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Francesca Bocca, Thomas Töllner, Hermann J Müller, Paul C Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Faranak Farzan, Marine Vernet, Mouhsin M D Shafi, Alexander Rotenberg, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
The concurrent combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is a powerful technology for characterizing and modulating brain networks across developmental, behavioral, and disease states. Given the global initiatives in mapping the human brain, recognition of the utility of this technique is growing across neuroscience disciplines. Importantly, TMS-EEG offers translational biomarkers that can be applied in health and disease, across the lifespan, and in humans and animals, bridging the gap between animal models and human studies...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Nor Azila Noh
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive, non-pharmacological technique that is able to modulate cortical activity beyond the stimulation period. The residual aftereffects are akin to the plasticity mechanism of the brain and suggest the potential use of TMS for therapy. For years, TMS has been shown to transiently improve symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the underlying neural correlates remain elusive. Recently, there is evidence that altered connectivity of brain network dynamics is the mechanism underlying symptoms of various neuropsychiatric illnesses...
July 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
George M Opie, Nigel C Rogasch, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Michael C Ridding, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm that uses paired magnetic stimuli separated by 100-200 ms to investigate the activity of cortical GABAergic interneurons. While commonly applied, the mechanisms contributing to LICI are not well understood, and growing evidence suggests that inhibition observed at different interstimulus intervals (ISI) may involve non-identical processes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to utilise combined TMS-EEG to more thoroughly characterise LICI at different ISIs, as the TMS-evoked EEG potential (TEP) can provide more direct insight into the cortical response to stimulation that is not subject to variations in spinal cord excitability that can confound the motor evoked potential (MEP)...
August 8, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Georg Schauer, Acer Chang, David Schwartzman, Charlotte L Rae, Heather Iriye, Anil K Seth, Ryota Kanai
When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch...
2016: Scientific Data
Jaakko O Nieminen, Olivia Gosseries, Marcello Massimini, Elyana Saad, Andrew D Sheldon, Melanie Boly, Francesca Siclari, Bradley R Postle, Giulio Tononi
When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mireille Bonnard, Sophie Chen, Jérôme Gaychet, Marcel Carrere, Marmaduke Woodman, Bernard Giusiano, Viktor Jirsa
The brain at rest exhibits a spatio-temporally rich dynamics which adheres to systematic behaviours that persist in task paradigms but appear altered in disease. Despite this hypothesis, many rest state paradigms do not act directly upon the rest state and therefore cannot confirm hypotheses about its mechanisms. To address this challenge, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to study brain's relaxation toward rest following a transient perturbation. Specifically, TMS targeted either the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), i...
2016: Scientific Reports
Robin Fh Cash, Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Natasha Radhu, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Paul B Fitzgerald, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) are non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures of GABAA receptor mediated inhibition and glutamatergic excitatory transmission respectively. Conventionally these measures have been restricted to the motor cortex. We investigated whether SICI and ICF could be recorded from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using combined TMS and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). We first characterized the neural signature of SICI and ICF in M1 in terms of TMS evoked potentials (TEPs) and spectral power modulation...
July 27, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tuomas P Mutanen, Matleena Kukkonen, Jaakko O Nieminen, Matti Stenroos, Jukka Sarvas, Risto J Ilmoniemi
Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) often suffers from large muscle artifacts. Muscle artifacts can be removed using signal-space projection (SSP), but this can make the visual interpretation of the remaining EEG data difficult. We suggest to use an additional step after SSP that we call source-informed reconstruction (SIR). SSP-SIR improves substantially the signal quality of artifactual TMS-EEG data, causing minimal distortion in the neuronal signal components...
June 9, 2016: NeuroImage
Melissa Kirkovski, Nigel C Rogasch, Takashi Saeki, Bernadette M Fitzgibbon, Peter G Enticott, Paul B Fitzgerald
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and electrophysiological research have revealed a range of neural abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but a comprehensive understanding remains elusive. We utilized a novel methodology among individuals with ASD and matched controls, combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording (TMS-EEG) to explore cortical function and connectivity in three sites implicated in the neuropathophysiology of ASD (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, and temporoparietal junction)...
