Read by QxMD icon Read


Voon Kin Chin, Tze Yan Lee, Basir Rusliza, Pei Pei Chong
Candida bloodstream infections remain the most frequent life-threatening fungal disease, with Candida albicans accounting for 70% to 80% of the Candida isolates recovered from infected patients. In nature, Candida species are part of the normal commensal flora in mammalian hosts. However, they can transform into pathogens once the host immune system is weakened or breached. More recently, mortality attributed to Candida infections has continued to increase due to both inherent and acquired drug resistance in Candida, the inefficacy of the available antifungal drugs, tedious diagnostic procedures, and a rising number of immunocompromised patients...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gordon G Carmichael
Murine polyomavirus (MPyV) infects mouse cells and is highly oncogenic in immunocompromised hosts and in other rodents. Its genome is a small, circular DNA molecule of just over 5000 base pairs and it encodes only seven polypeptides. While seemingly simply organized, this virus has adopted an unusual genome structure and some unusual uses of cellular quality control pathways that, together, allow an amazingly complex and varied pattern of gene regulation. In this review we discuss how MPyV leverages these various pathways to control its life cycle...
October 17, 2016: Viruses
Madhukar Pai, Marcel Behr
The identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is useful for both fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and for clinical and public health interventions (i.e., to prevent progression to disease). Basic research suggests there is a pathogenetic continuum from exposure to infection to disease, and individuals may advance or reverse positions within the spectrum, depending on changes in the host immunity. Unfortunately, there is no diagnostic test that resolves the various stages within the spectrum of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Nicole Robbins, Gerard D Wright, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections are becoming an increasingly important cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly for immunocompromised populations. The fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus collectively contribute to over 1 million human deaths annually. Hence, the importance of safe and effective antifungal therapeutics for the practice of modern medicine has never been greater. Given that fungi are eukaryotes like their human host, the number of unique molecular targets that can be exploited for drug development remains limited...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Jennifer E Adair, Timothy Waters, Kevin G Haworth, Sara P Kubek, Grant D Trobridge, Jonah D Hocum, Shelly Heimfeld, Hans-Peter Kiem
Haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy has demonstrated potential to treat many diseases. However, current state of the art requires sophisticated ex vivo gene transfer in a dedicated Good Manufacturing Practices facility, limiting availability. An automated process would improve the availability and standardized manufacture of HSC gene therapy. Here, we develop a novel program for semi-automated cell isolation and culture equipment to permit complete benchtop generation of gene-modified CD34(+) blood cell products for transplantation...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Yushu Yin, Georgia Papavasiliou, Olga Y Zaborina, John C Alverdy, Fouad Teymour
The human gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization of multidrug resistant pathogens and the major source of life-threatening complications in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Eradication measures using antibiotics carry further risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment can adversely shift the intestinal microbiome toward domination by resistant pathogens. Therefore, approaches directed to prevent replacement of health promoting microbiota with resistant pathogens should be developed...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Michele Carron
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIV, compared with standard medical therapy, improves survival and reduces complications in selected patients with ARF. NIV represents the first-line intervention for some forms of ARF, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The use of NIV is also well supported for immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for infectious complications from endotracheal intubation...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Yuetian Yu, Cheng Zhu, Xiaozhe Qian, Yuan Gao
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients, and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) induced by IPA is rare and seldom reported. Management of these critically ill patients is challenging and often requires a multidisciplinary approach. The authors reported an adult suffering from aplastic anemia who developed TEF caused by IPA. The diagnosis was confirmed following bronchoscopy and histopathological examination. Antifungal and bronchoscopic intervention provided a cure without any recurrence as yet...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Aritreyee Datta, Vikas Yadav, Anirban Ghosh, Jaesun Choi, Dipita Bhattacharyya, Rajiv K Kar, Humaira Ilyas, Arkajyoti Dutta, Eunseol An, Jayanta Mukhopadhyay, Dongkuk Lee, Kaustuv Sanyal, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy, Anirban Bhunia
There is a significant need for developing compounds that kill Cryptococcus neoformans, the fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. Here, we report the mode of action of a designed antifungal peptide, VG16KRKP (VARGWKRKCPLFGKGG) against C. neoformans. It is shown that VG16KRKP kills fungal cells mainly through membrane compromise leading to efflux of ions and cell metabolites. Intracellular localization, inhibition of in vitro transcription, and DNA binding suggest a secondary mode of action for the peptide, hinting at possible intracellular targets...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Franz Puttur, Marcela Francozo, Gülhas Solmaz, Carlos Bueno, Marc Lindenberg, Melanie Gohmert, Maxine Swallow, Dejene Tufa, Roland Jacobs, Stefan Lienenklaus, Anja A Kühl, Lisa Borkner, Luka Cicin-Sain, Bernard Holzmann, Hermann Wagner, Luciana Berod, Tim Sparwasser
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic virus severely infecting immunocompromised individuals. In mice, endosomal Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and downstream myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) are central to activating innate immune responses against mouse CMV (MCMV). In this respect, the cell-specific contribution of these pathways in initiating anti-MCMV immunity remains unclear. Using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that TLR9/MyD88 signaling selectively in CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) strongly enhances MCMV clearance by boosting natural killer (NK) cell CD69 expression and IFN-γ production...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Ellen Van Damme, Kim Thys, Marianne Tuefferd, Carl Van Hove, Jeroen Aerssens, Marnix Van Loock
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs). This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Ross D Blundell, Simon J Williams, Samantha D M Arras, Jessica L Chitty, Kirsten L Blake, Daniel J Ericsson, Nidhi Tibrewal, Jurgen Rohr, Y Q Andre E Koh, Ulrike Kappler, Avril A B Robertson, Mark S Butler, Matthew A Cooper, Bostjan Kobe, James A Fraser
Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans are a growing cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised populations worldwide. To address the current paucity of antifungal therapeutic agents, further research into fungal-specific drug targets is required. Adenylosuccinate synthetase (AdSS) is a crucial enzyme in the adeosine triphosphate (ATP) biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the formation of adenylosuccinate from inosine monophosphate and aspartate. We have investigated the potential of this enzyme as an antifungal drug target, finding that loss of function results in adenine auxotrophy in C...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Philippe Gauthier, Zongdong Yu, Quynh T Tran, Fazal-Ur-Rehman Bhatti, Xiaofei Zhu, George T-J Huang
Regeneration of periodontal tissues, particularly cementum, is key to regaining periodontal attachment and health. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) have been shown to be a good cell source to regenerate periodontal tissues. However, their subpopulations and the differentiation induction in relation to cementogenic lineages is unclear. Thus, we aim to examine the expression of cementum-associated genes in PDLSC subpopulations and determine the effect of broadly used osteogenic stimulus or vitamin C (VC) on the expression of cementogenic and osteogenic genes in PDLSCs...
