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Ilan S Schwartz, Stephen Sanche, Nathan P Wiederhold, Thomas F Patterson, Lynne Sigler
We report 4 patients in North America with disease caused by Emergomyces canadensis, a newly proposed species of pathogenic dimorphic fungus. Affected persons were immunocompromised; lived in Saskatchewan, Colorado, and New Mexico; and had systemic disease involving blood, skin, cervix, lung, and lymph node. Two cases were fatal.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Saqib Walayat
Mycobacterium neoaurum is a rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium which is ubiquitous in nature. While it can cause line related infections in immunocompromised host, case reports of urinary tract infections, cutaneous infections, pulmonary infections, and meningoencephalitis have also been reported. We report the first case of Mycobacterium neoaurum line related bacteremia with concomitant pulmonary involvement. Our patient responded well to a nine week course of antimicrobials after removal of infected central line...
2018: IDCases
Andrej Steyer, Tilen Konte, Martin Sagadin, Marko Kolenc, Andrej Škoberne, Julija Germ, Tadeja Dovč-Drnovšek, Miha Arnol, Mateja Poljšak-Prijatelj
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, and they can affect humans of all age groups. In immunocompromised patients, norovirus infections can develop into chronic diarrhea or show prolonged asymptomatic virus shedding. Chronic norovirus infections are frequently reported for solid organ transplant recipients, with rapid intrahost norovirus evolution seen. In this report, we describe a case of chronic norovirus infection in an immunocompromised patient who was followed up for over 5 years...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dirk Westhölter, Jens Hiller, Ulrike Denzer, Susanne Polywka, Francis Ayuk, Meike Rybczynski, Thomas Horvatits, Swantje Gundlach, Nicole Fischer, Marylyn M Addo, Sven Peine, Burkhard Göke, Ansgar W Lohse, Marc Lütgehetmann, Sven Pischke
BACKGROUND: Routine Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) testing of blood products has recently been implemented in Great-Britain and the Netherlands. The relevance of transfusion-transmitted HEV infections is still controversially discussed in Europe. METHODS: All blood donations at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf were prospectively tested for HEV-RNA by pooled PCR from October 2016 to May 2017. Reactive samples were individually re-tested. Additionally, stored samples from previous donations of positive donors were tested to determine the duration of HEV-viremia...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
H Tligui, W Oudaina, S El Ftouh, F Madda, L Hesseissen
Human cutaneous infections due to Rhodotorula species as an emerged pathogens yeasts are rarely reported, particularly in skin folds, with the ability to infect immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent patient. In present case, we describe a fungal cutaneous infection due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in immunocompromised child, the patient has been diagnosed with retinoblastoma; the diagnosis was established by the cytological and clinical examination. However, the cytological examination found fungal forms...
March 15, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Luiz Guilherme Darrigo, Alexandre Machado de Sant'Anna Carvalho, Clarisse Martins Machado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe the characteristics of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika in transplant recipients and immunocompromised hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cell/bone marrow grafts, organs, and blood transfusions can transmit CHIKV/DENV/ZIKV infections, which are clinically similar, resembling influenza-like illness. Laboratory confirmation is necessary. In the acute phase, RT-PCR is preferred. DENV and ZIKV serology may cross-react. Delayed engraftment and extended viruria is observed in ZIKV+/HSCT recipients, while longer viremia is observed in DENV+/HSCT patients...
March 17, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
A Sonpar, K Brown, J Chen, D Megran, M Sabo, C Cervera, S Girgis, D Kabbani
Mycoplasma hominis is part of the genitourinary flora in sexually active people and can cause disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients. We describe a rare case of an immunocompetent pregnant woman with simultaneous necrotizing HSV hepatitis and disseminated M. hominis infection. Detection of M. hominis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this fastidious organism in the clinical laboratory is discussed.
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Marjolaine Morgand, Alexandre Leclercq, Mylène M Maury, Hélène Bracq-Dieye, Pierre Thouvenot, Guillaume Vales, Marc Lecuit, Caroline Charlier
OBJECTIVES: Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a foodborne human pathogen responsible for severe infection, including septicemia, neurolisteriosis, maternal-fetal and focal infections. Little is known about Lm-associated respiratory tract or lung infections. METHODS: Retrospective study of culture-proven cases of Lm pleural infections and pneumonia reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from January 1993 to August 2016. RESULTS: Thirty-eight consecutive patients with pleural infection (n=32), pneumonia (n=5), or both (n=1) were studied...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Bradley Anderson, Seth Sweetser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Gastroenterology
N Haber
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Reinfections are common throughout adult life with more severe presentations occurring in immunocompromised individuals, subjects with underlying high-risk cardiopulmonary diseases, and in the elderly. There is now a significant body of literature indicating that the impact of RSV in elderly adults is similar to that of non-pandemic influenza, both in the community and in nursing homes...
March 13, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Dimitri Topalis, Sarah Gillemot, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Herpesviruses thymidine kinase (TK) and protein kinase (PK) allow the activation of nucleoside analogues used in anti-herpesvirus treatments. Mutations emerging in these two genes often lead to emergence of drug-resistant strains responsible for life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised populations. In this review, we analyze the binding of different nucleoside analogues to the TK active site of the three α-herpesviruses [Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)] and present the impact of known mutations on the structure of the viral TKs...
