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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783071/mef2a-regulates-calpain-3-expression-in-l6-myoblasts
#1
Ronghua Wu, Jun Wang, Jian Yao, Zhangji Dong, Yan Liu, Mei Liu
Calpain 3 (Capn3), a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family, executes some non-proteolytic functions besides its role as a Ca2+ -regulated proteolytic enzyme. Previously, we found that changes in Capn3 expression were linearly correlated with the degree of muscular atrophy following reversible sciatic nerve injury and that knockdown of Capn3 gene expression promoted myoblast differentiation. While the regulation of capn3 gene expression is interesting, transcriptional regulation of Capn3 is still unclear...
May 18, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774231/semaphorin3a-signaling-is-dispensable-for-motor-axon-reinnervation-of-the-adult-neuromuscular-junction
#2
Jennifer L Shadrach, Brian A Pierchala
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that is formed by motor axon innervation of skeletal muscle fibers. The maintenance of motor-muscle connectivity is critical for the preservation of muscle tone and generation of movement. Injury can induce a robust regenerative response in motor axons, but severe trauma or chronic denervation resulting from neurodegenerative disease typically leads to inefficient repair and poor functional recovery. The axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) has been implicated as a negative regulator of motor innervation...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767748/glial-activation-and-central-synapse-loss-but-not-motoneuron-degeneration-are-prevented-by-the-sigma-1-receptor-agonist-pre-084-in-the-smn2b-mouse-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#3
Clàudia Cerveró, Alba Blasco, Olga Tarabal, Anna Casanovas, Lídia Piedrafita, Xavier Navarro, Josep E Esquerda, Jordi Calderó
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by the loss of α-motoneurons (MNs) with concomitant muscle denervation. MN excitability and vulnerability to disease are particularly regulated by cholinergic synaptic afferents (C-boutons), in which Sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) is concentrated. Alterations in Sig1R have been associated with MN degeneration. Here, we investigated whether a chronic treatment with the Sig1R agonist PRE-084 was able to exert beneficial effects on SMA. We used a model of intermediate SMA, the Smn2B/- mouse, in which we performed a detailed characterization of the histopathological changes that occur throughout the disease...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764991/a-dgk%C3%AE-foxo-ubiquitin-proteolytic-axis-controls-fiber-size-during-skeletal-muscle-remodeling
#4
Jae-Sung You, Matthew S Dooley, Chan-Ran Kim, Eui-Jun Kim, Wei Xu, Craig A Goodman, Troy A Hornberger
Skeletal muscle rapidly remodels in response to various stresses, and the resulting changes in muscle mass profoundly influence our health and quality of life. We identified a diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ)-mediated pathway that regulated muscle mass during remodeling. During mechanical overload, DGKζ abundance was increased and required for effective hypertrophy. DGKζ not only augmented anabolic responses but also suppressed ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-dependent proteolysis. We found that DGKζ inhibited the transcription factor FoxO that promotes the induction of the UPS...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752819/post-polio-syndrome-and-the-late-effects-of-poliomyelitis-part-1-pathogenesis-biomechanical-considerations-diagnosis-and-investigations
#5
REVIEW
Julian K Lo, Lawrence R Robinson
Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years following the initial poliomyelitis illness. There are many theories that exist on the pathogenesis of PPS, which remains incompletely understood. In contrast, the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis are often a consequence of biomechanical alterations that occur as a result of polio-related surgeries, musculoskeletal deformities or weakness. Osteoporosis and fractures of the polio-involved limbs are common...
May 12, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742489/renal-denervation-effects-on-myocardial-fibrosis-and-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-rats-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#6
Bin Zhang, Xiaorong Li, Chu Chen, Wanying Jiang, Dasheng Lu, Qian Liu, Kai Wang, Yuhao Yan, Zhixin Jiang, Jie Geng, Hai Xu, Qijun Shan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the impact of renal denervation (RDN) on myocardial fibrosis and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: An ischemic cardiomyopathy model was reproduced with myocardial infarction (MI) in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats. The RDN/Sham-RDN procedure was performed at 2 weeks after MI. Sham-MI and sham-RDN rats served as the control group. At 4 weeks after RDN, programmed electrical stimulation (PES) was used to induce VAs, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, in all 3 groups (MI+RDN, MI, and control groups)...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737736/-the-diagnostic-value-of-laryngeal-electromyography-in-vocal-fold-paralysis-and-arytenoid-dislocation
#7
Peng Cheng Yu, Nan Gao, Xu Mao Li, Xia Zhao, Guang Bin Sun
OBJECTIVES: To identify diagnostic value of laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) in differentiating vocal fold paralysis (VFP) from arytenoid dislocation. METHODS: The history, laryngeal morphologic characteristics and LEMG of 36 patients with VFP and 10 patients with arytenoid dislocation were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The most common cause of 36 VFP patients was surgical damage (24 cases), and the most common cause of 10 arytenoid dislocation patients was history of endotracheal intubation (9 cases)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736782/exercise-attenuates-age-associated-changes-in-motoneuron-number-nucleocytoplasmic-transport-proteins-and-neuromuscular-health
#8
Ashley Gillon, Kathrine Nielsen, Charlotte Steel, Jon Cornwall, Philip Sheard
Life expectancy continues to extend, although frailty caused by loss of skeletal muscle mass continues unimpeded. Muscle atrophy caused by withdrawal of motor nerves is a feature of old age, as it is in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in which skeletal muscle denervation results from motoneuron death. In ALS, direct links have been established between motoneuron death and altered nucleocytoplasmic transport, so we ask whether similar defects accompany motoneuron death in normal ageing. We used immunohistochemistry on mouse tissues to explore potential links between neuromuscular junction (NMJ) degeneration, motoneuron death and nucleocytoplasmic transport regulatory proteins...