October 18, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Ishita Chen, Raymond B Fohtung, Hanadi Ajam Oughli, Robert Bauer, Caline Mattar, William G Powderly, Mark S Thoelke
Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS) is a rare complication of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection that can occur in immunocompetent host. It usually involves ipsilateral facial paralysis, ear pain and facial vesicles. Disseminated herpes zoster is another complication of VZV infection typically seen in immunocompromised hosts. We describe a patient with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who presented simultaneously with RHS and disseminated herpes zoster. While other complications have been documented to coexist with RHS, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature of concurrent RHS with disseminated herpes zoster...
2016: IDCases
Mai Ohba, Tomoichiro Oka, Takayuki Ando, Saori Arahata, Asaka Ikegaya, Hirotaka Takagi, Naohisa Ogo, Chelsea Zhu, Kazuhiro Owada, Fumihiko Kawamori, Qiuhong Wang, Linda J Saif, Akira Asai
Caliciviruses are contagious pathogens of humans and various animals. They are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and can cause lethal diseases in domestic animals such as cats, rabbits and immunocompromised mice. In this study, we conducted cytopathic effect-based screening of 2080 selected compounds from our in-house library to find antiviral compounds against three culturable caliciviruses: feline calicivirus, murine norovirus (MNV) and porcine sapovirus (PoSaV). We identified active six compounds, of which two compounds, both related to theaflavins, showed broad antiviral activities against all three caliciviruses; three compounds (abamectin, a mixture of avermectin B1a and B1b; avermectin B1a; and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate hydrate) were effective against PoSaV only; and a heterocyclic carboxamide derivative (BFTC) specifically inhibited MNV infectivity in cell cultures...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Haruki Funao, Khaled M Kebaish, Norihiro Isogai, Takahiro Koyanagi, Morio Matsumoto, Ken Ishii
BACKGROUND: Spondylodiscitis still remains a serious problem especially in immunocompromised patients. Surgery is necessary when non-surgical treatment is unsuccessful. Although minimally invasive spine stabilization (MISt) with percutaneous pedicle screws is less invasive, percutaneous sacropelvic fixation techniques are not common practice. Here, we describe two cases in which spondylodiscitis in the lumbosacral spine was treated with a percutaneous stabilization using S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw technique...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Murali K Kolikonda, Priyanga Jayakumar, Srividya Sriramula, Steven Lippmann
A common inhabitant of skin, the Kocuria kristinae of the Micrococcaceae family, has gained attention in recent years because it can induce pathology in humans. Reported is a Kocuria kristinae-caused abdominal abscess in a patient treated for rheumatoid arthritis with adalimumab. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor drugs are known to cause various bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. This is the first known case where an opportunistic infection with Kocuria has presented with an abdominal abscess in an immunocompromised individual who is on long term TNF inhibitors...
October 18, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Joseph A Carcillo, J Michael Dean, Richard Holubkov, John Berger, Kathleen L Meert, Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Jerry Zimmerman, Christopher J Newth, Rick Harrison, Jeri Burr, Douglas F Willson, Carol Nicholson, Michael J Bell, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Sabrina M Heidemann, Heidi Dalton, Tammara L Jenkins, Allan Doctor, Angie Webster
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection remains an important health problem in long stay (>3 days) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Admission risk factors related to the development of nosocomial infection in long stay immune competent patients in particular are not known. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the previously published Critical Illness Stress induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial database, to identify baseline risk factors for nosocomial infection...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mariaconcetta Varano, Marco Gaspari, Angela Quirino, Giovanni Cuda, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà
Ochrobactrum anthropi is a gram-negative rod belonging to the Brucellaceae family, able to colonize a variety of environments, and actually reported as a human opportunistic pathogen. Despite its low virulence, the bacterium causes a growing number of hospital-acquired infections mainly, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the global proteome changes occurring in O. anthropi in response to different growth temperatures, in order to achieve a major understanding of the mechanisms by which the bacterium adapts to different habitats and to identify some potential virulence factors...
October 18, 2016: Proteomics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"