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Bone body composition muscle

Dan Mo, Peishan Hsieh, Hongrong Yu, Lining Zhou, Jichun Gong, Lin Xu, Peng Liu, Gang Chen, Zhao Chen, Qiongying Deng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ethnic differences in osteoporosis (OP) and body composition (BC) and their relationship in the Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao minorities in China. DESIGN: A total of 860 Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao women were included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic, health history, and lifestyle information was collected using questionnaires. BC was measured through bioelectrical impedance analysis, and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed via calcaneal quantitative ultrasound...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
David Scott, Markus Seibel, Robert Cumming, Vasi Naganathan, Fiona Blyth, David G Le Couteur, David J Handelsman, Louise M Waite, Vasant Hirani
Body composition and muscle function have important implications for falls and fractures in older adults. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between sarcopenic obesity and its components with bone mineral density (BMD), and incident falls and fractures, in Australian community-dwelling older men. 1,486 men aged ≥70 years from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) study were assessed at baseline (2005-2007), 2 year follow-up (2007-2009; N = 1,238), and 5 year follow-up (2010-2013; N = 861)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Matheus Amarante DO Nascimento, Aline M Gerage, Renata S Januário, Fábio L Pina, Luís A Gobbo, Jerry L Mayhew, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the aging process tends to lead to sarcopenia and osteoporosis which reduce the quality of life in older women. Resistance training (RT) is widely supported as a means of delaying or offsetting the decline in muscle strength and loss of bone mineral content in older women. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effects of a 12-wk RT program (3 times a week) with dietary intake maintenance on muscle strength and body composition of healthy, sedentary older women...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Virgílio Viana Ramires, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Fernando Cesar Wehrmeister, Pedro Curi Hallal, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Helen Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a period of accelerated development and increases in body composition. Physical activity (PA) practice has been associated with the development of major components of body composition (bone, muscle and fat). However, the longitudinal effects of PA of different intensities during adolescence are still not well understood. Thus, the main goal this study has investigate the association between practice of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity throughout adolescence and body composition, specifically lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM), at age 18...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Emily A Sawin, Bridget M Stroup, Sangita G Murali, Lucas M O'Neill, James M Ntambi, Denise M Ney
BACKGROUND: Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat) or 13% Fat Kcal (control) with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral) biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone...
2016: PloS One
Kristine Røren Nordén, Hanne Dagfinrud, Amund Løvstad, Truls Raastad
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition, muscle function, and muscle morphology in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods. Ten male SpA patients (mean ± SD age 39 ± 4.1 years) were compared with ten healthy controls matched for sex, age, body mass index, and self-reported level of physical exercise. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Musculus quadriceps femoris (QF) strength was assessed by maximal isometric contractions prior to test of muscular endurance...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Jasminka Z Ilich, Owen J Kelly, Julia E Inglis
Conditions related to body composition and aging, such as osteopenic obesity, sarcopenia/sarcopenic obesity, and the newly termed osteosarcopenic obesity (triad of bone muscle and adipose tissue impairment), are beginning to gain recognition. However there is still a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria for these conditions. Little is known about the long-term impact of these combined conditions of osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity in older adults. Many may go undiagnosed and progress untreated. Therefore, the objective of this research is to create diagnostic criteria for osteosarcopenic obesity in older women...
2016: Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
A P da Silva, A Matos, R Ribeiro, Â Gil, A Valente, M Bicho, J Gorjão-Clara
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia and osteoporosis in centenarians and its association with body composition and past physical activity (PPA). SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study in a representative nationwide population of 253 Portuguese centenarians. A clinically oriented questionnaire and anthropometric and body composition analysis by bioimpedance were executed. Sarcopenia was determined using a muscle mass (MM) index cutoff ⩽16...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Julia Wojzischke, Rebecca Diekmann, Jürgen M Bauer
In later life a high body mass index (BMI) is associated with the lowest age-related mortality rate. The BMI range used by the World Health Organization (WHO) to classify overweight, a BMI of 25-30 kg/m(2), can be regarded as normal weight in old age; nevertheless, obesity is associated with an increased risk of disability and of a deterioration in physical functionality, particularly among older age groups. This relationship to obesity has also been established for frailty. For this reason, a reduction in weight may be appropriate under functional aspects if BMI values exceed 30 kg/m(2); however, such a decision cannot be made on the basis of an individual BMI alone...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Timothy J Schultz, Peter Roupas, Richard Wiechula, Debra Krause, Susan Gravier, Anthony Tuckett, Sonia Hines, Alison Kitson
BACKGROUND: Optimizing body composition for healthy aging in the community is a significant challenge. There are a number of potential interventions available for older people to support both weight gain (for those who are underweight) and weight loss (for overweight or obese people). While the benefits of weight gain for underweight people are generally clearly defined, the value of weight loss in overweight or obese people is less clear, particularly for older people. OBJECTIVES: This umbrella review aimed to measure the effectiveness of nutritional interventions for optimizing healthy body composition in older adults living in the community and to explore theirqualitative perceptions...
