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denervated muscle

Jian Weng, Yan-Hua Wang, Ming Li, Dian-Ying Zhang, Bao-Guo Jiang
Delay of axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury usually leads to progressive muscle atrophy and poor functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is considered to be one of the main molecular mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly. We hold the hypothesis that the innervation of target muscle can be promoted by accelerating axon regeneration and decelerating muscle cell degeneration so as to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following peripheral nerve injury...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Hak Chang, SeungHwan Hwang, SooA Lim, SuRak Eo, Kyung Won Minn, Ki Yong Hong
BACKGROUND: Muscle flap is a valuable option in soft tissue reconstruction. Denervated skeletal muscle is known to undergo degeneration. However, information regarding histological and genetic changes in muscle free flap without reinnervation over long-term follow-up remains unclear. METHODS: We collected flap muscles obtained during secondary exploration surgery after more than 15 years of previous muscle free flap without reinnervation. Compared with normal muscle and fat, histomorphometric and gene expression analysis of flap muscle were performed...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Jacqueline Garcia Duarte, Rodolfo Duarte Nascimento, Patrícia Rocha Martins, Débora d'Ávila Reis
Megaesophagus is one of the major manifestations of the chronic phase of Chagas disease. Its primary symptom is generally dysphagia due to disturbance in the lower esophageal sphincter. Microscopically, the affected organ presents denervation, which has been considered as consequence of an inflammatory process that begins at the acute phase and persists in the chronic phase. Inflammatory infiltrates are composed of lymphocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, mast cells, and eosinophils. In this study, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of nerve growth factor (NGF), and of its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA), molecules that are well known for having a relevant role in neuroimmune communication in the gastrointestinal tract...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Hongfei Tai, Liying Cui, Mingsheng Liu, Yuzhou Guan, Xiaoguang Li, Dongchao Shen, Kang Zhang, Shuangwu Liu, Shuang Wu, Qingyun Ding, Youfang Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) level and electromyographic characteristics in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Two hundred thirty-eight consecutive ALS patients were enrolled. All patients underwent electrophysiological study with a consistent approach. We calculated a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) sum score, and spontaneous potentials were graded from 0 to 4 depending on their density and distribution...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Kamilla A Mukhutdinova, Marat R Kasimov, Arthur R Giniatullin, Guzel F Zakyrjanova, Alexey M Petrov
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the initial denervation of skeletal muscle and subsequent death of motor neurons. A dying-back pattern of ALS suggests a crucial role for neuromuscular junction dysfunction. In the present study, microelectrode recording of postsynaptic currents and optical detection of synaptic vesicle traffic (FM1-43 dye) and intracellular NO levels (DAF-FM DA) were used to examine the effect of the major brain-derived cholesterol metabolite 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC, 0...
March 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Arjun Paudyal, Mark Slevin, Huub Maas, Hans Degens
Denervation leads to significant muscle atrophy, but it is less clear whether 1) loss of capillaries, fibre size and oxidative capacity decline in parallel and 2) the time course of these changes differs between young and old animals. To investigate this, we denervated the left gastrocnemius muscle for 1, 2 or 4 weeks, while the right muscle served as an internal control, in rats that were 5 or 25 months old at the end of the experiment. In the fast part of the gastrocnemius muscle, almost all atrophy had occurred after two weeks (42%) of denervation...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Malo Le Hanneur, Andres A Maldonado, Benjamin M Howe, Michelle L Mauermann, Robert J Spinner
BACKGROUND: Several hypotheses have been proposed for the pathophysiology of suprascapular nerve (SSN) palsy, including compression, traction, and nerve inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the pathophysiology of isolated nontraumatic SSN palsy by performing critical reinterpretations of electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies and magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with such diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients referred to our institution for the past 20 yr with a diagnosis of nontraumatic isolated suprascapular neuropathy who had an upper extremity EDX study and a shoulder or brachial plexus MR scan...
February 26, 2018: Neurosurgery
M Piasecki, A Ireland, J Piasecki, D W Stashuk, A Swiecicka, M K Rutter, D A Jones, J S McPhee
Sarcopenia results from the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and reduced function in older age. It is likely to be associated with the well-documented reduction of motor unit numbers innervating limb muscles and the increase in size of surviving motor units via reinnervation of denervated fibres. However no evidence currently exists to confirm the extent of motor unit remodelling in sarcopenic individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare motor unit size and number between young (n = 48), non-sarcopenic old (n = 13), pre-sarcopenic (n = 53) and sarcopenic (n = 29) men...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
T Gabriel Enge, Heath Ecroyd, Dianne F Jolley, Justin J Yerbury, Bernadett Kalmar, Anthony Dosseto
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is among the most common of the motor neuron diseases, and arguably the most devastating. During the course of this fatal neurodegenerative disorder, motor neurons undergo progressive degeneration. The currently best-understood animal models of ALS are based on the over-expression of mutant isoforms of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1); these indicate that there is a perturbation in metal homeostasis with disease progression. Copper metabolism in particular is affected in the central nervous system (CNS) and muscle tissue...
