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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214907/a-pilot-study-of-bacterial-regrowth-in-water-pipelines
#1
Laura Mancini, Stefania Marcheggiani, Cinzia Grasso, Cristina Romanelli, Antonio Mistretta, Marina Marranzano
Bacterial regrowth in water distribution systems results in deterioration of bacteriological quality of drinking water, as well as accelerated corrosion of the pipelines. The aim of the present study was to analyze the phenomena of colonization and bacterial regrowth in source water and in the water distribution systems of three distribution networks in the province of Catania (Sicily, Italy). The BART™ (Biological Activity Reaction Test) method was used, which is also capable of determining the potential aggressiveness of microbial species in water...
November 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210250/simultaneous-activation-of-iron-and-thiol-based-sensor-regulator-systems-by-redox-active-compounds
#2
Kang-Lok Lee, Ji-Sun Yoo, Gyeong-Seok Oh, Atul K Singh, Jung-Hye Roe
Bacteria in natural habitats are exposed to myriad redox-active compounds (RACs), which include producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive electrophile species (RES) that alkylate or oxidize thiols. RACs can induce oxidative stress in cells and activate response pathways by modulating the activity of sensitive regulators. However, the effect of a certain compound on the cell has been investigated primarily with respect to a specific regulatory pathway. Since a single compound can exert multiple chemical effects in the cell, its effect can be better understood by time-course monitoring of multiple sensitive regulatory pathways that the compound induces...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193863/modular-electron-transport-chains-from-eukaryotic-organelles-function-to-support-nitrogenase-activity
#3
Jianguo Yang, Xiaqing Xie, Mingxuan Yang, Ray Dixon, Yi-Ping Wang
A large number of genes are necessary for the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrogenase to carry out the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. The multiplicity of the genes involved, the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase, plus the demand for energy and reducing power, are thought to be major obstacles to engineering BNF into cereal crops. Genes required for nitrogen fixation can be considered as three functional modules encoding electron-transport components (ETCs), proteins required for metal cluster biosynthesis, and the "core" nitrogenase apoenzyme, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192658/iiron-release-from-the-siderophore-pyoverdine-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-involves-three-new-actors-fpvc-fpvg-and-fpvh
#4
Géraldine Ganne, Karl Brillet, Beata Basta, Beatrice Roche, Françoise Hoegy, Véronique Gasser, Isabelle J Schalk
Siderophores are iron chelators produced by bacteria to access iron, an essential nutriment. Pyoverdine (PVDI), the major siderophore produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, consists of a fluorescent chromophore linked to an octapeptide. The ferric-form of PVDI is transported from the extracellular environment into the periplasm by the outer membrane transporter, FpvA. Iron is then released from the siderophore in the periplasm by a mechanism that does not involve chemical modification of the chelator, but an iron reduction step...
February 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191562/fbpa-iron-storage-and-release-are-governed-by-periplasmic-microenvironments
#5
Ozge Sensoy, Ali Rana Atilgan, Canan Atilgan
Ferric binding protein (FbpA) is part of an elaborate iron piracy mechanism evolved in Gram-negative bacteria, shuttling iron in the periplasmic space, from the outer to the cytoplasmic membrane side. We address how the dissociation process of iron is facilitated, since the binding constant of iron is on the order of 10(18) M(-1) at 6.5 pH and 200 mM ionic strength (IS). We monitor the conformational preferences of FbpA by extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations under conditions where IS, charge states of iron coordinating tyrosines and pH are varied, as well as when a mutation is introduced at an allosteric site...
February 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188204/siderophore-product-ornibactin-is-required-for-the-bactericidal-activity-of-burkholderia-contaminans-ms14
#6
Peng Deng, Adam Foxfire, Jianhong Xu, Sonya M Baird, Jiayuan Jia, Keren H Delgado, Ronald Shin, Leif Smith, Shi-En Lu
Burkholderia contaminans MS14 was isolated from soil in Mississippi. When cultivated on nutrient broth-yeast extract (NBY) agar medium, the colonies exhibit bactericidal activity against a wide range of plant pathogenic bacteria. Only a bacteriostatic compound with siderophore activity was successfully purified, which was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to be ornibactin. The isolation of the bactericidal compound has not yet been achieved, thus, the exact nature of the bactericidal compound is still unknown...