March 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Amanda Bonalume Cordeiro de Morais, Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños, Ana Carolina Alves, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Gustavo Henrique Batista Lara, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Rogério Giuffrida, Fernando Paganini Listoni, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Rodrigo Garcia Motta, Shinji Takai, Márcio Garcia Ribeiro
Mycobacterium species and the virulence-associated proteins (vapA, vapB, and vapN genes) of Rhodococcus equi isolated from 330 lymph nodes of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) intended for human consumption were investigated. Thirty-six (10.9%) R. equi strains were isolated; 3.3% (n = 11/330) were from white-lipped peccary lymph nodes, and 7.6% (25/330) were from collared peccary lymph nodes. Among the 11 isolates of R. equi from the white-lipped peccaries, 90...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Todd R Kramer
This case report examines a vesiculopustular reaction which occurred in a young Marine 9 d after receiving the smallpox vaccination. Review of the CDC guidelines, ACAM2000 package insert, and literature surrounding the smallpox vaccine reveals several well-established adverse cutaneous reactions associated with vaccination. These dermatologic reactions are typically mild and self-limited, but do have the potential to be life threatening - especially in those with immunocompromise. Unfortunately, the correct diagnosis can often be difficult to make, as many of these rashes share similar characteristics...
March 13, 2018: Military Medicine
Suhong Xiao, Ying-Sheng Tang, Praveen Kusumanchi, Sally P Stabler, Ying Zhang, Asok C Antony
Background: Epidemiologic and in vitro studies suggest independent linkages between poor folate and/or vitamin B-12 nutrition, genomic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 viral integration, and cancer. However, there is no direct evidence in vivo to support the causative role of poor folate nutrition in HPV16 integration into the cellular genome. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that folate deficiency enables the integration of HPV16 into the genome of HPV16-harboring keratinocytes, and could thereby influence earlier transformation of these cells to cancer in an animal model...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Vinicius da Motta de Mello, Mariana Leal, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries...
2018: BioMed Research International
Hassan Al Moussawi, Michael Krzyzak, Zainab Awada, Jean M Chalhoub
A brain abscess is defined as a focal intracerebral infection consisting of an encapsulated collection of pus, which can be a life-threatening complication of infections, trauma, or surgery. While immunocompromised patients can have a wide array of causative organisms, bacterial species represent the most common etiology in immunocompetent individuals. The incidence of brain abscesses ranges from 0.4 to 0.9 per 100,000, with a high predisposition among immunocompromised patients and in those with disruption of the blood-brain barrier...
January 13, 2018: Curēus
Justin S Merkow, Erik J Nelson
BACKGROUND Providing anesthesia to immunocompromised patients introduces unique challenges, including difficulty in detecting respiratory infections. Detailed preoperative evaluation and preparation for perioperative complications is crucial. Human metapneumovirus is a common but lesser known respiratory virus that can lead to pneumonia and respiratory compromise and is challenging to detect in the immunocompromised patient. CASE REPORT We present a case of an immunocompromised individual scheduled for umbilical hernia repair who developed severe bronchospasm and intraoperative respiratory failure after induction of general anesthesia...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Maria Krevvata, Xiaochuan Shan, Chenghui Zhou, Cedric Dos Santos, Georges Habineza Ndikuyeze, Anthony Secreto, Joshua Glover, Winifred Trotman, Gisela Brake-Silla, Selene Nunez-Cruz, Gerald Wertheim, Hyun-Jeong Ra, Elizabeth Griffiths, Charalampos Papachristou, Gwenn Danet-Desnoyers, Martin Carroll
Patient-derived xenotransplantation models of human myeloid diseases including acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms are essential for studying the disease's biology in pre-clinical studies. However, few studies have used these models for comparison purposes. Previous work has shown that acute myeloid leukemia blasts respond to human hematopoietic cytokines whereas myelodysplastic syndrome cells do not. We compared the engraftment of acute myeloid leukemia cells and myelodyplastic syndrome cells in NSG mice to NSG-S mice, which have transgene expression of human cytokines...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
Michael D Oberst, Catherine Auge, Chad Morris, Stacy Kentner, Kathy Mulgrew, Kelly McGlinchey, James Hair, Shino Hanabuchi, Qun Du, Melissa Damschroder, Hui Feng, Steven Eck, Nicholas Buss, Lolke de Haan, Andrew J Pierce, Haesun Park, Andrew Sylwester, Michael K Axthelm, Louis Picker, Nicholas P Morris, Andrew Weinberg, Scott A Hammond
Ligation of OX40 (CD134, TNFRSF4) on activated T cells by its natural ligand (OX40L, CD252, TNFSF4) enhances cellular survival, proliferation, and effector functions such as cytokine release and cellular cytotoxicity. We engineered a recombinant human OX40L IgG4P Fc fusion protein termed MEDI6383 that assembles into a hexameric structure and exerts potent agonist activity following engagement of OX40. MEDI6383 displayed solution phase agonist activity that was enhanced when the fusion protein was clustered by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) on the surface of adjacent cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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