March 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Paul Hendrickse, Magdalena Galinska, Emma Hodson-Tole, Hans Degens
A large part of age-related muscle wasting is due to incomplete reinnervation of fibres that have become denervated following motoneuron loss. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and sodium channel NaV1.5 are considered markers for denervation, but the time course of changes in their expression following denervation has never been systematically evaluated in young-adult and old muscle. To assess the time course of denervation-induced changes in their expression, the left gastrocnemius muscle in 15 young-adult (5-month) and 10 old (25-month) male Wistar rats was denervated for 1, 2 or 4 weeks, while the right muscle served as an internal control...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Thomas Zambelis, Pinelopi Koutsoudaki, Evangelos Anagnostou, Panagiotis Kokotis, Nikolaos Karandreas
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was the comparison of active denervation (fibrillation and/or positive sharp wave potentials) in thoracic paraspinal muscles with rectus abdominis in patients with definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. METHODS: Ninety-five consecutive patients with clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria were studied prospectively over a 5-year period. Concentric needle electromyogram was performed in thoracic paraspinal muscles, in the rectus abdominis at the T9 level, and in limb muscles...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Milene R Malheiros-Lima, Washington Pires, Ivana A T Fonseca, Julliane V Joviano-Santos, Anderson J Ferreira, Cândido C Coimbra, Nilo R V Lima, Samuel P Wanner
This study aimed to investigate the chronic effects of caudal artery denervation on morphometric parameters of the tail vascular smooth muscle and on physical exercise-induced thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adjustments in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to caudal artery denervation or the sham procedure. Approximately 26-28 days after these procedures, their thermoregulatory and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at rest and during or following a fatiguing treadmill run. At the end of the experiments, the rats were euthanized, and samples of their tails were removed to evaluate morphometric parameters of the vascular smooth muscle surrounding the caudal artery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hsien-Chun Chiu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Rong-Sen Yang, Ding-Cheng Chan, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chih-Kang Chiang
BACKGROUND: A global consensus on the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in humans refers as sarcopenia and cachexia including diabetes, obesity, renal failure, and osteoporosis. Despite a current improvement of sarcopenia or cachexia with exercise training and supportive therapies, alternative and specific managements are needed to discover for whom are unable or unwilling to embark on these treatments. Alendronate is a widely used drug for osteoporosis in the elderly and postmenopausal women...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
André Santana, Jean Carlos Debastiani, Regina Inês Kunz, Pamela Buratti, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Márcia Miranda Torrejais, Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini
Physical exercise may help maintain muscle properties and functional improvement after peripheral nerve lesion, which may be enhanced by using biocompatible substances, such as sericin. The aim of this study was analyse the effect of sericin associated with swimming exercise on the phenotype, innervation, and functionality of the plantar muscle of Wistar rats. Forty randomly divided adult rats were used in five groups of eight animals: control, injury, sericin, exercise, exercise and sericin. The application of sericin was done on the spot, 100 μL, shortly after nerve compression...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Gholam Hossein Farjah, Farzaneh Fazli, Mojtaba Karimipour, Bagher Pourheidar, Behnam Heshmatiyan, Maryam Pourheidar
Objectives: When the nerve is injured near its entrance to the muscle belly, we cannot perform conventional methods. One useful method in such a situation is neurotization surgery. In this study, Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) implanted into the paralyzed muscle after neurotization surgery. These cells can stimulate axon growth and motor endplate formation, also prevent muscle atrophy. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into six groups: intact group, sham surgery group, control group, DMEM group, cell+DMEM group, denervated group...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Liancai Mu, Jingming Chen, Jing Li, Themba Nyirenda, Mary Fowkes, Stanislaw Sobotka
BACKGROUND:  We have demonstrated that the native motor zone (NMZ) within a muscle is an ideal target for performing nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) to restore motor function of a denervated muscle. This study was designed to determine spatiotemporal alterations of the myofibers, motor endplates (MEPs), and axons in the NMZ of long-term denervated muscles for exploring if NMEG-NMZ technique would have the potential for delayed reinnervation. METHODS:  Sternomastoid (SM) muscles of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats ( n  = 21) were experimentally denervated and denervation-induced changes in muscle weight, myofiber size, MEPs, and intramuscular nerve axons were evaluated histomorphometrically and immunohistochemically at the end of 3, 6, and 9 months after denervation...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Tae Chung, Yanli Tian, Jeremy Walston, Ahmet Hoke
OBJECTIVE: Age-associated skeletal muscle weakness is a major contributing factor to an increased late life mortality and morbidity, but its neurobiology is poorly understood. Previously, we provided histological evidence of dying-back axonal degeneration of motor neurons and denervation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) in age-associated muscle weakness. Given this, we aim to evaluate the relation between impaired neuromuscular transmission and various aspects of age-associated muscle weakness...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Peter Trampus, Christine Goepfert, Monika Welle, Diana Henke, Franck Forterre, Daniela Schweizer-Gorgas
Muscle signal alteration detected on MRI is seen in diverse pathologic conditions. We observed signal alterations within the paraspinal muscles in dogs with acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe MRI features of paraspinal muscle signal alteration in dogs with acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion and to investigate an association of the signal alterations with neurological grade, type and location of intervertebral disk extrusion, degree of spinal cord compression, and presence of epidural hemorrhage...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Kin Hoi Wong, Maria Bernadette Che Ying Chow, Tun Hing Lui, Yue Kew Cheong, Kwok Fai Tam
Denervation of muscle usually leads to muscle atrophy with fatty replacement but, uncommonly, also results in muscle hypertrophy or pseudohypertrophy with fatty replacement. We report the ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a patient with diffuse fatty infiltration of calf muscles as a result of denervation pseudohypertrophy. The elevated fasting glucose, neurogenic electromyographic changes, and muscle atrophy with adipose tissue infiltration are consistent with diabetic neuropathy as the cause of denervation pseudohypertrophy...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
Eva Pigna, Alessandra Renzini, Emanuela Greco, Elena Simonazzi, Stefania Fulle, Rosa Mancinelli, Viviana Moresi, Sergio Adamo
BACKGROUND: Denervation triggers numerous molecular responses in skeletal muscle, including the activation of catabolic pathways and oxidative stress, leading to progressive muscle atrophy. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) mediates skeletal muscle response to denervation, suggesting the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to neurogenic muscle atrophy. However, the effects of HDAC4 inhibition in skeletal muscle in response to long-term denervation have not been described yet...
February 24, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
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