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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144551/the-impact-of-volumetric-muscle-loss-injury-on-persistent-motoneuron-axotomy
#1
Benjamin T Corona, Kate E Flanagan, Christian M Brininger, Stephen M Goldman, Jarrod A Call, Sarah M Greising
INTRODUCTION: Volumetric muscle loss (VML) occurs following significant traumatic injury or surgical removal of skeletal muscle, resulting in non-recoverable loss of tissue and long-term dysfunction. Perhaps less recognized is that VML injuries inherently disrupt the neuromuscular unit, resulting in fiber denervation and presumptive motor unit rearrangement, expansion, and/or loss. To characterize neural dysfunction we quantified motoneuron axotomy, in efforts to understand how this relates to the temporal coordination of neuromuscular and morphological alterations due to injury...
November 16, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128986/longitudinal-neurophysiological-assessment-of-intramuscular-type-a-botulin-toxin-in-healthy-humans
#2
L Lispi, L Leonardi, A Petrucci
The aim of this study is to assess the neurophysiological abnormalities of type A botulin toxin-infiltrated human muscle, and their evolution over time. Seried cMAP measurements, 3 and 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation, EMG, SFEMG over 3 months from toxin injection. Our findings consist in lack of decrement with 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation and facilitation with 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation; progressive increasing of jitter; early appearance of fibrillations; small and short motor unit action potential in the first 3 weeks, followed by increasing of MUAP amplitude and duration, with polyphasic morphology...
November 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122116/mipo-of-proximal-humerus-fractures-through-an-anterolateral-acromial-approach-is-the-axillary-nerve-at-risk
#3
Josip Knežević, Mario Mihalj, Fabijan Čukelj, Arsen Ivanišević
PURPOSE: It is known that shoulder surgery may cause iatrogenic injury to the axillary nerve as a serious complication, but there is little evidence to indicate whether the axillary nerve is at risk of injury during an anterolateral acromial approach for minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) of proximal humerus fractures. We hypothesised that this surgical method is safe for the axillary nerve and would preserve it from iatrogenic injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective follow-up cohort study on 49 consecutive patients with proximal humerus fractures who were managed with MIPO through an anterolateral approach...
November 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118960/from-the-padua-muscle-days-the-basic-and-applied-myology-and-the-european-journal-of-translational-myology-to-the-a-cm-carraro-foundation-for-translational-myology
#4
Ugo Carraro
As a young researched I had the option to work on skeletal muscle at the University of Padova, Italy. Introduced to the study of muscle denervation/reinnervation, I started a project on long term denervated muscle that still is my primary interest and took me from rodents' models of chronic muscle denervation to human spinal cord injury-related muscle denervation and its managements. On the way, I organized a series of conferences in Euganei Hills, Padua, Italy and an international journal, the Basic and Applied Myology...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106650/selective-cervical-denervation-for-cervical-dystonia-modification-of-the-bertrand-procedure
#5
Thomas J Wilson, Robert J Spinner
BACKGROUND: Cervical dystonia, commonly referred to as spasmodic torticollis, is a neurological disorder characterized by aberrant, involuntary contraction of the muscles of the neck and shoulders. One surgical option that can be considered is selective cervical denervation. OBJECTIVE: To report our modification of the Bertrand procedure for selective cervical denervation. METHODS: Our modification of the Bertrand procedure for selective cervical denervation is reported with intraoperative photographs and schematic depictions of the operative steps...
July 6, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104116/putative-roles-of-soluble-trophic-factors-in-facial-nerve-regeneration-target-reinnervation-and-recovery-of-vibrissal-whisking
#6
REVIEW
Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Maria Grosheva, Levent Sarikcioglu, Tessa Gordon, Doychin N Angelov
It is well-known that, after nerve transection and surgical repair, misdirected regrowth of regenerating motor axons may occur in three ways. The first way is that the axons enter into endoneurial tubes that they did not previously occupy, regenerate through incorrect fascicles and reinnervate muscles that they did not formerly supply. Consequently the activation of these muscles results in inappropriate movements. The second way is that, in contrast with the precise target-directed pathfinding by elongating motor nerves during embryonic development, several axons rather than a single axon grow out from each transected nerve fiber...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100791/monitoring-progression-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-using-ultrasound-morpho-textural-muscle-biomarkers-a-pilot-study
#7
Jacinto J Martínez-Payá, José Ríos-Díaz, Francesc Medina-Mirapeix, Juan F Vázquez-Costa, María Elena Del Baño-Aledo
The need is increasing for progression biomarkers that allow the loss of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to be monitored in clinical trials. In this prospective longitudinal study, muscle thickness, echointensity, echovariation and gray level co-occurrence matrix textural features are examined as possible progression ultrasound biomarkers in ALS patients during a 5-mo follow-up period. We subjected 13 patients to 3 measurements for 20 wk. They showed a significant loss of muscle, an evident tendency to loss of thickness and increased echointensity and echovariation...
