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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548659/metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-prokaryotic-communities-active-in-sulfur-and-arsenic-cycling-in-mono-lake-california-usa
#1
Christian F Edwardson, James T Hollibaugh
This study evaluates the transcriptionally active, dissimilatory sulfur- and arsenic-cycling components of the microbial community in alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake, CA, USA. We sampled five depths spanning the redox gradient (10, 15, 18, 25 and 31 m) during maximum thermal stratification. We used custom databases to identify transcripts of genes encoding complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) proteins, with a focus on arsenic (arrA, aioA and arxA) and sulfur cycling (dsrA, aprA and soxB), and assigned them to taxonomic bins...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545065/influence-of-the-ferric-uptake-regulator-fur-protein-on-pathogenicity-in-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-brasiliense
#2
Collins Kipngetich Tanui, Divine Yutefar Shyntum, Stefan Louis Priem, Jacques Theron, Lucy Novungayo Moleleki
Iron is an important nutrient for the survival and growth of many organisms. In order to survive, iron uptake from the environment must be strictly regulated and maintained to avoid iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates genes involved in iron homeostasis in many bacteria, including phytopathogens. However, to date, the role played by Fur in the biology of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb1692), an important pathogen of potatoes, has not yet been studied. To this end, we used the lambda recombineering method to generate a fur mutant strain of Pcb1692 and assessed the virulence and fitness of the mutant strain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542634/crystallographic-characterization-of-the-high-potential-iron-sulfur-protein-in-the-oxidized-state-at-0-8-%C3%A3-resolution
#3
Hiraku Ohno, Kazuki Takeda, Satomi Niwa, Tomotaka Tsujinaka, Yuya Hanazono, Yu Hirano, Kunio Miki
High-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) is a soluble electron carrier protein of photosynthetic bacteria with an Fe4S4 cluster. Although structural changes accompanying the electron transfer are important for understanding of the functional mechanism, the changes have not been clarified in sufficient detail. We previously reported the high-resolution crystal structures of HiPIP from a thermophilic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum in the reduced state. In order to perform a detailed comparison between the structures in different redox states, the oxidized structure should also be revealed at high resolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539366/proteolytic-cleavage-orchestrates-cofactor-insertion-and-protein-assembly-in-nife-hydrogenase-biosynthesis
#4
Moritz Senger, Sven T Stripp, Basem Soboh
Metalloenzymes catalyze complex and essential processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen fixation. For example, bacteria and archaea use [NiFe]-hydrogenases to catalyze the uptake and release of molecular hydrogen (H2). [NiFe]-hydrogenases are redox enzymes composed of a large subunit that harbors a NiFe(CN)2CO metallo-center and a small subunit with three iron-sulfur clusters. The large subunit is synthesized with a C-terminal extension, cleaved off by a specific endopeptidase during maturation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536673/two-partner-secretion-combining-efficiency-and-simplicity-in-the-secretion-of-large-proteins-for-bacteria-host-and-bacteria-bacteria-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Jeremy Guérin, Sarah Bigot, Robert Schneider, Susan K Buchanan, Françoise Jacob-Dubuisson
Initially identified in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the two-partner secretion (TPS) pathway, also known as Type Vb secretion, mediates the translocation across the outer membrane of large effector proteins involved in interactions between these pathogens and their hosts. More recently, distinct TPS systems have been shown to secrete toxic effector domains that participate in inter-bacterial competition or cooperation. The effects of these systems are based on kin vs. non-kin molecular recognition mediated by specific immunity proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533366/mechanism-of-h2s-mediated-protection-against-oxidative-stress-in-escherichia-coli
#6
Alexander Mironov, Tatyana Seregina, Maxim Nagornykh, Lyly G Luhachack, Natalya Korolkova, Liubov Errais Lopes, Vera Kotova, Gennady Zavilgelsky, Rustem Shakulov, Konstantin Shatalin, Evgeny Nudler
Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) renders bacteria highly resistant to oxidative stress, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report that 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) is the major source of endogenous H2S in Escherichia coli Cellular resistance to H2O2 strongly depends on the activity of mstA, a gene that encodes 3MST. Deletion of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) renders ∆mstA cells hypersensitive to H2O2 Conversely, induction of chromosomal mstA from a strong pLtetO-1 promoter (P tet -mstA) renders ∆fur cells fully resistant to H2O2 Furthermore, the endogenous level of H2S is reduced in ∆fur or ∆sodA ∆sodB cells but restored after the addition of an iron chelator dipyridyl...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529505/comparative-genomics-unravels-the-functional-roles-of-co-occurring-acidophilic-bacteria-in-bioleaching-heaps
#7
Xian Zhang, Xueduan Liu, Yili Liang, Yunhua Xiao, Liyuan Ma, Xue Guo, Bo Miao, Hongwei Liu, Deliang Peng, Wenkun Huang, Huaqun Yin
