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P Cuny, M Houot, S Ginisty, S Horowicz, F Plassart, H Mentec, P Eftekhari
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper is to underline the need for systematic monitoring of patients treated with anticholinergic antipsychotic drugs. We present the clinical history of a 34-year-old adult, treated with quetiapine in combination with other drugs with anticholinergic effects. CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old male adult had been suffering from bipolar disorder since 2001. He was treated with risperidone, but he was not compliant due to adverse effects, including decreased libido and erectile dysfunction...
September 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Lila Aboueid, Richard H McCarthy
Clozapine has been consistently shown to be superior to other antipsychotics in the treatment of psychosis. However, clozapine usage has been limited due to required routine blood monitoring and the potential for life threatening side effects. We report a case of a 66-year-old female patient, who developed clozapine-induced agranulocytosis after 10 weeks of clozapine treatment and was subsequently successfully treated with a combination of loxapine and cyproheptadine. The combination is thought to mimic the pharmacological profile of clozapine, rendering it as a possible alternative to traditional clozapine treatment...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Tine Rikke Jørgensen, Charlotte Emborg, Karianne Dahlen, Mette Bøgelund, Andreas Carlborg
BACKGROUND: Agitation episodes are common among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Oral and intramuscular administration methods are commonly used in pharmacological treatment of acute agitation. Recently, an innovative inhalation product with loxapine(Adasuve®)has become available for treatment of acute agitation episodes associated with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The objective for the present study was to investigate the impact of the pharmacological treatment's administration methods on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in Denmark and Sweden using a time trade-off (TTO) approach...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Abigail L Chua, Stephen Silberstein
INTRODUCTION: The inhalation of substances, both medicinally and recreationally, is a commonly used method of drug administration but has been underutilized in the treatment of neurologic disorders such as migraine. Three drugs have been studied as potential inhalable treatments for acute migraine: dihydroergotamine (MAP0004), prochlorperazine (Staccato prochlorperazine), and loxapine (Staccato loxapine). AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the available literature describing the pharmacokinetics, tolerability and efficacy of MAP0004, Staccato prochlorperazine and Staccato loxapine, including data from Phase II and Phase III clinical trials...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Solafah Abdalla, Antoine Brouquet, Thierry Lazure, Bruno Costaglioli, Christophe Penna, Stéphane Benoist
AIM: The study evaluated the outcome of severe acute antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drug-related colitis requiring emergency surgery. METHOD: From 2009 to 2014, 20 patients underwent emergency surgery for acute and severe neuroleptic-related ischaemic colitis. Neuroleptic-induced colitis was defined as another cause besides inflammatory, infectious or ischaemic colitis with a relationship to treatment by antipsychotic drug. RESULTS: The main drugs involved were Cyamemazine (n=9, 45%), Loxapine (n=5, 25%), Haloperidol (n=4, 20%) and Alimemazine (n=4, 20%)...
May 11, 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Yenal Dundar, Janette Greenhalgh, Marty Richardson, Kerry Dwan
OBJECTIVES: We used systematic review methodology to identify and evaluate short-term pharmacological interventions for agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. METHOD: We searched electronic databases for randomised controlled trials involving comparisons between current treatments for agitation, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and placebo. The patient population was adults with agitation associated with psychotic or bipolar disorder treated in specialist mental health services...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Charles V Pollack
BACKGROUND: Acute agitation is a serious complication of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which may escalate quickly to aggressive behavior. Rapid treatment is therefore important to calm and stabilize the patient, reducing the potential for harm to the patient and others, and allowing further assessment. Current guidelines suggest that where pharmacologic intervention is indicated, medication should preferably be non-invasive, should have a rapid onset and should control aggressive behavior in the short term without compromising the physician-patient relationship in the long term...
July 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Edward C Lauterbach
Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD...
2016: American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease
Daniel A Spyker, James V Cassella, Randall R Stoltz, Paul P Yeung
Pharmacodynamic effects and safety of single-dose inhaled loxapine administered via the Staccato(®) system and intramuscular (IM) lorazepam in combination versus each agent alone were compared in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in healthy volunteers. Subjects received: inhaled loxapine 10 mg + IM lorazepam 1 mg; inhaled loxapine 10 mg + IM placebo; IM lorazepam 1 mg + Staccato placebo in random order, each separated by a 3-day washout. Primary endpoints were maximum effect (minimum value) and area under the curve (AUC) from baseline to 2 h post treatment for respirations/min and pulse oximetry...
