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Optic neuromyelitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771186/cross-modal-plasticity-among-sensory-networks-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#1
Maria Assunta Rocca, Filippo Savoldi, Paola Valsasina, Marta Radaelli, Paolo Preziosa, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
OBJECTIVE: To explore resting-state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) of the main sensory/motor networks of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), clinically isolated optic neuritis (ON), and myelitis. METHODS: Clinical evaluation and RS fMRI were obtained from 28 NMOSD, 11 recurrent ON, and 12 recurrent myelitis patients and 30 healthy controls. Between-group RS FC comparisons and correlations with motor performance were assessed (SPM12) on the main sensory/motor RS networks (RSNs) identified by independent component analysis...
May 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769526/a-whole-genome-sequence-study-identifies-genetic-risk-factors-for-neuromyelitis-optica
#2
Karol Estrada, Christopher W Whelan, Fengmei Zhao, Paola Bronson, Robert E Handsaker, Chao Sun, John P Carulli, Tim Harris, Richard M Ransohoff, Steven A McCarroll, Aaron G Day-Williams, Benjamin M Greenberg, Daniel G MacArthur
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare autoimmune disease that affects the optic nerve and spinal cord. Most NMO patients ( > 70%) are seropositive for circulating autoantibodies against aquaporin 4 (NMO-IgG+). Here, we meta-analyze whole-genome sequences from 86 NMO cases and 460 controls with genome-wide SNP array from 129 NMO cases and 784 controls to test for association with SNPs and copy number variation (total N = 215 NMO cases, 1244 controls). We identify two independent signals in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region associated with NMO-IgG+, one of which may be explained by structural variation in the complement component 4 genes...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766684/neuromyelitis-optica-review-and-utility-of-testing-aquaporin-4-antibody-in-typical-optic-neuritis
#3
Meagan Seay, Janet C Rucker
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, inflammatory demyelinating disorder often leading to severe vision impairment and disability. The discovery of a diagnostic biomarker, the aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-IgG), transformed the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NMO and broadened the spectrum of disease [NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD)]. Though the antibody is highly sensitive and specific to NMOSD, routine testing in patients with typical optic neuritis is considered controversial. This article will provide a brief review of NMOSD and highlight the pros and cons of routine testing in typical optic neuritis...
May 16, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750948/altered-macular-microvasculature-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#4
William Robert Kwapong, Chenlei Peng, Zhiyong He, Xiran Zhuang, Meixiao Shen, Fan Lu
PURPOSE: To evaluate macular microvascular changes in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and investigate their correlations with neuroaxonal structural damage evaluated with Spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Twenty eyes of 20 patients with NMOSD and 21 eyes from 21 healthy controls were enrolled. OCT-A was used to obtain microvascular network images of the whole, superficial, and deep retinal capillary plexuses (WRCP, SRCP, and DRCP) in a 3-mm diameter area around the macula...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747362/-research-progression-of-animal-models-of-idiopathic-optic-neuritis
#5
Y X Zhang, H Yang
Idiopathic optic neuritis (ON) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the optic nerve. The two most common types of ON are multiple sclerosis related ON and neuromyelitis optica related ON. But so far the precise mechanisms of different types of ON have been unclear and treatments are not satisfactory. Animal disease models play critical roles in the disease mechanism research. On the other hand, with more understanding about the etiology and mechanism of ON, new models mimicking different types of ON are under development...
April 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724765/imaging-differences-between-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-multi-institutional-study-in-japan
#6
H Tatekawa, S Sakamoto, M Hori, Y Kaichi, A Kunimatsu, K Akazawa, T Miyasaka, H Oba, T Okubo, K Hasuo, K Yamada, T Taoka, S Doishita, T Shimono, Y Miki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both clinical and imaging criteria must be met to diagnose neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and multiple sclerosis. However, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are often misdiagnosed as MS because of an overlap in MR imaging features. The purpose of this study was to confirm imaging differences between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and MS with visually detailed quantitative analyses of large-sample data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 89 consecutive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (median age, 51 years; range, 16-85 years; females, 77; aquaporin 4 immunoglobulin G-positive, 93%) and 89 with MS (median age, 36 years; range, 18-67 years; females, 68; relapsing-remitting MS, 89%; primary-progressive MS, 7%; secondary-progressive MS, 2%) from 9 institutions across Japan (April 2008 to December 2012)...