The spatial-temporal distribution of populations in various econiches is thought to be potentially related to individual differences in the utilization of nutrients or other resources, but their functional roles in the microbial communities remain elusive. We compared differentiation in gene repertoire and metabolic profiles, with a focus on the potential functional traits of three commonly recognized members (Acidithiobacillus caldus, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans) in bioleaching heaps...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528650/the-role-of-intermetal-competition-and-mis-metalation-in-metal-toxicity
#8
Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Kevin J Waldron
The metals manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc are essential for almost all bacteria, but their precise metal requirements vary by species, by ecological niche and by growth condition. Bacteria thus must acquire each of these essential elements in sufficient quantity to satisfy their cellular demand, but in excess these same elements are toxic. Metal toxicity has been exploited by humanity for centuries, and by the mammalian immune system for far longer, yet the mechanisms by which these elements cause toxicity to bacteria are not fully understood...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521168/ecotoxicity-testing-and-environmental-risk-assessment-of-iron-nanomaterials-for-sub-surface-remediation-recommendations-from-the-fp7-project-nanorem
#9
Rune Hjorth, Claire Coutris, Nhung H A Nguyen, Alena Sevcu, Juliàn Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Anders Baun, Erik J Joner
Nanoremediation with iron (Fe) nanomaterials opens new doors for treating contaminated soil and groundwater, but is also accompanied by new potential risks as large quantities of engineered nanomaterials are introduced into the environment. In this study, we have assessed the ecotoxicity of four engineered Fe nanomaterials, specifically, Nano-Goethite, Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites, Carbo-Iron(®) and FerMEG12, developed within the European FP7 project NanoRem for sub-surface remediation towards a test battery consisting of eight ecotoxicity tests on bacteria (V...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521159/distribution-and-genetic-diversity-of-microbial-populations-in-the-pilot-scale-biofilter-for-simultaneous-removal-of-ammonia-iron-and-manganese-from-real-groundwater
#10
Qingfeng Cheng, Lichao Nengzi, Linlin Bao, Yang Huang, Shengyu Liu, Xiuwen Cheng, Bo Li, Jie Zhang
A pilot-scale biofilter treating real groundwater was developed in this study, which showed that ammonia, iron and manganese were mainly removed at 0.4, 0.4 and 0.8 m of the filter bed, respectively, and the corresponding removal efficiencies were 90.82%, 95.48% and 95.90% in steady phase, respectively. The variation of microbial populations in the biofilter during start-up process was also investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing (HTP). Results indicated that the main functional microbes for ammonia, iron and manganese removal were Nitrosomonas, Crenothrix and Crenothrix, respectively, which was mainly distributed at 0...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520925/the-ironclad-truth-how-in-vivo-transcriptomics-and-in-vitro-mechanistic-studies-shape-our-understanding-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-gene-regulation-during-mucosal-infection
#11
Matthew R Moreau, Paola Massari, Caroline A Genco
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. This obligate human pathogen has been extensively studied in vitro, where bacterial factors that are known to contribute to gonococcal disease and their regulation are relatively well defined. However, these in vitro experimental conditions only loosely replicate the host specific environment encountered by the bacteria in vivo. We recently reported on the complete gonococcal transcriptome expressed during natural human mucosal infection using RNA-seq analysis...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518072/in-vivo-investigation-of-antimicrobial-blue-light-therapy-for-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-burn-infections-using-bioluminescence-imaging
#12
Yucheng Wang, Olivia D Harrington, Ying Wang, Clinton K Murray, Michael R Hamblin, Tianhong Dai
Burn infections continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria has led to the frequent failure of traditional antibiotic treatments. Alternative therapeutics are urgently needed to tackle MDR bacteria. An innovative non-antibiotic approach, antimicrobial blue light (aBL), has shown promising effectiveness against MDR infections. The mechanism of action of aBL is not yet well understood. It is commonly hypothesized that naturally occurring endogenous photosensitizing chromophores in bacteria (e...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513808/magnetic-nanoparticle-enhanced-pcr-for-the-detection-and-identification-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-salmonella-enteritidis
#13
Dimitra Houhoula, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Katerina Zatsou, Nikolaos Nikolaras, Hanan I Malkawi, Marie-Paule Mingenot-Leclercq, Spyros Konteles, Stamatis Koussisis, Athanassios Tsakris, Ekatherina Charvalos
This paper evaluated magnetic nanoparticle-enhanced PCR for the detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis. Two different types of magnetic nanoparticles designated MPIO (iron concentration 2.5 mg/ml, size 1 μm) and NP (iron concentration 8.7 mg/ml, size 60 nm), both conjugated with S. aureus or S. enteritidis antibodies were evaluated as an enrichment procedure for PCR-detection of the pathogens in Trypticase Soy Broth, milk, blood and meat broth. Bacterial suspensions (1...