December 2015: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Carlos Roncero, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Lara Grau-López, Christian Fadeuilhe, Miguel Casas
OBJECTIVES: Episodes of psychotic agitation are frequent in patients with dual diagnosis, that is, in patients with concomitant psychiatric and substance use disorders. Rapid intervention is needed to treat the agitation at a mild stage to prevent the escalation to aggressive behavior. Inhaled loxapine has been demonstrated to rapidly improve symptoms of mild-to-moderate agitation in adults with psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), but data on patients with dual diagnosis are scarce...
July 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Scott L Zeller, Leslie Citrome
INTRODUCTION: Patient agitation represents a significant challenge in the emergency department (ED), a setting in which medical staff are working under pressure dealing with a diverse range of medical emergencies. The potential for escalation into aggressive behavior, putting patients, staff, and others at risk, makes it imperative to address agitated behavior rapidly and efficiently. Time constraints and limited access to specialist psychiatric support have in the past led to the strategy of "restrain and sedate," which was believed to represent the optimal approach; however, it is increasingly recognized that more patient-centered approaches result in improved outcomes...
March 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
C Khouri, S Planès, S Logerot, C Villier, M Mallaret
BACKGROUND: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an uncommon but potentially fatal adverse effect of neuroleptic drugs. It is commonly characterized by muscular rigidity, fever, altered mental status, and autonomic dysfunction. Emerging of NMS is possible with all neuroleptics, classic and atypical. NMS occurs most often during the first week of treatment or after increasing the dosage of the neuroleptic medication. The frequency of NMS ranges from 0.07 to 2.2%. Its pathophysiology is not clearly understood but the blockade of dopamine receptors appears to be the central mechanism...
June 2016: L'Encéphale
D Plantier, J Luauté
OBJECTIVE: There are no handbook or recommendations for the use of pharmacological agents to treat neurobehavioral disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This work proposes a systematic review of the literature and a user guide on neuroleptics, antidepressants, beta-blockers, mood stabilizers and other medications for irritability, aggressiveness, agitation, impulsivity, depression, apathy… METHOD: Steering, working and reading groups (62 people) were formed under the control of the French High Authority for Health (HAS) in collaboration with the SOFMER scientific society (French Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine)...
February 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
G Utzerath, D Reske, E Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
This overview presents the current scientific data on intramuscular administration of benperidole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and haloperidole and on inhaled loxapine with regard to their efficacy and tolerability as well as their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. In addition, the possible advantages and disadvantages of the different substances are compared when administered to patients who show tension, agitation and aggression.
December 2015: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Seema Jain, Rebecca Andridge, Jessica A Hellings
Loxapine substitution is a promising option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who develop antipsychotic-induced metabolic illness. We performed a chart review of 15 adolescents and adults meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for ASD, all with antipsychotic-associated weight gain, who received low dose loxapine in an attempt to taper or discontinue the weight gain-associated antipsychotic. Mean weight loss was -5.7 kg, mean BMI reduction was -1.9, and mean triglyceride reduction was -33.7 mg/dl. At chart review, 14 of 15 subjects were rated 2 (Much Improved) or 1 (Very Much Improved) on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I)...
April 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Matthew H Slawson, Kamisha L Johnson-Davis
Flecainide, mexiletine, propafenone, and amiodarone are antiarrhythmic drugs that are used primarily in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. The monitoring of the use of these drugs has applications in therapeutic drug monitoring and overdose situations. LC-MS/MS is used to analyze plasma/serum extracts with loxapine as the internal standard to ensure accurate quantitation and control for any potential matrix effects. Positive ion electrospray is used to introduce the analytes into the mass spectrometer. Selected reaction monitoring of two product ions for each analyte allows for the calculation of ion ratios which ensures correct identification of each analyte, while a matrix matched calibration curve is used for quantitation...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
T H C Krüger, M A Wollmer, P Negt, H Frieling, S Jung, K G Kahl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2015: Der Nervenarzt
Kai G Kahl, Philip Negt, Axel Wollmer, Stefanie Jung, Tillmann H C Kruger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
James V Cassella, Daniel A Spyker, Paul P Yeung
OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, crossover, thorough QT study assessed the effect of two inhaled loxapine doses on cardiac repolarization as measured by corrected QT (QTc) interval in healthy subjects ( NCT01854710). METHODS: Subjects received two doses of inhaled loxapine (10 mg) 2 hours apart + oral placebo, two doses of inhaled placebo + oral placebo, or two doses of inhaled placebo + oral moxifloxacin (400 mg; positive control), with ≥ 3 days washout between treatments...
October 7, 2015: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Richard Jaffe, Michael Siniscalchi, Norma Cruz-Luna, Douglas Cosgrove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Journal of ECT
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