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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634514/cystic-lesions-of-peripheral-nerves-are-we-missing-the-diagnosis-of-the-intraneural-ganglion-cyst
#1
Jyoti Panwar, Anil Mathew, Binu P Thomas
AIM: To highlight the salient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the intraneural ganglion cyst (INGC) of various peripheral nerves for their precise diagnosis and to differentiate them from other intra and extra-neural cystic lesions. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the magnetic resonance (MR) images of a cohort of 245 patients presenting with nerve palsy involving different peripheral nerves was done. MR images were analyzed for the presence of a nerve lesion, and if found, it was further characterized as solid or cystic...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632904/ngf-and-fgf-2-promote-reinnervation-by-nerve-muscle-endplate-grafting
#2
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to test whether exogenous application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) to muscles reinnervated with nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) could promote specific outcomes. METHODS: The right sternomastoid muscle in adult rats was experimentally denervated and immediately reinnervated by implanting a NMEG pedicle from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle. A fibrin sealant containing NGF and FGF-2 was focally applied to the implantation site...
June 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616236/effect-of-applied-energy-in-renal-sympathetic-denervation-with-magnetic-resonance-guided-focused-ultrasound-in-a-porcine-model
#3
Jill Shea, Joshua de Bever, Eugene Kholmovski, Hannah Beal, J Rock Hadley, Emilee Minalga, Mohamed E Salama, Nassir F Marrouche, Allison Payne
BACKGROUND: Past catheter-based and focused ultrasound renal denervation studies have indicated that procedure efficacy is related to the number of ablations performed or the amount of energy used for the ablation. This study extends those prior results and investigates energy level effects on the efficacy of MR guided focused ultrasound renal denervation performed in a porcine model. METHODS: Twenty-four normotensive pigs underwent unilateral denervation at three intensity levels...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615421/outcomes-of-colorado-children-with-acute-flaccid-myelitis-at-1-year
#4
Jan A Martin, Kevin Messacar, Michele L Yang, John A Maloney, Jennifer Lindwall, Terri Carry, Patricia Kenyon, Stefan H Sillau, Joyce Oleszek, Kenneth L Tyler, Samuel R Dominguez, Teri L Schreiner
OBJECTIVE: We describe long-term functional, neurodiagnostic, and psychosocial outcomes of a cohort of 12 children from Colorado diagnosed with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in 2014. METHODS: Children were assessed every 3 months for 1 year or until clinical resolution. Assessments included neurologic examination, MRI, EMG/nerve conduction studies (NCS), functional measures (Assisting Hand Assessment, Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale), and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System questionnaires...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614767/changes-in-caveolin-1-caveolin-3-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-expression-and-protein-content-after-botulinum-toxin-a-injection-in-the-right-masseter-muscle-of-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#5
U U Botzenhart, V Vaal, I Rentzsch, T Gredes, T Gedrange, C Kunert-Keil
Progressive muscle wasting, frequently associated with inflammation, muscle fibre degeneration and fibrosis, is a characteristic of DMD (Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Its most common used animal model, the mdx mouse, however can overcome muscle degeneration by regeneration processes and is for this reason not suitable to answer all scientific questions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in breaking down muscle regeneration in mdx mice. For this purpose, the right masseter muscle of 100 days old mdx and healthy mice was paralyzed by a single specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588221/ketogenic-diet-induces-expression-of-the-muscle-circadian-gene-slc25a25-via-neural-pathway-that-might-be-involved-in-muscle-thermogenesis
#6
Reiko Nakao, Shigeki Shimba, Katsutaka Oishi
We recently found that the mRNA expression of Slc25a25, a Ca(2+)-sensitive ATP carrier in the inner mitochondrial membrane, fluctuates in a circadian manner in mouse skeletal muscle. We showed here that the circadian expression of muscle Slc25a25 was damped in Clock mutant, muscle-specific Bmal1-deficient, and global Bmal1-deficient mice. Furthermore, a ketogenic diet (KD) that induces time-of-day-dependent hypothermia (torpor), induced Slc25a25 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Hypothermia induced by KD did not affect thermogenic genes such as Sarcolipin and Pgc1a in muscles and Ucp1 in adipose tissues...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583253/loss-of-adult-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-drives-age-related-neuromuscular-junction-degeneration
#7
Wenxuan Liu, Alanna Klose, Sophie Forman, Nicole D Paris, Lan Wei-LaPierre, Mariela Cortés-Lopéz, Aidi Tan, Morgan Flaherty, Pedro Miura, Robert T Dirksen, Joe V Chakkalakal
Neuromuscular junction degeneration is a prominent aspect of sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle integrity. Previously, we showed that muscle stem cells activate and contribute to mouse neuromuscular junction regeneration in response to denervation (Liu et al., 2015). Here, we examined gene expression profiles and neuromuscular junction integrity in aged mouse muscles, and unexpectedly found limited denervation despite a high level of degenerated neuromuscular junctions. Instead, degenerated neuromuscular junctions were associated with reduced contribution from muscle stem cells...