May 17, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512454/new-insights-into-the-regulation-of-cell-surface-signaling-activity-acquired-from-a-mutagenesis-screen-of-the-pseudomonas-putida-iuty-sigma-anti-sigma-factor
#14
Karlijn C Bastiaansen, Cristina Civantos, Wilbert Bitter, María A Llamas
Cell-surface signaling (CSS) is a signal transfer system that allows Gram-negative bacteria to detect environmental signals and generate a cytosolic response. These systems are composed of an outer membrane receptor that senses the inducing signal, an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor (σ(ECF)) that targets the cytosolic response by modifying gene expression and a cytoplasmic membrane anti-sigma factor that keeps the σ(ECF) in an inactive state in the absence of the signal and transduces its presence from the outer membrane to the cytosol...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512090/the-vibrio-cholerae-vexgh-rnd-efflux-system-maintains-cellular-homeostasis-by-effluxing-vibriobactin
#15
Dillon E Kunkle, X Renee Bina, James E Bina
Resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily efflux systems have been widely studied for their role in antibiotic resistance, but their native biological functions remain poorly understood. We previously showed that loss of RND-mediated efflux in Vibrio cholerae resulted in activation of the Cpx two-component regulatory system, which mediates adaptation to stress resulting from misfolded membrane proteins. Here, we investigated the mechanism linking RND-mediated efflux to the Cpx response. We performed transposon mutagenesis screening of RND-deficient V...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511780/anti-mycobacterium-avium-complex-activity-of-clarithromycin-rifampin-rifabutin-and-ethambutol-in-combination-with-adenosine-5-triphosphate
#16
Yutaka Tatano, Seiko Yamabe, Chiaki Sano, Haruaki Tomioka
We previously reported that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) inhibited the growth of various bacteria, including mycobacteria, Staphylococcus, and Pseudomonas, without damaging bacterial surface structures. Notably, ATP's antibacterial activity was found to be attributable to its iron-chelating ability. ATP exhibited combined effects with some antimicrobials against Mycobacterium intracellulare and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, suggesting its usefulness as an adjunctive drug in the chemotherapy against certain intractable infections...
May 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511011/iron-hydroperoxide-intermediate-in-superoxide-reductase-protonation-or-dissociation-first-mm-dynamics-and-qm-mm-metadynamics-study
#17
Rolf David, Helene Jamet, Vincent Niviere, Yohann Moreau, Anne Milet
Superoxide reductase is a mononuclear iron enzyme involved in superoxide radical detoxification in some bacteria. Its catalytic mechanism is associated with the remarkable formation of a ferric hydroperoxide Fe3+-OOH intermediate, which is specifically protonated on its proximal oxygen to generate the reaction product H2O2. Here we present a computational study of the protonation mechanism of the Fe3+ OOH intermediate, at different level of theory. This was performed on the whole system (solvated protein) using well-tempered metadynamics at the QM/MM (B3LYP/AmberFF99SB) level...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504463/magnetocatalytic-graphene-quantum-dots-janus-micromotors-for-bacterial-endotoxin-detection
#18
Beatriz Jurado-Sánchez, Marta Pacheco, Jaime Rojo, Alberto Escarpa
Magnetocatalytic hybrid Janus micromotors encapsulating phenylboronic acid (PABA) modified graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are described herein as ultrafast sensors for the detection of deadly bacteria endotoxins. A bottom-up approach was adopted to synthesize an oil-in-water emulsion containing the GQDs along with a high loading of platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles on one side of the Janus micromotor body. The two different "active regions" enable highly efficient propulsion in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or magnetic actuation without the addition of a chemical fuel...
May 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502050/biogeochemical-controls-on-mercury-methylation-in-the-allequash-creek-wetland
#19
Joel E Creswell, Martin M Shafer, Christopher L Babiarz, Sue-Zanne Tan, Abbey L Musinsky, Trevor H Schott, Eric E Roden, David E Armstrong
We measured mercury methylation potentials and a suite of related biogeochemical parameters in sediment cores and porewater from two geochemically distinct sites in the Allequash Creek wetland, northern Wisconsin, USA. We found a high degree of spatial variability in the methylation rate potentials but no significant differences between the two sites. We identified the primary geochemical factors controlling net methylmercury production at this site to be acid-volatile sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, total dissolved iron, and porewater iron(II)...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500528/bacterial-actins
#20
Izoré, Fusinita van den Ent
A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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