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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239908/pathogenicity-of-conidiobolus-coronatus-and-fusarium-solani-in-mouse-models
#1
Yadi Li, Xiangang Fang, Xiaoqian Zhou, Suying Geng, Yuxin Wang, Xiumin Yang
To study the pathogenicity of Conidiobolus coronatus (C. coronatus) and Fusarium solani (F. solani) in animal models. Immunocompromised mice were treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone via intraperitoneal injection before and after inoculation. According to pathogenic characteristics of different fungi, C. coronatus was used to infect mice via intravenous inoculation, intraperitoneal inoculation, gastrointestinal infusion and intradermal inoculation methods. And F. solani was used to infect mice by inoculation via the abraded or normal skin...
February 27, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239769/clinical-manifestations-treatment-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-sternoclavicular-septic-arthritis
#2
Muchima Rodchuae, Chonlada Ruangpin, Wanruchada Katchamart
Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) is an atypical and rarely seen clinical condition. The prognosis for patients with SCJ septic arthritis is often poor. The objective of this study was to compare clinical characteristics between SCJ and non-sternoclavicular joint (NSCJ) septic arthritis and to identify independent risk factors for SCJ septic arthritis. A total of 450 adult patients diagnosed with septic arthritis during the January 2002 to December 2013 study period were included in this retrospective cohort study...
February 26, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238781/caspofungin-exposure-alters-the-core-septin-aspb-interactome-of-aspergillus-fumigatus
#3
José M Vargas-Muñiz, Hilary Renshaw, Greg Waitt, Erik J Soderblom, M Arthur Moseley, Jonathan M Palmer, Praveen R Juvvadi, Nancy P Keller, William J Steinbach
Aspergillus fumigatus, the main etiological agent of invasive aspergillosis, is a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Septins, a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins, serve as scaffolding proteins to recruit enzymes and key regulators to different cellular compartments. Deletion of the A. fumigatus septin aspB increases susceptibility to the echinocandin antifungal caspofungin. However, how AspB mediates this response to caspofungin is unknown. Here, we characterized the AspB interactome under basal conditions and after exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of caspofungin...
February 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237739/collaboration-with-an-infection-control-team-for-patients-with-infection-after-spine-surgery
#4
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Shiro Imagama, Daizo Kato, Kei Ando, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Tetsuya Yagi, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
BACKGROUND: The risk of infection, including surgical site infection (SSI), after spine surgery has increased due to aging and more immunocompromised hosts. An infection control team (ICT) is responsible for management of health care-associated infections at our institution. METHODS: The study subjects were 40 patients (18 men and 22 women with an average age of 54 years) referred to the ICT after spine surgery since 2010. Pathogenic bacteria and treatment in these cases were reviewed...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237623/effect-of-underlying-immune-compromise-on-the-manifestations-and-outcomes-of-group-a-streptococcal-bacteremia
#5
Kathleen A Linder, Leen Alkhouli, Mayur Ramesh, George A Alangaden, Carol A Kauffman, Marisa H Miceli
BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal bloodstream infection is the most common presentation of invasive group A streptococcal disease. We sought to determine the impact of immunosuppression on severity of disease and clinical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective review of 148 patients with at least one positive blood culture for Streptococcus pyogenes from 1/2003 to 3/2013 compared immunocompromised patients with those with no immunocompromise in regards to development of severe complications and mortality...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236169/triazole-resistance-in-aspergillus-species-an-emerging-problem
#6
Rocio Garcia-Rubio, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Emilia Mellado
Aspergillus species are ubiquitous fungal saprophytes found in diverse ecological niches worldwide. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent and is largely responsible for the increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis with high mortality rates in some immunocompromised hosts. Azoles are the first-line drugs in treating diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. However, increasing reports in A. fumigatus azole resistance, both in the clinical setting and in the environment, are threatening the effectiveness of clinical and agricultural azole drugs...