May 3, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724224/mog-encephalomyelitis-international-recommendations-on-diagnosis-and-antibody-testing
#7
REVIEW
S Jarius, F Paul, O Aktas, N Asgari, R C Dale, J de Seze, D Franciotta, K Fujihara, A Jacob, H J Kim, I Kleiter, T Kümpfel, M Levy, J Palace, K Ruprecht, A Saiz, C Trebst, B G Weinshenker, B Wildemann
Over the past few years, new-generation cell-based assays have demonstrated a robust association of autoantibodies to full-length human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) with (mostly recurrent) optic neuritis, myelitis and brainstem encephalitis, as well as with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like presentations. Most experts now consider MOG-IgG-associated encephalomyelitis (MOG-EM) a disease entity in its own right, immunopathogenetically distinct from both classic multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721683/pediatric-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Grace Y Gombolay, Tanuja Chitnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are a group of inflammatory and demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system that can occur in children and adults. The classic presentation of NMOSD is characterized by optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, but other presentations are also recognized, expanding the disease as NMO spectrum disorders. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical features, along with management and treatment options, including potential future therapeutic options, in pediatric NMOSD...
May 2, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716388/alice-in-wonderland-syndrome-secondary-to-optical-neuromyelitis-caused-by-varicella
#9
Alisson Paulino Trevizol, Raphael Cerqueira, Elisa Brietzke, Quirino Cordeiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709797/trident-sign-trumps-aquaporin-4-igg-elisa-in-diagnostic-value-in-a-case-of-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis
#10
Evan A Jolliffe, B Mark Keegan, Eoin P Flanagan
Longitudinally-extensive T2-hyperintense spinal cord lesions (≥3 vertebral segments) are associated with neuromyelitis optical spectrum disorder but occur with other disorders including spinal cord sarcoidosis. When linear dorsal subpial enhancement is accompanied by central cord/canal enhancement the axial post-gadolinium sequences may reveal a "trident" pattern that has previously been shown to be strongly suggestive of spinal cord sarcoidosis. We report a case in which the patient was initially diagnosed with neuromyelitis optical spectrum disorder, but where the "trident" sign ultimately led to the correct diagnosis of spinal cord sarcoidosis...
April 21, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692631/pediatric-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-a-nationwide-validation-study-of-the-danish-national-patient-register
#11
Magnus Spangsberg Boesen, Melinda Magyari, Alfred Peter Born, Lau Caspar Thygesen
Objective: To validate the Danish National Patient Register's (NPR) diagnoses of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) including multiple sclerosis (MS). Study design and setting: We identified ADS diagnostic groups using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes and reviewed medical records to validate the NPR diagnoses during 2008-2015. Results: Among 409 children in the study, 184 children had a validated and final ADS diagnosis after reviewing medical records as follows: optic neuritis (ON; n=46), transverse myelitis (TM; n=16), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM; n=50), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) including dissemination in space (CIS [DIS]) but not dissemination in time (n=6), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOsd; n=5), and MS (n=61)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682349/multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-markedly-low-intrathecal-antibody-response-in-sri-lanka
#12
S M K Gamage, I Wijeweera, S B Adikari, Katharina Fink, Jan Hillert, Anna Fogdell-Hahn, H M A Sominanda
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease which is poorly studied in Asia, where the disease is known to be rare with significant differences in clinical and radiological presentations and intrathecal antibody response. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine clinical presentation, radiological and neurophysiological characteristics, and oligoclonal band status in Sri Lankan MS patients, following careful exclusion of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and other conditions mimicking multiple sclerosis...