February 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185883/development-of-reactor-configurations-for-an-electrofuels-platform-utilizing-genetically-modified-iron-oxidizing-bacteria-for-the-reduction-of-co2-to-biochemicals
#7
Jingyang Guan, Sarah A Berlinger, Xiaozheng Li, Zhongmou Chao, Victor Sousa E Silva, Scott Banta, Alan C West
Electrofuels processes are potentially promising platforms for biochemical production from CO2 using renewable energy. When coupled to solar panels, this approach could avoid the inefficiencies of photosynthesis and there is no competition with food agriculture. In addition, these systems could potentially be used to store intermittent or stranded electricity generated from other renewable sources. Here we develop reactor configurations for continuous electrofuels processes to convert electricity and CO2 to isobutyric acid (IBA) using genetically modified (GM) chemolithoautotrophic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185076/prebiotic-effects-of-bovine-lactoferrin-on-specific-probiotic-bacteria
#8
Po-Wen Chen, Zhen-Shu Liu, Tai-Chen Kuo, Min-Chi Hsieh, Zhe-Wei Li
Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a natural iron-binding protein and it has been suggested to be a prebiotic agent, but this finding remains inconclusive. This study explores the prebiotic potential of bLf in 14 probiotics. Initially, bLf (1-32 mg/mL) treatment showed occasional and slight prebiotic activity in several probiotics only during the late experimental period (48, 78 h) at 37 °C. We subsequently supposed that bLf exerts stronger prebiotic effects when probiotic growth has been temperately retarded...
February 9, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184354/gallium-protoporphyrin-ix-inhibits-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-growth-by-targeting-cytochromes
#9
Sarah Hijazi, Paolo Visca, Emanuela Frangipani
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen due to both innate and acquired resistance to antibiotics. It is capable of causing a variety of infections, including chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron-uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. P. aeruginosa can acquire iron from a variety of sources to fulfill its nutritional requirements both in the environment and in the infected host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183034/effects-of-chemical-cleaning-on-ro-membrane-inorganic-organic-and-microbial-foulant-removal-in-a-full-scale-plant-for-municipal-wastewater-reclamation
#10
Tong Yu, Lu Meng, Qing-Bo Zhao, Ye Shi, Hong-Ying Hu, Yun Lu
Of all of the strategies for controlling reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling, chemical cleaning is indispensable. To study the effects of chemical cleaning on membrane foulant removal, a comparative analysis of RO membranes before and after common alkaline and acid cleaning was conducted by dissecting lead and terminal RO membranes in a full-scale municipal wastewater reclamation plant. Most foulants on the membranes were removed by chemical cleaning processes. Calcium was the major inorganic component of the foulants because of its highest concentration in the feed water...
February 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183017/effect-of-the-redox-dynamics-on-microbial-mediated-as-transformation-coupled-with-fe-and-s-in-flow-through-sediment-columns
#11
Hee Sun Moon, Bo-A Kim, Sung Pil Hyun, Yoon-Ho Lee, Doyun Shin
Arsenic (As) biogeochemistry coupled with iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) was studied using columns packed with As(V)-contaminated sediments under two phases: a reduction phase followed by an oxidation phase. During the reduction phase, four identical columns inoculated with G. sulfurreducens were stimulated with 3mM acetate for 60days. The As(III) in the effluent rapidly increased then gradually decreased. The Fe(II) and sulfate concentration indicated ferrous sulfide precipitation inside the column after day 14 and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra showed that As(III) was enriched at the column outlet...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177216/bacterioferritin-structure-dynamics-and-protein-protein-interactions-at-play-in-iron-storage-and-mobilization
#12
Mario Rivera
Despite its essentiality to life, iron presents significant challenges to cells: the exceedingly low solubility of Fe(3+) limits its bioavailability, and the reactivity of Fe(2+) toward H2O2 is a source of the toxic hydroxyl radical (HO(•)). Consequently, cellular levels of free iron are highly regulated to ensure sufficiency while preventing iron-induced toxicity. Relatively little is known about the fate of iron in the bacterial cytosol or how cells balance the need for relatively high cytosolic iron concentrations with the potential toxicity of the nutrient...
February 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174304/the-pyruvate-and-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complexes-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-catalyze-pyocyanin-and-phenazine-1-carboxylic-acid-reduction-via-the-subunit-dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase
#13
Nathaniel R Glasser, Benjamin X Wang, Julie A Hoy, Dianne K Newman
Phenazines are a class of redox-active molecules produced by diverse bacteria and archaea. Many of the biological functions of phenazines, such as mediating signaling, iron acquisition, and redox homeostasis, derive from their redox activity. While prior studies have focused on extracellular phenazine oxidation by oxygen and iron, here we report a search for reductants and catalysts of intracellular phenazine reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enzymatic assays in cell-free lysate, together with crude fractionation and chemical inhibition, indicate that P...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169988/chemolithotrophic-processes-in-the-bacterial-communities-on-the-surface-of-mineral-enriched-biochars
#14
Jun Ye, Stephen D Joseph, Mukan Ji, Shaun Nielsen, David R G Mitchell, Scott Donne, Joseph Horvat, Jianli Wang, Paul Munroe, Torsten Thomas
Biochar and mineral-enriched biochar (MEB) have been used as soil amendments to improve soil fertility, sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Such beneficial outcomes could be partially mediated by soil bacteria, however little is known about how they directly interact with biochar or MEB. We therefore analyzed the diversity and functions of bacterial communities on the surfaces of one biochar and two different MEBs after a 140-day incubation in soil. The results show that the biochar and the MEBs harbor distinct bacterial communities to the bulk soil...