February 24, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231312/analysis-of-the-t-cell-response-to-zika-virus-and-identification-of-a-novel-cd8-t-cell-epitope-in-immunocompetent-mice
#7
Ryan D Pardy, Maaran M Rajah, Stephanie A Condotta, Nathan G Taylor, Selena M Sagan, Martin J Richer
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although ZIKV infection is typically mild and self-limiting in healthy adults, infection has been associated with neurological symptoms such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, and a causal link has been established between fetal microcephaly and ZIKV infection during pregnancy. These risks, and the magnitude of the ongoing ZIKV pandemic, have created an urgent need for the development of animal models to study the immune response to ZIKV infection...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231023/increasing-nocardia-incidence-associated-with-bronchiectasis-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#8
Michael H Woodworth, Jennifer L Saullo, Paul M Lantos, Gary M Cox, Jason E Stout
RATIONALE: Nocardia is a genus of pathogens that most commonly afflicts immunocompromised hosts, but may be an emerging infection among persons with bronchiectasis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the epidemiology and clinical presentation of adult patients with Nocardia and bronchiectasis relative to other patient groups. METHODS: We examined a retrospectively-assembled cohort of adults at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina with at least one positive culture from a bodily fluid or tissue specimen for Nocardia between January 1996 and December 2013...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230787/bat-astroviruses-towards-understanding-the-transmission-dynamics-of-a-neglected-virus-family
#9
REVIEW
Kerstin Fischer, Vinícius Pinho Dos Reis, Anne Balkema-Buschmann
Bats belong to the order Chiroptera that represents the second largest order of mammals with more than 1200 species and an almost global distribution. Environmental changes and deforestation have severely influenced many ecosystems, intensifying the contact between wildlife and humans. In recent years, bats have been found to harbor a number of different viruses with zoonotic potential, as well as a great diversity of astroviruses, for which the question of zoonotic potential remains unanswered to date. Human astroviruses have been identified as the causative agent for diarrhea in children and immunocompromised patients...
February 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229616/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-with-severe-ulcerative-colitis
#10
David Marti Aguado, María Pilar Ballester, Marta Maia Bosca Watts
Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients at risk of opportunistic infections are those treated with immunomodulators. Toruner and colleagues found that corticosteroid use was more commonly associated with fungal infections. We present a case of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis due to corticosteroid therapy in the context of a severe Ulcerative Colitis flare. We want to highlight the relationship between Aspergillus fumigatus and horses; and the use of leucocitapheresis combined with mesalazine as an effective treatment option in this patients who can not take more immunosuppressive therapy...
February 23, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228529/recapitulation-of-physiological-spatiotemporal-signals-promotes-in-vitro-formation-of-phenotypically-stable-human-articular-cartilage
#11
Johnathan J Ng, Yiyong Wei, Bin Zhou, Jonathan Bernhard, Samuel Robinson, Aonnicha Burapachaisri, X Edward Guo, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Standard isotropic culture fails to recapitulate the spatiotemporal gradients present during native development. Cartilage grown from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is poorly organized and unstable in vivo. We report that human cartilage with physiologic organization and in vivo stability can be grown in vitro from self-assembling hMSCs by implementing spatiotemporal regulation during induction. Self-assembling hMSCs formed cartilage discs in Transwell inserts following isotropic chondrogenic induction with transforming growth factor β to set up a dual-compartment culture...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228493/hepatitis-e-virus-detection-and-quantification-by-an-rt-qpcr-assay-calibrated-to-the-world-health-organization-standard-for-hev-rna
#12
Jeffrey J Germer, Irina Ankoudinova, Yevgeniy S Belousov, Walt Mahoney, Chen Dong, Jihong Meng, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Joseph D Yao
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a cause of chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients. Molecular assays have become important tools for the diagnosis and management of these chronically-infected patients. A reverse transcription, real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay utilizing Pleiades probe chemistry and an RNA internal control for simultaneous detection and quantification of HEV RNA in human serum was developed based on adaptation of a previously described and broadly reactive primer set targeting the overlapping open reading frame (ORF) 2/3 nucleotide sequence of HEV...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228245/legionellosis-acquired-through-a-dental-unit-a-case-study
#13
C Schönning, C Jernberg, D Klingenberg, S Andersson, A Pääjärvi, E Alm, E Tano, B Lytsy
In 2012, an elderly immunocompromised man died from legionellosis at a hospital in Uppsala, Sweden. The patient had visited a dental ward at the hospital during the incubation period. Legionella spp. at a concentration of 2000 colony-forming units/L were isolated from the cupfiller outlet providing water for oral rinsing. Isolates from the patient and the dental unit were Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, subgroup Knoxville and ST9. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing strongly suggested that the isolates were of common origin...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224727/molecular-identification-and-distribution-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-clinical-specimens-by-pcr-sequencing-method-in-west-of-iran