2018: Multiple Sclerosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676196/contiguous-and-symmetrical-disease-expansion-and-massive-necrosis-of-the-cerebral-white-matter-in-a-patient-with-neuromyelitis-optica
#13
Chiho Ishida, Tokuhei Ikeda, Kiyonobu Komai, Kazuya Takahashi, Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara, Masahito Yamada
The present report discusses the case of a woman with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) who exhibited bilateral optic neuritis, longitudinally extensive myelitis, serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, and a unique pattern of white matter involvement. The disease duration was 26 years, and the patient died at the age of 65 years. Sequential magnetic resonance images obtained during the last 6 years of life revealed leukoencephalopathy-like lesions extending symmetrically and contiguously from the periventricular regions, which had begun to transform into multiple cavities with semi-annular partitions...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675599/immunoadsorption-plasmapheresis-treatment-for-the-recurrent-exacerbation-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-a-fluctuating-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-level
#14
Hiroaki Nishimura, Hideki Enokida, Taiji Sakamoto, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Hayami, Masayuki Nakagawa
The pathogenesis in the exacerbation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) involves mainly the serum anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) immunoglobulin G antibody (anti-AQP4 antibody). If high-dose corticosteroid treatment is not achieved during remission, rescue plasmapheresis is recommended. However, there are few reports on the therapeutic efficacy of repetitive immunoadsorption plasmapheresis (IAPP) for the recurrent exacerbation of NMOSD with a fluctuating anti-AQP4 antibody level. A 36-year-old man presented with a reduction of visual acuity (VA) on the right eye (OD) to 20/250...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670575/mog-igg-associated-optic-neuritis-encephalitis-and-myelitis-lessons-learned-from-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Giordani Rodrigues Dos Passos, Luana Michelli Oliveira, Bruna Klein da Costa, Samira Luisa Apostolos-Pereira, Dagoberto Callegaro, Kazuo Fujihara, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato
Antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) have been found in some cases diagnosed as seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). MOG-IgG allowed the identification of a subgroup with a clinical course distinct from that of NMOSD patients who are seropositive for aquaporin-4-IgG antibodies. MOG-IgG is associated with a wider clinical phenotype, not limited to NMOSD, with the majority of cases presenting with optic neuritis (ON), encephalitis with brain demyelinating lesions, and/or myelitis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670463/combination-treatment-of-c16-peptide-and-angiopoietin-1-alleviates-neuromyelitis-optica-in-an-experimental-model
#16
Yuanyuan Zhang, Kewei Tian, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerve, causing blindness and paralysis in some individuals. Moreover, NMO may cause secondary complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), leading to oligodendrocyte and neuronal damage. In this study, a rodent NMO model, showing typical NMO pathogenesis, was induced with NMO-IgG from patient serum and human complement. We then tested whether the combination of C16, an α v β 3 integrin-binding peptide, and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), a member of the endothelial growth factor family, could alleviate NMO in the model...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667789/updates-and-controversies-in-the-management-of-acute-optic-neuritis
#17
Ethan Meltzer, Sashank Prasad
Optic neuritis remains a common diagnosis with controversial management. Although typical optic neuritis is often associated with "good" recovery of visual acuity, patients are often left with persistent impairments of contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual field. These permanent visual deficits correlate with structural injury to the anterior visual pathway and are closely linked to visual quality of life. High dose corticosteroids are commonly used for patients with acute optic neuritis...
April 18, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606515/plasma-exchange-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-in-chinese-patients-and-factors-predictive-of-short-term-outcome
#18
Yujuan Jiao, Lei Cui, Weihe Zhang, Yeqiong Zhang, Wei Wang, Linwei Zhang, Wenxiong Tang, Jinsong Jiao
PURPOSE: The purposes of this article were to evaluate the short-term outcome of plasma exchange (PLEX) for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) in Chinese patients and to identify the factors predictive of a favorable response to therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 29 Chinese patients with NMOSD. All patients received 2 to 7 sessions of PLEX every other day. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were estimated at baseline, at relapse, and before and at follow-up after PLEX...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580564/clinical-value-of-autoantibodies-for-lupus-myelitis-and-its-subtypes-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Hiroshi Oiwa, Akira Kuriyama, Tomoyasu Matsubara, Eiji Sugiyama
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to investigate the clinical value of clinical characteristics and autoantibodies, especially lupus-specific antibodies, for lupus myelitis and its subtypes. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and ICHUSHI without language restrictions for case reports or series of lupus myelitis. We focused on cases reported since 1997, when the revised classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus were published. Associations between patient characteristics including autoantibodies and functional outcome, survival, subtypes of myelitis (grey and white matter myelitis), and treatment were examined...
February 14, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572032/chloride-imbalance-is-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-optic-neuritis-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#20
Tetsuya Akaishi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Noriko Himori, Takayuki Takeshita, Toru Nakazawa, Masashi Aoki, Ichiro Nakashima
Chloride imbalance between the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been recently shown to exist in the acute phase of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). In this report, we studied the relation between the quotient of chloride (QCl ) and the severity of optic neuritis (ON) in NMO patients. There was a positive correlation (R = 0.67; p < 0.05) between QCl and the length of ON-lesion. The visual prognosis also showed a positive correlation with QCl in the acute phase (R = 0.58; p < 0.05)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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