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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106665/effects-of-multielectrode-renal-denervation-on-elevated-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-insulin-resistance-in-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Costas Tsioufis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Alexandros Kasiakogias, Theodore Kalos, Ioannis Liatakis, Evagelia Koutra, Levki Nikolopoulou, Athanasios Kordalis, Rita Omega Ella, Elizabeth Oi-Yan Lau, Guido Grassi, Vasilios Papademetriou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on sympathetic nerve activity and insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Seventeen patients fulfilled at least four of five criteria for metabolic syndrome and under stable use of at least two antihypertensive drugs were randomized in 3 : 1 ratio to RDN (n = 13, 12 men, age: 58 ± 7 years) and control groups (n = 4, three men, age: 60 ± 5 years) and followed up for 3 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103314/expression-of-a-mutant-sema3a-protein-with-diminished-signalling-capacity-does-not-alter-als-related-motor-decline-or-confer-changes-in-nmj-plasticity-after-botoxa-induced-paralysis-of-male-gastrocnemic-muscle
#2
Elizabeth B Moloney, Barbara Hobo, Fred De Winter, Joost Verhaagen
Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) are specialized cells that envelop the motor nerve terminal, and play a role in the maintenance and regeneration of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The chemorepulsive protein semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) is selectively up-regulated in TSCs on fast-fatigable muscle fibers following experimental denervation of the muscle (BotoxA-induced paralysis or crush injury to the sciatic nerve) or in the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Re-expression of SEMA3A in this subset of TSCs is thought to play a role in the selective plasticity of nerve terminals as observed in ALS and following BotoxA-induced paralysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101181/microrna-351-inhibits-denervation-induced-muscle-atrophy-by-targeting-traf6
#3
Qianru He, Jiaying Qiu, Ming Dai, Qingqing Fang, Xiaoqing Sun, Yanpei Gong, Fei Ding, Hualin Sun
MicroRNAs (miRs) have been observed to be involved in the modulation of various physiopathological processes. However, the impacts of miRNAs on muscle atrophy have not been fully investigated. In the present study, the results demonstrated that miR-351 was differentially expressed in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle at various times following sciatic nerve transection, and the time-dependent expression profile of miR-351 was inversely correlated with that of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) at the mRNA and protein levels...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096335/myofibril-breakdown-during-atrophy-is-a-delayed-response-requiring-the-transcription-factor-pax4-and-desmin-depolymerization
#4
Alexandra Volodin, Idit Kosti, Alfred Lewis Goldberg, Shenhav Cohen
A hallmark of muscle atrophy is the excessive degradation of myofibrillar proteins primarily by the ubiquitin proteasome system. In mice, during the rapid muscle atrophy induced by fasting, the desmin cytoskeleton and the attached Z-band-bound thin filaments are degraded after ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (Trim32). To study the order of events leading to myofibril destruction, we investigated the slower atrophy induced by denervation (disuse). We show that myofibril breakdown is a two-phase process involving the initial disassembly of desmin filaments by Trim32, which leads to the later myofibril breakdown by enzymes, whose expression is increased by the paired box 4 (PAX4) transcription factor...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087606/reinnervation-post-heart-transplantation
#5
Avishay Grupper, Henry Gewirtz, Sudhir Kushwaha
Heart transplantation results in complete denervation of the donor heart with loss of afferent and efferent nerve connections. The majority of patients remain completely denervated during the first 6-12 months following transplantation. Evidence of reinnervation is usually found during the second year after transplantation and involve the myocardial muscle, sinoatrial node, and coronary vessels, but remains incomplete and regionally limited many years post-transplant. Restoration of cardiac innervation can improve exercise capacity as well as blood flow regulation in the coronary arteries, and hence improve quality of life...
January 12, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081461/bdnf-gene-delivery-mediated-by-neuron-targeted-nanoparticles-is-neuroprotective-in-peripheral-nerve-injury
#6
Cátia D F Lopes, Nádia P Gonçalves, Carla P Gomes, Maria J Saraiva, Ana P Pêgo
Neuron-targeted gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat peripheral neuropathies. Here we propose the use of polymeric nanoparticles based on thiolated trimethyl chitosan (TMCSH) to mediate targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons upon a peripheral and minimally invasive intramuscular administration. Nanoparticles were grafted with the non-toxic carboxylic fragment of the tetanus neurotoxin (HC) to allow neuron targeting and were explored to deliver a plasmid DNA encoding for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a peripheral nerve injury model...