October 31, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092819/protein-arginine-methyltransferase-expression-localization-and-activity-during-disuse-induced-skeletal-muscle-plasticity
#8
Derek W Stouth, Alexander Manta, Vladimir Ljubicic
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), PRMT4, and PRMT5 catalyze the methylation of arginine residues on target proteins. Previous work suggests that these enzymes regulate skeletal muscle plasticity. However, the function of PRMTs during disuse-induced muscle remodelling is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine whether denervation-induced muscle disuse alters PRMT expression and activity in skeletal muscle, as well as to contextualize PRMT biology within the early disuse-evoked events that precede atrophy, which remain largely undefined...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089397/imaging-muscle-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-denervation-in-motor-neuron-disease
#9
Thomas M Jenkins, James J P Alix, Charlotte David, Eilish Pearson, D Ganesh Rao, Nigel Hoggard, Eoghan O'Brien, Kathleen Baster, Michael Bradburn, Julia Bigley, Christopher J McDermott, Iain D Wilkinson, Pamela J Shaw
OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical, electrophysiological and whole-body muscle MRI measurements of progression in patients with motor neuron disease (MND), as tools for future clinical trials, and to probe pathophysiological mechanisms in vivo. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, observational, clinicoelectrophysiological and radiological cohort study was performed. Twenty-nine patients with MND and 22 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls were assessed with clinical measures, electrophysiological motor unit number index (MUNIX) and T2-weighted whole-body muscle MRI, at first clinical presentation and 4 months later...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089334/ibat-sympathetic-innervation-is-not-required-for-body-weight-loss-induced-by-central-leptin-delivery
#10
Isabelle Cote, Yasemin Sakarya, Sara M Green, Drake Morgan, Christy S Carter, Nihal Tumer, Philip J Scarpace
We evaluated the contribution of brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathetic innervation on central leptin mediated weight loss. In a short and long-term study, F344BN rats submitted to either a denervation of interscapular BAT (Denervated) or a sham operation (Sham). Animals from each group received Ob (Leptin) or GFP (Control) gene through a single injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus delivered centrally. Changes in body weight were recorded for 14 or 35 days, after which adipose tissues and skeletal muscles were weighed...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082703/-effect-of-buyang-huanwu-decoction-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-murfl-expression-in-rats-with-denervated-tibial-muscle-atrophy
#11
Lan Zhou, Xiao-Yun Mei
We aim to study the effect of Buyang Huanwu decoction (Astragali Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Pheretima, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Carthami Flos and Persicae Semen) on NF-κB/MuRFl signaling pathway in the denervated tibial muscle atrophy of rats and explore its protection mechanisms. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to common peroneal nerve crush models of 5 mm injury, and then were randomly divided into six groups for daily intragastric administration of drugs: sham operation group, model group, Buyang Huanwu decoction high, middle and low dose groups, and mecobalamin group (as a positive control)...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081604/what-is-hyper-in-the-als-hypermetabolism
#12
REVIEW
Alberto Ferri, Roberto Coccurello
The progressive and fatal loss of upper (brain) and lower (spinal cord) motor neurons and muscle denervation concisely condenses the clinical picture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite the multiple mechanisms believed to underlie the selective loss of motor neurons, ALS aetiology remains elusive and obscure. Likewise, there is also a cluster of alterations in ALS patients in which muscle wasting, body weight loss, eating dysfunction, and abnormal energy dissipation coexist. Defective energy metabolism characterizes the ALS progression, and such paradox of energy balance stands as a challenge for the understanding of ALS pathogenesis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081130/-change-in-peripheral-nervous-conduction-velocity-in-patients-with-occupational-chronic-mercury-poisoning-and-related-influencing-factors
#13
L Li, B Jiang, J Lai, W R Dai, X Li, W F Liu, Z X Yang, L Xie
Objective: To investigate the change in peripheral nervous conduction velocity in patients with occupational chronic mercury poisoning and related influencing factors. Methods: From February 2011 to December 2014, urinary mercury examination and neural electromyography were performed for 104 patients with occupational chronic mercury poisoning. The data on age, type of work, working years of mercury exposure, and past medical history were collected, and peripheral nervous conduction velocity and its correlation with age, working years of mercury exposure, and urinary mercury concentration were analyzed...