September 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Yoshihiro Noda, Robin F H Cash, Reza Zomorrodi, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Mera S Barr, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) enables noninvasive neurophysiological investigation of the human cortex. A TMS paradigm of short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is characterized by attenuation of the motor-evoked potential (MEP) and modulation of N100 of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP) when TMS is delivered to motor cortex (M1) following median nerve stimulation. SAI is a marker of cholinergic activity in the motor cortex; however, the SAI has not been tested from the prefrontal cortex...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Tomasz A Jarczok, Merve Fritsch, Anne Kröger, Anna Lisa Schneider, Heike Althen, Michael Siniatchkin, Christine M Freitag, Stephan Bender
Brain maturation from childhood to adulthood is associated with changes in structural and functional connectivity between remote brain regions. Altered connectivity plays an important role in the pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD is associated with abnormal brain development and structurally altered interhemispheric connections. Cortico-cortical connectivity can be studied by a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with concurrent EEG (TMS-EEG)...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Giulia Mattavelli, Mario Rosanova, Adenauer G Casali, Costanza Papagno, Leonor J Romero Lauro
Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies provide evidence of hemispheric differences in processing faces and, in particular, emotional expressions. However, the timing of emotion representation in the right and left hemisphere is still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) was used to explore cortical responsiveness during behavioural tasks requiring processing of either identity or expression of faces. Single-pulse TMS was delivered 100ms after face onset over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier; right premotor cortex (rPMC) was also stimulated as control site...
July 2016: Brain and Cognition
Yinming Sun, Faranak Farzan, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji, Paul B Fitzgerald, Mera S Barr, Jonathan Downar, Willy Wong, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis
IMPORTANCE: Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel therapeutic option for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Suicidal ideation is often associated with TRD and contributes to the increased mortality and morbidity of the disorder. OBJECTIVE: To identify a biomarker that may serve as an indicator of remission of suicidal ideation following a course of MST by using cortical inhibition measures from interleaved transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG)...
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Aron T Hill, Nigel C Rogasch, Paul B Fitzgerald, Kate E Hoy
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are able to induce changes in cortical excitability and plasticity through the administration of weak currents to the brain and are currently being used to manipulate a vast array of cognitive processes. Despite the widespread use of tES technologies within both research and remedial settings, their precise neurophysiological mechanisms of action are not well established outside of the motor cortex. The expanding use of tES within non-motor brain regions highlights the growing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stimulation across a diversity of cortical locations...
May 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Florinda Ferreri, Fabrizio Vecchio, Luca Vollero, Andrea Guerra, Sara Petrichella, David Ponzo, Sara Määtta, Esa Mervaala, Mervi Könönen, Francesca Ursini, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Giulio Iannello, Paolo Maria Rossini, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
Several studies have shown that, in spite of the fact that motor symptoms manifest late in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuropathological progression in the motor cortex parallels that in other brain areas generally considered more specific targets of the neurodegenerative process. It has been suggested that motor cortex excitability is enhanced in AD from the early stages, and that this is related to disease's severity and progression. To investigate the neurophysiological hallmarks of motor cortex functionality in early AD we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG)...
June 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Michael R Borich, Lewis A Wheaton, Sonia M Brodie, Bimal Lakhani, Lara A Boyd
TMS-evoked cortical responses can be measured using simultaneous electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to directly quantify cortical connectivity in the human brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interhemispheric cortical connectivity between the primary motor cortices (M1s) in participants with chronic stroke and controls using TMS-EEG. Ten participants with chronic stroke and four controls were tested. TMS-evoked responses were recorded at rest and during a typical TMS assessment of transcallosal inhibition (TCI)...
April 8, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Krutika Gohil, Gabriel Dippel, Christian Beste
Cognitive control is central to many every day situations. There, we usually have to combine different actions to achieve a task goal. Several lines of research indicated that areas in the prefrontal cortex determine cognitive control in situations requiring multi-component behavior. One of this is the frontopolar cortex (FPC). However, direct non-correlative evidence for this notion is widely lacking. In the current study we test the importance of the FPC for the implementation of action cascading processes in a TMS/EEG study...
2016: Scientific Reports
V K Kimiskidis
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, a number of novel brain-stimulation techniques have been developed (such as TMS-EEG, TMS-fMRI and TMS-NIRS), yet they remain underutilized in the field of epilepsy. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is a highly relevant technique for exploration of the pathophysiology of human epilepsies as well as a promising biomarker with diagnostic and prognostic potential. RESULTS: In genetic generalized epilepsies, TMS-EEG has provided pathophysiological insight by revealing quasi-stable, covert states of excitability, a subclass of which is associated with the generation of TMS-induced epileptiform discharges (EDs)...
February 2016: Revue Neurologique
Tristram A Lett, James L Kennedy, Natasha Radhu, Luis G Dominguez, M Mallar Chakravarty, Arash Nazeri, Faranak Farzan, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz, Benoit H Mulsant, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Aristotle N Voineskos
The glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) gene is a major determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter modulating local neuronal circuitry. GABAergic dysfunction and expression of GAD1 have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and in working memory impairment. We examined the influence of the functional GAD1 rs3749034 variant on white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), cortical thickness, and working memory performance in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (N=197)...
August 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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