August 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
André Brännström, Ji-Guo Yu, Per Jonsson, Torbjörn Åkerfeldt, Mats Stridsberg, Michael Svensson
The present work investigated serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) status in relation to bone and muscle qualities and functions in 19 female soccer players (13-16 years) resident at northern latitude with very low sun exposure (∼32-36 h/month) during winter season (late January to early March). Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers osteocalcin (OC) and beta carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links (β-Ctx), as well as body composition and muscle performance were examined. Hormones were tested using routine laboratory methods...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Fei Zhao, Li-Hong Gao, Shan-Shan Li, Zhan-Ying Wei, Wen-Zhen Fu, Jin-Wei He, Yu-Juan Liu, Yun-Qiu Hu, Jing Dong, Zhen-Lin Zhang
The methyltransferase-like 21C gene (METTL21C), which is mainly expressed in muscle, can promote the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes and reduce glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of osteocytes. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of METTL21C and peak bone mineral density (BMD), body mass index, total fat mass (TFM), and total lean mass (TLM) in Chinese young men. Fifteen tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, and haplotype blocks were derived in 400 Chinese male nuclear families...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
I-Y Jung, H-R Kim, S M Chun, J-H Leigh, H-I Shin
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of severe lower extremity spasticity on anthropometric dimensions, body composition and metabolic profiles in persons with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Outpatient clinic. METHODS: Fifty-five of the 61 participants were divided into two groups (no or mild spasticity group, 28; severe spasticity group, 27) based on the assessment of the extensor muscle spasticity according to the modified Ashworth scale...
September 13, 2016: Spinal Cord
Stephen M Ford, Liz Simon, Curtis Vande Stouwe, Tim Allerton, Donald E Mercante, Lauri O Byerley, Jason P Dufour, Gregory J Bagby, Steve Nelson, Patricia E Molina
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently exist among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Chronic alcohol consumption, HIV infection, and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are independently associated with impairments in glucose-insulin dynamics. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration decreases body mass index, attenuates weight gain, and accentuates skeletal muscle wasting at end-stage disease in non-ART treated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Eric J Hegedus, Kelly W Hardesty, Kyle L Sunderland, Ryan J Hegedus, James M Smoliga
OBJECTIVE: Compare golf-specific resistance training (GSRT) with traditional resistance training (TRAD) with regard to golf performance and other outcome measures. DESIGN: Randomized controlled study. SETTING: Outpatient gym. PARTICIPANTS: 45 female golfers were randomized into TRAD or GSRT, both of which targeted muscles active during the golf swing. Participants performed supervised training 3d(.)wk(-1) for 10 weeks...
May 4, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
A Spangenberg, N Maghsoodi, D Dulnoan, A E Moore, S Edwards, M L Frost, G Hampson
Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) are closely related to bone mass (BM) in post-menopausal women, although their relative importance is unclear. Angiogenic factors which control angiogenesis may influence BM, LM and FM. The aim of the study was to compare the contribution of LM and FM to bone mineral density (BMD) and the association between these tissues and circulating angiogenic factors. The study population comprised of 392 post-menopausal women aged mean [SD] 61.8 [6.4] years. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), neck of femur and total hip (TH) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
August 30, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Eun Kyoung Kang, Hee Won Park, Sora Baek, Jae Young Lim
The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed...
October 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Seungsub Shin, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate correlations between lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and general characteristics of postmenopausal females, including body composition, knee extensor strength, standing balance, and femur BMD. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 postmenopausal females (55.6 ± 4.6 years) who were caregivers or guardians of patients in the K hospital were included in the study. The weight, height, body composition, left and right knee extensor strength, standing balance, femur BMD, and lumbar BMD measurements of the subjects were obtained...
July 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Jun Il Yoo, Yong Chan Ha, Hyeok Bin Kwon, Young Kyun Lee, Kyung Hoi Koo, Moon Jib Yoo
Sarcopenia-related falls and fractures are increasing worldwide due to the aging population. The purpose of this study was to 1) evaluate anthropometric characteristics related to hip fracture in Korean patients, 2) investigate sarcopenia prevalence in hip fracture (HF) and non-hip fracture (NF) groups, and 3) investigate the correlation between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This case-control study examined 359 HF and 1,614 NF normal populations using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Evgenia A Kochetkova, Vera A Nevzorova, Ludmila G Ugai, Yulia V Maistrovskaia, Gilbert Massard
A disequilibrium of tumor necrosis superfamily (TNF) members, including the serum osteoprotegerin, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and TNF-α, was associated with the occurrence of a reduced skeletal mass and osteoporosis in male patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between serum biomarkers of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and body and bone compositions in end-stage COPD males...
August 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
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