December 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078066/use-it-or-lose-it-tonic-activity-of-slow-motoneurons-promotes-their-survival-and-preferentially-increases-slow-fiber-type-groupings-in-muscles-of-old-lifelong-recreational-sportsmen
#7
Simone Mosole, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Stefan Loefler, Sandra Zampieri
: Histochemistry, immuno-histochemistry, gel electrophoresis of single muscle fibers and electromyography of aging muscles and nerves suggest that: i) denervation contributes to muscle atrophy, ii) impaired mobility accelerates the process, and iii) lifelong running protects against loss of motor units. Recent corroborating results on the muscle effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of aged muscles will be also mentioned, but we will in particular discuss how and why a lifelong increased physical activity sustains reinnervation of muscle fibers...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073285/muscle-nerve-muscle-grafting-for-facial-reanimation-in-rats
#8
Steven J Charous, Jeffery M Hotaling, Bridget D Burgess, Joshua M Sappington, James Park, Grant Turek, Eileen M Foecking
OBJECTIVE: Facial paralysis is a devastating condition leaving patients with a myriad of aesthetic and functional consequences. Muscle-nerve-muscle (MNM) neurotization is a reinnervation technique that involves implanting an autogenous nerve graft as a conduit between an innervated "donor" muscle and a denervated "recipient" muscle. We investigated the use of MNM reinnervation, alone or in combination with electrical stimulation (ES) and testosterone propionate (TP) in comparison to nerve reanastomosis (RE), on functional recovery following rat facial nerve injury...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073145/does-partial-muscle-reinnervation-preserve-future-re-innervation-potential
#9
Jonathan Isaacs, Satya Mallu, Mary Shall, Gaurangkumar Patel, Pooja Shah, Shalin Shah, Mark A Feger, Gordon Graham, Nikhil Pasula
INTRODUCTION: Late revision nerve surgery for incomplete motor recovery due to partial reinnervation would improve muscle function only if all muscle fibers were protected from developing denervation atrophy. METHODS: Sixty immature Sprague-Dawley rats underwent the following tibial nerve manipulations (n=15/group): Group A, partial denervation (2/3 of nerve resected and remaining 1/3 crushed), revision repair at 8 months; Group B, partial denervation; Group C, complete denervation, immediate reconstruction; Group D, complete denervation, reconstruction at 8 months; Group E, control group...
January 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052304/is-tadpole-pupil-in-an-adolescent-girl-caused-by-denervation-hypersensitivity
#10
Jonas Kjeldbjerg Hansen, Hans Ulrik Møller
Tadpole pupil is a rarely encountered phenomenon caused by episodic, segmental iris dilator muscle spasm of short duration (2-15 minutes), occurring in clusters without a known precipitating factor. It has most commonly been described in women aged 28 to 48 years. A few hypotheses on pathogenesis have been discussed but none has been proved. Here, we present an adolescent girl with bilateral tadpole pupil that appeared during physical exercise. This is the first pediatric case of tadpole pupil, not caused by preceding surgery, to be published...
January 4, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039408/nrf2-deficiency-does-not-affect-denervation-induced-alterations-in-mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion-proteins-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
Yu Kitaoka, Kohei Takeda, Yuki Tamura, Shin Fujimaki, Tohru Takemasa, Hideo Hatta
Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with age-related and disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. However, the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) during muscle fiber atrophy remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined whether deficiency of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant transcription, promotes denervation-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and muscle atrophy. We found that the expression of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant genes was upregulated at 2 weeks after denervation in wild-type (WT) mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035730/chronic-kidney-disease-in-neurogenic-bladder
#12
Bong Mo Sung, Dong-Jin Oh, Moon Hee Choi, Hye Min Choi
AIM: It was believed that neurogenic bladder (NB) might be a risk factor of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, data are limited regarding the real incidence or risk of CKD in NB. In addition, serum creatinine (sCr), a classical marker of renal function, is not reliable in NB patients because they present muscle wasting due to disuse or denervation. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of CKD in NB patients using serum Cystatin-C. Secondly, we aimed to identify the risk factors for CKD development in NB...
December 30, 2016: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035339/emerging-roles-for-histone-deacetylases-in-age-related-muscle-atrophy
#13
REVIEW
Michael E Walsh, Holly Van Remmen
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle atrophy during aging, a process known as sarcopenia, is associated with muscle weakness, frailty, and the loss of independence in older adults. The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia are not totally understood, but muscle fiber loss due to apoptosis, reduced stimulation of anabolic pathways, activation of catabolic pathways, denervation, and altered metabolism have been observed in muscle from old rodents and humans. OBJECTIVE: Recently, histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been implicated in muscle atrophy and dysfunction due to denervation, muscular dystrophy, and disuse, and HDACs play key roles in regulating metabolism in skeletal muscle...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032299/new-mutations-and-genotype-phenotype-correlation-in-late-onset-pompe-patients
#14
Can Ebru Bekircan-Kurt, Hafize Nalan Güneş, F Gokcem Yildiz, Esen Saka, Ersin Tan, Sevim Erdem-Özdamar
Pompe disease is a glycogen storage disease caused by acid alfa-glucosidase deficiency. Here, we report clinical properties, genetic features of our late-onset Pompe patients. Seven patients were followed during the last 10 years in our institute. The clinical and laboratory findings were reviewed. Neuropsychological evaluation was performed in four patients. Myotonic discharges of paraspinal muscles and denervation potentials were seen in all patients at the diagnosis and were disappeared during follow-up in two...