August 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075571/quantitative-muscle-ultrasound-is-useful-for-evaluating-secondary-axonal-degeneration-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#14
Keiichi Hokkoku, Kiyoshi Matsukura, Yudai Uchida, Midori Kuwabara, Yuichi Furukawa, Hiroshi Tsukamoto, Yuki Hatanaka, Masahiro Sonoo
INTRODUCTION: In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), exclusion of secondary axonal degeneration is challenging with conventional methods such as nerve conduction study (NCS), needle electromyography, and nerve biopsy. Increased echo intensity (EI) and decreased muscle thickness (MT) identified on muscle ultrasound (MUS) examination represent muscle denervation due to axonal degeneration in neurogenic disorders, suggesting MUS as a new tool to detect secondary axonal degeneration in patients with CIDP...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072489/effects-of-losartan-on-vasomotor-function-and-canonical-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-the-aortas-of-sinoaortic-denervation-rats
#15
Minlie Liang, Wenliang Zhong, Fei Miao, Hongchao Wu, Yingfeng Liu
Increased short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) is strongly correlated with target organ damage. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal BPV-induced organ damage and effective therapeutic targets are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of losartan on vasomotor function and canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels in the aortas of rats with arterial pressure lability induced by sinoaortic denervation (SAD). SAD was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats at the age of 10 weeks...
October 26, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072010/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-apoptosis-related-protein-expression-of-gastrocnemius-muscle-cells-in-rats-with-denervated-sciatic-nerve
#16
Rui-Qi Gao, Cheng-Lin Tang, Si-Qin Huang, Jing Cao, Quan-Hu Guo, Yi Zhang, Yuan Tian, Hai-Zhou Yuan, Dan-Dan Zhao, Ao Luo, An-Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the anti-apoptosis effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on gastrocnemius muscle cells in rats with denervated sciatic nerve, so as to explore its possible mechanisms underlying delaying atrophy of skeletal muscle. METHODS: Sixty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, and EA group, and then further divided into 3 subgroups in each group(n=7/subgroup). Gastrocnemius muscle atrophy model was established by transecting the sciatic nerve of rat...
August 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065712/comparison-of-whole-body-sod1-knockout-with-muscle-specific-sod1-knockout-mice-reveals-a-role-for-nerve-redox-signaling-in-regulation-of-degenerative-pathways-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Giorgos Sakellariou, Brian McDonagh, Helen Porter, Ifigeneia Giakoumaki, Kate Earl, Gareth Nye, Aphrodite Vasilaki, Susan Brooks, Arlan Richardson, Holly Van Remmen, Anne McArdle, Malcolm Joseph Jackson
AIMS: Lack of CuZnSOD in homozygous knockout mice (Sod1-/-) leads to accelerated age-related muscle loss and weakness, but specific deletion of CuZnSOD in skeletal muscle(mSod1KO mice) or neurons (nSod1KO mice) resulted in only mild muscle functional deficits and failed to recapitulate the loss of mass and function observed in Sod1-/- mice. To dissect any underlying cross-talk between motor neurons and skeletal muscle in the degeneration in Sod1-/- mice, we characterized neuromuscular changes in the Sod1-/- model compared with mSod1KO mice and examined degenerative molecular mechanisms and pathways in peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle...
October 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062100/irisin-is-a-pro-myogenic-factor-that-induces-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-and-rescues-denervation-induced-atrophy
#18
Musarrat Maisha Reza, Nathiya Subramaniyam, Chu Ming Sim, Xiaojia Ge, Durgalakshmi Sathiakumar, Craig McFarlane, Mridula Sharma, Ravi Kambadur
Exercise induces expression of the myokine irisin, which is known to promote browning of white adipose tissue and has been shown to mediate beneficial effects following exercise. Here we show that irisin induces expression of a number of pro-myogenic and exercise response genes in myotubes. Irisin increases myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion via activation of IL6 signaling. Injection of irisin in mice induces significant hypertrophy and enhances grip strength of uninjured muscle. Following skeletal muscle injury, irisin injection improves regeneration and induces hypertrophy...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061686/myogenic-activity-and-serotonergic-inhibition-in-the-chromatophore-network-of-the-squids-dosidicus-gigas-family-ommastrephidae-and-doryteuthis-opalescens-family-loliginidae
#19
Hannah E Rosen, William F Gilly
Seemingly chaotic waves of spontaneous chromatophore activity occur in the ommastrephid squid, Dosidicus gigas, in the living state and immediately after surgical disruption of all known inputs from the central nervous system. Similar activity is apparent in the loliginid, Doryteuthis opalescens, but only after chronic denervation of chromatophores for 5-7 days. Electrically-stimulated, neurally-driven activity in intact individuals of both species is blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX), but TTX has no effect on spontaneous wave-activity in either Dosidicus or denervated D...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052280/reappraisal-of-systemic-venous-chemoreceptors-might-they-explain-the-matching-of-breathing-to-metabolic-rate-in-humans
#20
M J Parkes
What is the topic of this review? One of the major unanswered questions in physiology is that of how breathing matches metabolic rate. Venous chemoreceptors seem to have been dismissed since the 1960s. What advances does it highlight? New evidence shows that their apparent dismissal needs reappraisal. The paper on which this depends has more than one interpretation, and another paper obtained the opposite result. Previous search ignored all locations between skeletal muscle and the right heart. Oxygen sensors other than the arterial chemoreceptors do exist...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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