June 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579692/targeted-muscle-reinnervation-for-the-upper-and-lower-extremity
#8
Todd A Kuiken, Ann K Barlow, Levi Hargrove, Gregorgy A Dumanian
Myoelectric devices are controlled by electromyographic signals generated by contraction of residual muscles, which thus serve as biological amplifiers of neural control signals. Although nerves severed by amputation continue to carry motor control information intended for the missing limb, loss of muscle effectors due to amputation prevents access to this important control information. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR) was developed as a novel strategy to improve control of myoelectric upper limb prostheses...
June 2017: Techniques in Orthopaedics: TIO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571586/complement-c5a-c5ar1-signalling-drives-skeletal-muscle-macrophage-recruitment-in-the-hsod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Haitao A Wang, John D Lee, Kah Meng Lee, Trent M Woodruff, Peter G Noakes
BACKGROUND: The terminal pathway of the innate immune complement system is implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Terminal complement activation leads to generation of C5a, which through its receptor, C5aR1, drives immune cell recruitment and activation. Importantly, genetic or pharmacological blockage of C5aR1 improves motor performance and reduces disease pathology in hSOD1(G93A) rodent models of ALS. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential mechanisms of C5aR1-mediated pathology in hSOD1(G93A) mice by examining their skeletal muscles...
June 1, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570458/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-babysitter-procedure-with-different-percentages-of-partial-neurectomy
#10
Yang Wang, Dehua Meng, Jian Zhang, Libo Jiang, Qintong Xu, Zenggan Chen, Feng Zhang, William C Lineaweaver
BACKGROUND: After 2 months of denervation, the number of motor units in the muscle decreases; after 6 months of denervation, muscle atrophy and weakness are irreversible and successful nerve reconstruction does not generally restore function. The babysitter procedure was reported to successfully avoid muscle atrophy. One study found that the babysitter procedure with a 40% neurectomy was most suitable; however, the amount of donor nerve that can be borrowed for the babysitter procedure in peripheral nerve injury is unknown...
May 31, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566164/cervical-spinal-cord-and-motor-unit-pathology-in-a-canine-model-of-sod1-associated-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Martin L Katz, Cheryl A Jensen, Jeffrey T Student, Gayle C Johnson, Joan R Coates
Development of effective treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) would be facilitated by identification of early events in the pathological cascade of disease progression. Degenerative myelopathy (DM), a naturally occurring disease in dogs, is quite similar to forms of ALS associated with SOD1 mutations and is likely to be a good model for these forms of the human disease. The sequence of histopathological changes that occur in DM was characterized by analyzing tissue samples obtained from affected dogs euthanized at various stages of disease progression...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561186/muscle-response-to-complete-peripheral-nerve-injury-changes-of-acetylcholine-receptor-and-creatine-kinase-activity-over-time
#12
Shimon Rochkind, Asher Shainberg
Background This study was designed to assess the changes of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, which are important biochemical markers for muscle viability in cases of long-term muscle denervation. Scientists and peripheral nerve surgeons may find these data important regarding maximal range of muscle viability applicable for timing of effective peripheral nerve reconstructive surgery. Methods The study was conducted on 48 rats (96 gastrocnemius muscles), whose right legs were denervated by removing a 10-mm segment of sciatic nerve, while their left legs remained intact...
June 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556540/sustained-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition-improves-insulin-sensitivity-but-is-detrimental-to-muscle-health
#13
Ning Zhang, Joseph M Valentine, You Zhou, Mengyao E Li, Yiqiang Zhang, Arunabh Bhattacharya, Michael E Walsh, Katherine E Fischer, Steven N Austad, Pawel Osmulski, Maria Gaczynska, Steven E Shoelson, Holly Van Remmen, Hung I Chen, Yidong Chen, Hanyu Liang, Nicolas Musi
Older adults universally suffer from sarcopenia and approximately 60-70% are diabetic or prediabetic. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying these aging-related metabolic disorders are unknown. NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several aging-related pathologies including sarcopenia and type 2 diabetes and has been proposed as a target against them. NFκB also is thought to mediate muscle wasting seen with disuse, denervation, and some systemic diseases (e.g., cancer, sepsis). We tested the hypothesis that lifelong inhibition of the classical NFκB pathway would protect against aging-related sarcopenia and insulin resistance...