May 7, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734894/-in-situ-vascular-nerve-graft-for-restoration-of-intrinsic-hand-function-an-anatomical-study
#9
Kamran Mozaffarian, Hamid Reza Zemoodeh, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Mohammad Owji
BACKGROUND: In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles...
June 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730097/ultrasound-diagnosis-of-postoperative-complications-of-nerve-repair
#10
Caterina Fantoni, Carmen Erra, Eduardo Marcos Fernandez Marquez, Andrea Ortensi, Andrea Faiola, Daniele Coraci, Giulia Piccinini, Luca Padua
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injuries often undergo surgical repair, but poor postoperative functional recovery is frequently observed. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe four cases of traumatic nerve lesions in whom postoperative recovery was prevented by complications such as detachment of nerve sutures or neuroma growth. To the best of our knowledge no similar cases have been reported in literature so far. It is important an early diagnosis of such condition because it prevents recovery and delays re-intervention, which should be performed before complete muscle denervation and atrophy...
May 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729083/hydrocortisone-inhibition-of-wild-type-and-%C3%AE-d200q-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#11
Beata Dworakowska, Ewa Nurowska, Krzysztof Dołowy
Short-term treatment with large doses of corticosteroids can result in acute weakness of muscles in processes that have not yet been fully characterized. Corticosteroids have been shown to exert direct inhibitory action on the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and therefore can promote pharmacological muscle denervation. The mechanism of hydrocortisone (HC) blockage of AChR has not been fully established yet. It is uncommon for an electrically neutral molecule, e.g. HC, to induce voltage-dependent changes in AChR kinetics...
May 4, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725254/resveratrol-attenuates-denervation-induced-muscle-atrophy-due-to-the-blockade-of-atrogin-1-and-p62-accumulation
#12
Yuka Asami, Miki Aizawa, Masakazu Kinoshita, Junji Ishikawa, Kunihiro Sakuma
Decrease in activity stress induces skeletal muscle atrophy. A previous study showed that treatment with resveratrol inhibits muscular atrophy in mdx mice, a model of DMD. However, almost all studies using resveratrol supplementation have only looked at adaptive changes in the muscle weight. The present study was designed to elucidate whether the resveratrol-inducing attenuation of skeletal muscle actually reflects the adaptation of muscle fibers themselves, based on the modulation of atrogin-1- or p62-dependent signaling...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719249/skeletal-muscle-specific-methyltransferase-mettl21c-trimethylates-p97-and-regulates-autophagy-associated-protein-breakdown
#13
Janica Lea Wiederstein, Hendrik Nolte, Stefan Günther, Tanja Piller, Martina Baraldo, Sawa Kostin, Wilhelm Bloch, Natalie Schindler, Marco Sandri, Bert Blaauw, Thomas Braun, Soraya Hölper, Marcus Krüger
Protein aggregates and cytoplasmic vacuolization are major hallmarks of multisystem proteinopathies (MSPs) that lead to muscle weakness. Here, we identify METTL21C as a skeletal muscle-specific lysine methyltransferase. Insertion of a β-galactosidase cassette into the Mettl21c mouse locus revealed that METTL21C is specifically expressed in MYH7-positive skeletal muscle fibers. Ablation of the Mettl21c gene reduced endurance capacity and led to age-dependent accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in skeletal muscle...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710183/an-update-on-the-management-of-neonatal-brachial-plexus-palsy-replacing-old-paradigms-a-review
#14
Brandon W Smith, Alecia K Daunter, Lynda J-S Yang, Thomas J Wilson
Importance: Neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) can result in persistent deficits for those who develop it. Advances in surgical technique have resulted in the availability of safe, reliable options for treatment. Prevailing paradigms include, "all neonatal brachial plexus palsy recovers," "wait a year to see if recovery occurs," and "don't move the arm." Practicing by these principles places these patients at a disadvantage. Thus, the importance of this review is to provide an update on the management of NBPP to replace old beliefs with new paradigms...