December 28, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024305/lower-extremity-reconstruction-with-free-gracilis-flaps
#15
Michael J Franco, Michael C Nicoson, Rajiv P Parikh, Thomas H Tung
Background There have been significant advancements in lower extremity reconstruction over the last several decades, and the plastic surgeon's armamentarium has grown to include free muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps along with local perforator and propeller flaps. While we have found a use for a variety of techniques for lower extremity reconstruction, the free gracilis has been our workhorse flap due to the ease of harvest, reliability, and low donor site morbidity. Methods This is a retrospective review of a single surgeon's series of free gracilis flaps utilized for lower extremity reconstruction...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006945/neonatal-capsaicin-administration-impairs-postnatal-development-of-the-cardiac-chronotropy-and-inotropy-in-rats
#16
J Kuncová, A Jirkovská, J Švíglerová, M Marková, D Meireles, M Čedíková
The present study evaluated the impact of neonatal administration of capsaicin (neurotoxin from red hot pepper used for sensory denervation) on postnatal development of the heart rate and ventricular contractility. In the rats subjected to capsaicin administration (100 mg/kg) on postnatal days 2 and 3 and their vehicle-treated controls at the ages of 10 to 90 days, function of the sympathetic innervation of the developing heart was characterized by evaluation of chronotropic responses to metipranolol and atropine, norepinephrine concentrations in the heart, and norepinephrine release from the heart atria...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001757/photobiomodulation-triple-treatment-in-peripheral-nerve-injury-nerve-and-muscle-response
#17
Mira M Mandelbaum-Livnat, Mara Almog, Moshe Nissan, Emmanuel Loeb, Yuval Shapira, Shimon Rochkind
BACKGROUND: Muscle preservation or decrease in muscle degeneration and progressive atrophy are major challenges in patients with severe peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Considerable interest exists in the potential therapeutic value of laser phototherapy (photobiomodulation) for restoring denervated muscle atrophy and for enhancing regeneration of severely injured peripheral nerves. As previously published, the laser phototherapy has a protective and immediate effect in PNI. Laser phototherapy in the early stages of muscle atrophy may preserve the denervated muscle by maintaining creatinine kinase (CK) activity and the amount of acetylcholine receptor (AChR)...
December 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978547/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-motor-neuron-transplant-for-neuromuscular-atrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-sciatic-nerve-injury
#18
Jon-Paul Pepper, Tiffany V Wang, Valerie Hennes, Soo Yeon Sun, Justin K Ichida
Importance: Human motor neurons may be reliably derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In vivo transplant studies of human iPSCs and their cellular derivatives are essential to gauging their clinical utility. Objective: To determine whether human iPSC-derived motor neurons can engraft in an immunodeficient mouse model of sciatic nerve injury. Design, Setting, and Subjects: This nonblinded interventional study with negative controls was performed at a biomedical research institute using an immunodeficient, transgenic mouse model...
December 15, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973754/transplantation-of-embryonic-spinal-cord-neurons-to-the-injured-distal-nerve-promotes-axonal-regeneration-after-delayed-nerve-repair
#19
Wenming Zhang, Xinyu Fang, Chaofan Zhang, Wen Li, Wai Man Wong, Yejun Xu, Wutian Wu, Jianhua Lin
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) usually results in poor functional recovery. Nerve repair is the common clinical treatment for PNI but is always obstructed by the chronic degeneration of the distal stump and muscle. Cell transplantation can alleviate the muscle atrophy after PNI, but the subsequent recovery of the locomotive function is seldom described. In this study, we combined cell transplantation and nerve repair to investigate whether the transplantation of embryonic spinal cord cells could benefit the delayed nerve repair...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964759/voluntary-resistance-wheel-exercise-from-mid-life-prevents-sarcopenia-and-increases-markers-of-mitochondrial-function-and-autophagy-in-muscles-of-old-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#20
Zoe White, Jessica Terrill, Robert B White, Christopher McMahon, Phillip Sheard, Miranda D Grounds, Tea Shavlakadze
BACKGROUND: There is much interest in the capacity of resistance exercise to prevent the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia. This study investigates the molecular basis underlying the benefits of resistance exercise in aging C57BL/6J mice of both sexes. RESULTS: This study is the first to demonstrate that long-term (34 weeks) voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) initiated at middle age, from 15 months, prevents sarcopenia in selected hindlimb muscles and causes hypertrophy in soleus, by 23 months of age in both male and female C57BL/6J mice...
December 13, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
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