May 29, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554554/expanding-the-phenotypic-spectrum-associated-with-mutations-of-dync1h1
#14
Sarah J Beecroft, Catriona A McLean, Martin B Delatycki, Kurian Koshy, Eppie Yiu, Goknur Haliloglu, Diclehan Orhan, Phillipa J Lamont, Mark R Davis, Nigel G Laing, Gianina Ravenscroft
Autosomal dominant mutations of DYNC1H1 cause a range of neurogenetic diseases, including mental retardation with cortical malformations, hereditary spastic paraplegia and spinal muscular atrophy. Using SNP array, linkage analysis and next generation sequencing, we identified two families and one isolated proband sharing a known spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity predominant (SMALED) causing mutation DYNC1H1 c.1792C>T, p.Arg598Cys, and another family harbouring a c.2327C>T, p.Pro776Leu mutation...
July 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551062/-alternative-approach-to-autonomic-instability-of-very-severe-tetanus-stellate-ganglion
#15
Başak Altıparmak, Ali İhsan Uysal, Eylem Yaşar, Semra Demirbilek
Tetanus is an acute and deadly disease caused by Clostridium tetani. A 60-year-old male came to hospital after he injured his thumb with a knife. Ten days later, he returned to hospital with abdominal spasms. He was vaccinated against tetanus and referred to intensive care unit. As he had sudden difficulty in respiration, he was entubated. Midazolam, magnesium and esmolol infusion were started. Next day, muscle spasms progressed all over his body. Midazolam infusion was replaced with propofol and vecuronium...
May 24, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546288/dynamic-changes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-proteome-during-denervation-induced-atrophy
#16
Franziska Lang, Sriram Aravamudhan, Hendrik Nolte, Clara Tuerk, Soraya Hölper, Stefan Müller, Stefan Günther, Bert Blaauw, Thomas Braun, Marcus Krüger
Loss of neuronal stimulation enhances protein breakdown and reduces protein synthesis, causing rapid muscle mass loss. To elucidate the pathophysiological adaptations that occur in atrophying muscles, we used stable isotope labelling and mass spectrometry to accurately quantify protein expression changes during denervation-induced atrophy after sciatic nerve section in the mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GAST). Additionally, mice were fed a SILAC diet containing (13)C6 lysine for four, seven, or eleven days to calculate relative levels of protein synthesis in denervated and control muscles...
May 25, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541289/mir-29b-contributes-to-multiple-types-of-muscle-atrophy
#17
Jin Li, Mun Chun Chan, Yan Yu, Yihua Bei, Ping Chen, Qiulian Zhou, Liming Cheng, Lei Chen, Olivia Ziegler, Glenn C Rowe, Saumya Das, Junjie Xiao
A number of microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) have been shown to play a role in skeletal muscle atrophy, but their role is not completely understood. Here we show that miR-29b promotes skeletal muscle atrophy in response to different atrophic stimuli in cells and in mouse models. miR-29b promotes atrophy of myotubes differentiated from C2C12 or primary myoblasts, and conversely, its inhibition attenuates atrophy induced by dexamethasone (Dex), TNF-α and H2O2 treatment. Targeting of IGF-1 and PI3K(p85α) by miR-29b is required for induction of muscle atrophy...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538803/comparative-study-between-standard-and-inside-out-vein-graft-techniques-on-sciatic-nerve-repair-of-rats-muscular-and-functional-analysis
#18
Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza Bueno, Mizael Pereira, Idvaldo Aparecido, Rogerio Leone Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Antônio de Castro Rodrigues, Geraldo Marco
Purpose: To compare the functional result of standart vein grafts and inside-out vein graft technique on sciatic nerve repair. Methods: We used 24 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control group (CG), standard vein graft group (SVG), Inside-out vein graft group (IOVG) and denervated Group (DG). SVG, IOVG and DG underwent total section of the sciatic nerve, SVG and IOVG however underwent nerve repair surgery using a graft with normal jugular vein and inside-out jugular vein, respectively...
April 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520806/als-skeletal-muscle-shows-enhanced-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-fibrosis-and-induction-of-fibro-adipogenic-progenitor-markers
#19
David Gonzalez, Osvaldo Contreras, Daniela L Rebolledo, Juan Pablo Espinoza, Brigitte van Zundert, Enrique Brandan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which upper and lower motoneurons degenerate leading to muscle wasting, paralysis and eventually death from respiratory failure. Several studies indicate that skeletal muscle contributes to disease progression; however the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Fibrosis is a common feature in skeletal muscle under chronic damage conditions such as those caused by muscular dystrophies or denervation. However, the exact mechanisms of fibrosis induction and the cellular bases of this pathological response are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507191/lowering-metabolic-rate-mitigates-muscle-atrophy-in-western-fence-lizards
#20
J Balaban, E Azizi
Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse can cause a significant loss of contractile proteins, which compromises the ability to generate force, mechanical work or power, thus compromising locomotor performance. Several hibernating organisms can resist muscle atrophy despite months of inactivity. This resistance has been attributed to a reduction in body temperature and metabolic rate and activation of physiological pathways that counteract pathways of protein degradation. However, in these systems such strategies are not mutually exclusive and the effects of these mechanisms can be difficult to separate...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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