April 30, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694624/sericin-and-swimming-on-histomorphometric-parameters-of-denervated-plantar-muscle-in-wistar-rats
#15
André Junior Santana, Jean Carlos Debastiani, Pâmela Buratti, Ana Luiza Peretti, Regina Inês Kunz, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Márcia Miranda Torrejais, Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini
Objective To analyze the combined effects of the silk protein sericin and swimming exercise on histomorphometry of the plantar muscle in Wistar rats. Methods Forty adult rats were randomly allocated into 5 groups comprising 8 animals each, as follows: Control, Injury, Sericin, Swim, and Swim plus Sericin. Three days after crushing of the sciatic nerve the rats in the Swim and Swim plus Sericin Groups were submitted to swimming exercise for 21 days. Rats were then euthanized and the plantar muscle harvested and processed...
2018: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688067/unusual-presentation-of-thoracic-disc-herniation
#16
Thomas Zambelis, Andreas Polydorou, Evangelos Anagnostou, Pavlos Angourakis, Sofia Vassilopoulou
We report a 57 year- old man with lateral abdominal wall bulging. MRI showed thoracic disk herniation at the T11-T12 level. Needle electomyogram disclosed acute denervation in paraspinal and abdominal muscles innervated from T11 root. Eight months later the swelling was reduced significantly. Thoracic disc herniations are rare and three similar cases have been described previously.
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686823/two-years-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-by-large-surface-electrodes-for-denervated-muscles-improve-skin-epidermis-in-sci
#17
Giovanna Albertin, Helmut Kern, Christian Hofer, Diego Guidolin, Andrea Porzionato, Anna Rambaldo, Raffaele De Caro, Francesco Piccione, Andrea Marcante, Sandra Zampieri
Our previous studies have shown that severely atrophic Quadriceps muscles of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients suffering with complete conus and cauda equina lesions, and thus with permanent denervation-induced atrophy and degeneration of muscle fibers, were almost completely rescued to normal size after two years of home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (h-bFES). Since we used large surface electrodes to stimulate the thigh muscles, we wanted to know if the skin was affected by long-term treatment. Here we report preliminary data of morphometry of skin biopsies harvested from legs of 3 SCI patients before and after two years of h-bFES to determine the total area of epidermis in transverse skin sections...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672725/down-regulated-expression-of-magnesium-transporter-genes-following-a-high-magnesium-diet-attenuates-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury
#18
Ying-Ju Chen, Fu-Chou Cheng, Chun-Jung Chen, Hong-Lin Su, Meei-Ling Sheu, Jason Sheehan, Hung-Chuan Pan
BACKGROUND: Magnesium supplementation has potential for use in nerve regeneration. The expression of some magnesium transporter genes is reflective of the intracellular magnesium levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression of various magnesium transporter genes as they relate to neurological alterations in a sciatic nerve injury model. METHODS: Sciatic nerve injury was induced in rats, which were then fed either basal or high magnesium diets...
April 17, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666144/sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-sals-skeletal-muscle-response-to-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-sals-patients-in-a-rat-model
#19
Shruthi Shanmukha, Gayathri Narayanappa, Atchayaram Nalini, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Trichur R Raju
Skeletal muscle atrophy is the most prominent feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. However, the contribution of skeletal muscle to disease progression remains elusive. Our previous studies have shown that intrathecal injection of cerebrospinal fluid from sporadic ALS patients (ALS-CSF) induces several degenerative changes in motor neurons and glia of neonatal rats. Here, we describe various pathologic events in the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle following intrathecal injection of ALS-CSF...
April 16, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663403/smoke-induced-neuromuscular-junction-degeneration-precedes-the-fibre-type-shift-and-atrophy-in-copd
#20
Sophia Kapchinsky, Madhusudanarao Vuda, Kayla Miguez, Daren Elkrief, Angela R de Souza, Carolyn J Baglole, Sudhakar Aare, Norah J MacMillan, Jacinthe Baril, Paul Rozakis, Vita Sonjak, Charlotte Pion, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Jose A Morais, R Thomas Jagoe, Jean Bourbeau, Tanja Taivassalo, Russell T Hepple
A neurological basis for the fast fibre shift and atrophy seen in limb muscle of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been considered previously. The objective of our study was: (i) to determine if denervation contributes to fast fibre shift and muscle atrophy in COPD; and (ii) to assess using a preclinical smoking mouse model whether chronic tobacco smoke (TS) exposure could initiate denervation by causing neuromuscular junction (NMJ) degeneration. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from severe COPD patients (n = 10 with low fat free mass index [FFMI], 65 y; n = 15 normal FFMI, 65 y) and healthy age- and activity-matched non-smoker control subjects (CON; n = 11, 67 y), to evaluate morphological and transcriptional markers of denervation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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