, especially for manufacturing of aerospace composite structures. This growth is mainly due to their advantageous properties: they are lighter and more resistant to corrosion when compared to metals and are more easily shaped than continuous fiber composites. The resistance and stiffness of these materials are directly related to their fiber orientation. Thus, efficient approaches to assess their fiber orientation are in demand...
January 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351231/molecular-network-based-identification-of-competing-endogenous-rnas-in-thyroid-carcinoma
#12
Minjia Lu, Xingyu Xu, Baohang Xi, Qi Dai, Chenli Li, Li Su, Xiaonan Zhou, Min Tang, Yuhua Yao, Jialiang Yang
RNAs may act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), a critical mechanism in determining gene expression regulations in many cancers. However, the roles of ceRNAs in thyroid carcinoma remains elusive. In this study, we have developed a novel pipeline called Molecular Network-based Identification of ceRNA (MNIceRNA) to identify ceRNAs in thyroid carcinoma. MNIceRNA first constructs micro RNA (miRNA)-messenger RNA (mRNA)long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) networks from miRcode database and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), based on which to identify key drivers of differentially expressed RNAs between normal and tumor samples...
January 19, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350945/controlled-phase-gate-for-photons-based-on-stationary-light
#13
Ivan Iakoupov, Johannes Borregaard, Anders S Sørensen
We propose a method to induce strong effective interactions between photons mediated by an atomic ensemble. To achieve this, we use the so-called stationary light effect to enhance the interaction. Regardless of the single-atom coupling to light, the interaction strength between the photons can be enhanced by increasing the total number of atoms. For sufficiently many atoms, the setup can be viable as a controlled-phase gate for photons. We derive analytical expressions for the fidelities for two modes of gate operation: deterministic and heralded conditioned on the presence of two photons at the output...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350732/complete-amplitude-and-phase-control-of-light-using-broadband-holographic-metasurfaces
#14
Gun-Yeal Lee, Gwanho Yoon, Seung-Yeol Lee, Hansik Yun, Jaebum Cho, Kyookeun Lee, Hwi Kim, Junsuk Rho, Byoungho Lee
Reconstruction of light profiles with amplitude and phase information, called holography, is an attractive optical technology with various significant applications such as three-dimensional imaging and optical data storage. Subwavelength spatial control of both amplitude and phase of light is an essential requirement for an ideal hologram. However, traditional holographic devices suffer from their restricted capabilities of incomplete modulation in both amplitude and phase of visible light; this results in sacrifice of optical information and undesirable occurrences of critical noises in holographic images...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350698/identification-and-management-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-veno-occlusive-disease-eelated-to-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation%C3%A2
#15
Mairéad Ní Chonghaile, Karen Wolownik
BACKGROUND: Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), also called hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), is a potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that affects about 1 in 7 patients undergoing this procedure. SOS/VOD is caused by the conditioning regimens administered prior to HSCT; in some cases, SOS/VOD results from chemotherapy alone. SOS/VOD usually develops within three weeks following HSCT; however, it can have later onset. 
...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350586/mass-media-representations-of-the-evidence-as-a-possible-deterrent-to-recommending-exercise-for-the-treatment-of-depression-lessons-five-years-after-the-extraordinary-case-of-tread-uk
#16
Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Mark E Hartman, Matthew A Ladwig
Exercise or physical activity are recommended options within stepped-care treatment models for depression. However, few physicians present these options to patients, in part because of the impression that the supporting evidence is weak or inconsistent. We speculate that the coocurrence of "counter-messaging" and deficient critical appraisal may lead to such impressions. We focus on TREAD-UK (ISRCTN16900744), the largest trial to investigate "whether physical activity can be an effective treatment for depression within primary care"...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350430/on-the-impact-of-sample-size-on-lc50-estimation-in-acute-fish-toxicity-testing-is-n%C3%A2-%C3%A2-7-group-enough
#17
Greg J Carr, A John Bailer, Jane M Rawlings, Scott E Belanger
The fish acute toxicity test method is foundational to aquatic toxicity testing strategies, yet the literature lacks a concise sample size assessment. While various sources address sample size, historical precedent seems to play a larger role than objective measures. Here, a novel and comprehensive quantification of the effect of sample size on estimation of the LC50 is presented, covering a wide range of scenarios. The results put into perspective the practical differences across a range of sample sizes, from N = 5/concentration up to N = 23/concentration...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350361/evaluation-of-tourniquet-application-in-a-simulated-tactical-environment
#18
Tomasz Sanak, Robert Brzozowski, Marek Dabrowski, Magdalena Kozak, Agata Dabrowska, Maciej Sip, Katarzyna Naylor, Kamil Torres
BACKGROUND: Application of a tourniquet in a tactical environment is implemented in two ways: the so-called self-aid, which is the application of a tourniquet by the injured, and the so-called buddy aid, which is the application of a tourniquet by the person provide aid. This study aimed to test the quality of tourniquet use in a simulated situation, close quarter battle. METHODS: The study involved 24 injured operators and 72 operators in the whole simulation, implying 12 sections of six individuals...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350282/neutrophil-chemotaxis
#19
REVIEW
Björn Petri, Maria-Jesús Sanz
Neutrophils are the primary cells recruited to inflamed sites during an innate immune response to tissue damage and/or infection. They are finely sensitive to inciting stimuli to reach in great numbers and within minutes areas of inflammation and tissue insult. For this effective response, they can detect extracellular chemical gradients and move towards higher concentrations, the so-called chemotaxis process or guided cell migration. This directed neutrophil recruitment is orchestrated by chemoattractants, a chemically diverse group of molecular guidance cues (e...
January 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350199/cortical-visual-prostheses-from-microstimulation-to-functional-percept
#20
Armin Najarpour Foroushani, Christopher Pack, Mohamad Sawan
Cortical visual prostheses are intended to restore vision by targeted electrical stimulation of the visual cortex. The perception of spots of light, called phosphenes, resulting from microstimulation of the visual pathway, suggests the possibility of creating meaningful percept made of phosphenes. However, to date electrical stimulation of V1 has still not resulted in perception of phosphenated images that goes beyond punctate spots of light. In this review, we summarize the clinical and experimental progress that has been made in generating phosphenes and modulating their associated perceptual characteristics in human and macaque primary visual cortex (V1)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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