#14
Mahsa Dastranj, Abbas Farahani, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Sara Atashi, Parviz Mohajeri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infections by Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) has rapidly increased in recent years, due to high infection rates related to the populations at risk like immunocompromised individuals, patients predisposed by prior pulmonary. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of NTM in clinical samples and genetic diversity using 16S rRNA and rpoB sequence analysis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 diverse isolates collected from sputum in two years 2014-2015 using standard decontamination procedure...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224503/immunostaining-for-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-in-condyloma-lesions-in-immunocompromised-patients
#15
Olaf Rodriguez, Carrie L Kovarik
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the underlying infectious cause of condyloma acuminata (CA) and high-risk types of HPV can cause cancer. Condyloma may undergo malignant degeneration, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. The presence of high-risk HPV in CA is a risk factor for developing malignancy; however, determining which patients with condyloma are clinically at risk can be difficult. High-risk HPV can now be localized within CA using routine immunohistochemical stains...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223450/raising-the-alarmone-within-host-evolution-of-antibiotic-tolerant-enterococcus-faecium
#16
Daria Van Tyne, Michael S Gilmore
Enterococci are ancient commensal bacteria that recently emerged as leading causes of antibiotic-resistant, hospital-acquired infection. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) epitomize why drug-resistant enterococcal infections are a problem: VRE readily colonize the antibiotic-perturbed gastrointestinal (GI) tract where they amplify to large numbers, and from there, they infect other body sites, including the bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical wounds. VRE are resistant to many antimicrobials and host defenses, which facilitates establishment at the site of infection and confounds therapeutic clearance...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223388/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antifungal-profile-of-a-novel-and-long-acting-inhaled-azole-pc945-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-infection
#17
Thomas Colley, Alexandre Alanio, Steven L Kelly, Gurpreet Sehra, Yasuo Kizawa, Andrew G S Warrilow, Josie E Parker, Diane E Kelly, Genki Kimura, Lauren Anderson-Dring, Takahiro Nakaoki, Mihiro Sunose, Stuart Onions, Damien Crepin, Franz Lagasse, Matthew Crittall, Jonathan Shannon, Michael Cooke, Stéphane Bretagne, John King-Underwood, John Murray, Kazuhiro Ito, Pete Strong, Garth Rapeport
The profile of PC945, a novel triazole antifungal, designed for administration via inhalation, has been assessed in a range of in vitro and in vivo studies. PC945 was characterized as a potent, tight-binding inhibitor of Aspergillus fumigatus sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51A and CYP51B) activity (IC50, 0.23 μM and 0.22 μM, respectively), with characteristic type II azole binding spectra. Against 96 clinically isolated A. fumigatus strains, the MIC values of PC945 ranged from 0.032∼>8 μg/ml, whilst those of voriconazole ranged from 0...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223380/vitamin-k3-induces-the-expression-of-the-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-smevwx-multidrug-efflux-pump
#18
P Blanco, F Corona, M B Sánchez, J L Martínez
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen, with increasing prevalence, able to cause infections in immunocompromised patients or in those with a previous pathology. The treatment of the infections caused by this bacterium is often complicated due to the several intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms that it presents. Multidrug efflux pumps are among the best studied mechanisms of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistance. Some of these efflux pumps have a basal expression level but, in general, their expression is often low and only reaches high levels when the local regulator is mutated or bacteria are in the presence of an effector...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223256/role-of-the-leukocyte-response-in-normal-and-immunocompromised-host-after-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
Edwin Vargas, Senu Apewokin, Rajat Madan
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Clinically, C. difficile-associated disease can present as asymptomatic colonization, self-limited diarrheal illness or severe colitis (that may result in death). This variability in disease course and outcomes suggests that host factors play an important role as key determinants of disease severity. Currently, there are several scoring indices to estimate severity of C. difficile-associated disease. Leukocytosis and renal failure are considered to be the most important predictors of C...
February 18, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221210/cutaneous-emboli-of-invasive-basidiomycosis-in-a-child-with-aplastic-anemia
#20
Desmond Shi-Wei Lim, Poh-Lin Tan, Roland Jureen, Kong-Bing Tan
Invasive fungal diseases are a significant cause of mortality among the immunocompromised. This report documents an unusual case of disseminated fungal infection in a child with severe aplastic anemia. The offending fungus, a Basidiomycete, is rarely known to cause human infections. The patient presented acutely with multiple purpuric skin lesions in various parts of the body. The skin biopsy revealed septated fungal hyphae embolized within small dermal blood vessels. Molecular sequencing indicated Earliella scabrosa as the likely organism...
March 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
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