February 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169454/toxicity-of-sulfide-to-early-life-stages-of-wild-rice-zizania-palustris
#15
Douglas J Fort, Kevin Todhunter, Troy D Fort, Michael B Mathis, Rachel Walker, Mike Hansel, Scott Hall, Robin Richards, Kurt Anderson
Wild rice (Zizania palustris) sensitivity to sulfide is not well understood. Since sulfate in surface waters is reduced to sulfide by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and historical information indicated that 10 mg/L sulfate in Minnesota surface water reduced Z. palustris abundance, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) established 10 mg/L sulfate as a water quality criterion in 1973. A 21-day daily-renewal hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate sulfide toxicity to wild rice and the potential mitigation of sulfide toxicity by Fe...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167931/the-active-component-of-aspirin-salicylic-acid-promotes-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-a-pia-dependent-manner
#16
Cristian Dotto, Andrea Lombarte Serrat, Natalia Cattelan, María S Barbagelata, Osvaldo M Yantorno, Daniel O Sordelli, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Tom Grunert, Fernanda R Buzzola
Aspirin has provided clear benefits to human health. But salicylic acid (SAL) -the main aspirin biometabolite- exerts several effects on eukaryote and prokaryote cells. SAL can affect, for instance, the expression of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors. SAL can also form complexes with iron cations and it has been shown that different iron chelating molecules diminished the formation of S. aureus biofilm. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the iron content limitation caused by SAL can modify the S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165666/ultra-high-resolution-structure-and-charge-density-analysis-of-high-potential-iron-sulfur-protein
#17
REVIEW
Kazuki Takeda, Kunio Miki
The high-potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) is a small (~80 residues) soluble metalloprotein functioning as an electron carrier in photosynthetic bacteria. HiPIP has one Fe4 S4 cluster at its molecular center. Its electronic structure is important for understanding electron transport. We recently succeeded in determining an ultra-high-resolution structure and analyzing the charge-density of HiPIP by using X-ray diffraction data at 0.48 Å resolution. The distribution of valence electrons in the iron-sulfur cluster and in the protein environment were clearly visualized, which is the first successful case for metalloproteins...
February 6, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160681/potential-effects-of-rainwater-borne-hydrogen-peroxide-on-pollutants-in-stagnant-water-environments
#18
Junhao Qin, Chuxia Lin, Patrick Cheruiyot, Sandra Mkpanam, Nelisiwe Good-Mary Duma
Microcosm experiments were conducted to examine the effects of rainwater-borne H2O2 on inactivation of water-borne coliforms, oxidation of ammonia and nitrite, and degradation of organic pollutants in canal and urban lake water. The results show that the soluble iron in the investigated water samples was sufficiently effective for reaction with H2O2 in the simulated rainwater-affected stagnant water to produce OH (Fenton reaction), which inactivated coliform bacteria even at a H2O2 dose as low as 5 μM within just 1 min of contact time...
January 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147710/preparation-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-decorated-carbon-nanotube-using-laser-ablation-in-liquid-and-their-antimicrobial-activity
#19
Khawla S Khashan, Ghassan M Sulaiman, Rafal Mahdi
The antimicrobial activity was investigated for iron oxide IO nanoparticles (NPs)-decorated carbon nanotubes CNT prepared successfully by Nd:YAG-pulsed laser ablation in the liquid process. TEM reveals the composite NP and exhibits semispherical of iron oxide NPs, which aggregate around rolled and unrolled graphene sheet. XRD pattern proved the presence of carbon and different phases of IO NPs. Then, the antibacterial activity of the NPs was examined against different bacteria using nutrient broth and nutrient agar methods, which was enhanced using IO...
February 1, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140394/sticking-together-inter-species-aggregation-of-bacteria-isolated-from-iron-snow-is-controlled-by-chemical-signaling
#20
Jiro F Mori, Nico Ueberschaar, Shipeng Lu, Rebecca E Cooper, Georg Pohnert, Kirsten Küsel
Marine and lake snow is a continuous shower of mixed organic and inorganic aggregates falling from the upper water where primary production is substantial. These pelagic aggregates provide a niche for microbes that can exploit these physical structures and resources for growth, thus are local hot spots for microbial activity. However, processes underlying their formation remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of chemical signaling between two co-occurring bacteria that each make up more than 10% of the community in iron-rich lakes aggregates (iron snow)...
January 31, 2017: ISME Journal
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